Critical Theory traces its roots from Marxism, through the renowned Frankfurt School, to a wide array of national and cultural traditions. Raymond Morrow's book traces the history and outlines the major tenets of critical theory for an undergraduate audience. He exemplifies the theory through an analysis of two leading social theorists: J[um]urgen Habermas and Anthony Giddens. Unique to this volume is the emphasis on the link between Critical Theory and empirical research and social science methodology, often thought to be incompatible.
Chapter 3: Postempiricist Critiques of Positivism and Empiricism
Postempiricist Critiques of Positivism and Empiricism
The permanency of truth, too, is connected with the constellations of reality. (Horkheimer  1972a, p. 236)
Why the Critique of Positivism?
This chapter reconstructs 20th-century debates about the nature of science and its implications for the human sciences, a dense topic that has been of concern to the philosophy, history, and sociology of science. The basic themes of the chapter can be conveyed readily at the outset, though their broader significance will become apparent only in working through this chapter and those that follow. First we must establish the broader significance of the topic and the terms of reference for analysis. Then we turn to positivist philosophies of science inspired by the ambitions of foundationalism ...