Cross-Cultural Analysis is the sequel to Culture's Consequences, the classic work published by Geert Hofstede, one of the most influential management thinkers in today's times. Hofstede's original work introduced a new research paradigm in cross-cultural analysis: studying cultural differences through nation-level dimensions (complex variables defined by intercorrelated items). This paradigm has been subsequently used by hundreds of prominent scholars all over the world and has produced solid results.

This new text takes the next step: It critically examines in one comprehensive volume the current, prevalent approaches to cross-cultural analysis at the level of nations that have been developed since Hofstede's work, offering students and researchers the theoretical and practical advantages and potential pitfalls of each method.

The book is structured into four distinct parts. Parts I and II focus on the main theoretical and statistical issues in cross-cultural analysis using Hofstede's approach and the different research methods now associated with it. Part II consists of presentations of all well-known (and some lesser known) large-scale cross-cultural studies since Hofstede's work that have explained cross-cultural variation in terms of dimensional models. Part III summarizes the main conclusions to be drawn from the presentations in Part II and I explains how the proposed models have contributed to our practical understanding of cross-cultural diversity.



As a distinct order of phenomena, culture requires a special science for its study and interpretation. This science is most properly and precisely labeled culturology.

—Leslie White, American anthropologist (White, 1959/2007, p. 28)

All science is either physics or stamp collecting.

—Attributed to Ernest Rutherford, British Nobel Prize laureate, considered the father of nuclear physics

Geert Hofstede's 1980 book Culture's Consequences introduced a new way of exploring the world's modern cultures through large-scale quantitative comparisons. To his surprise, this approach became a widely used paradigm. An impressive number of similar projects have been reported in the academic literature, especially after 1990. Many of them have contributed to our understanding of cultural differences, elucidated interesting methodological issues, created fruitful academic debates, and stimulated further research. Like Hofstede's work, a ...

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