Critical Theory traces its roots from Marxism, through the renowned Frankfurt School, to a wide array of national and cultural traditions. Raymond Morrow's book traces the history and outlines the major tenets of critical theory for an undergraduate audience. He exemplifies the theory through an analysis of two leading social theorists: J[um]urgen Habermas and Anthony Giddens. Unique to this volume is the emphasis on the link between Critical Theory and empirical research and social science methodology, often thought to be incompatible.
Chapter 9: Non-Empirical Methods: Reflexive Procedures
Non-Empirical Methods: Reflexive Procedures
That we disavow reflection is positivism. (Habermas 1971, p. vii)
Dialectical thought is the attempt to break through the coercive character of logic with the means of logic itself (Adorno, cited in Gebhardt 1978, p. 396)
Thinking does not get caught up in dialectics because it disdains the rules of formal logic, but because it obstinately sticks to these rules; it employs these rules even to think about logic itself instead of breaking off their application at this crucial point. (Habermas, cited in Gebhardt 1978, p. 396)
To argue … that the writing of ethnography involves telling stories, making pictures, concocting symbolisms, and deploying tropes is commonly resisted, often fiercely, because of a confusion, endemic in the West since Plato at ...