Cross-Cultural Analysis is the sequel to Culture's Consequences, the classic work published by Geert Hofstede, one of the most influential management thinkers in today's times. Hofstede's original work introduced a new research paradigm in cross-cultural analysis: studying cultural differences through nation-level dimensions (complex variables defined by intercorrelated items). This paradigm has been subsequently used by hundreds of prominent scholars all over the world and has produced solid results.

This new text takes the next step: It critically examines in one comprehensive volume the current, prevalent approaches to cross-cultural analysis at the level of nations that have been developed since Hofstede's work, offering students and researchers the theoretical and practical advantages and potential pitfalls of each method.

The book is structured into four distinct parts. Parts I and II focus on the main theoretical and statistical issues in cross-cultural analysis using Hofstede's approach and the different research methods now associated with it. Part II consists of presentations of all well-known (and some lesser known) large-scale cross-cultural studies since Hofstede's work that have explained cross-cultural variation in terms of dimensional models. Part III summarizes the main conclusions to be drawn from the presentations in Part II and I explains how the proposed models have contributed to our practical understanding of cross-cultural diversity.

The Elements of Culture

The elements of culture

This chapter discusses conceptualizations of the main elements of culture, mainly through an operationalist perspective (operationalism is explained in 5.4.1.). Other approaches to the unpackaging of culture, rooted in different schools of thought, are also possible. Yet, operationalizations of abstract concepts are needed to understand the empirical realities that they target.

This chapter briefly dwells on what can be called particular elements of culture: those that are found in small numbers of societies or are so specific that they make cross-cultural comparisons hard or impossible. Then, it devotes much greater attention to components that have a universal or near-universal character, at least across modern nations and ethnic groups, and can therefore be used for the purpose of hologeistic cross-cultural ...

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