Crime and Terrorism


Peter Grabosky & Michael Stohl

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Compact Criminology

    Series editors: Nicole Rafter and Paul Rock

    Compact Criminology is an exciting new series that invigorates and challenges the international field of criminology.

    Books in the series are short, authoritative, innovative assessments of emerging issues in criminology and criminal justice – offering critical, accessible introductions to important topics. They take a global rather than a narrowly national approach. Eminently readable and first-rate in quality, each book is written by a leading specialist.

    Compact Criminology provides a new type of tool for teaching and research, one that is flexible and light on its feet. The series is designed to address fundamental needs in the growing and increasingly differentiated field of criminology.

    Other Compact Criminology titles include:

    Crime and Human Rights by Joachim J. Savelsberg

    Crime and Risk by Pat O'Malley

    Comparative Criminal Justice by David Nelken

    Experimental Criminology by Lawrence Sherman

    Compact Criminology International Advisory Board:

    Jan van Dijk, Tilburg University

    Peter Grabosky, Australian National University

    Kelly Hannah-Moffat, University of Toronto

    John Laub, University of Maryland

    Alison Liebling, University of Cambridge


    View Copyright Page


    The authors would like to thank Julie Ayling, Sandy Gordon, James Jacobs, and Paul Rock for their comments on an earlier draft, and Christine Nam for her editorial assistance. We are also grateful for the institutional support of the Australian National University's Regulatory Institutions Network, The University of California, Santa Barbara's Department of Communication, Chuo University, and the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security.

  • References

    Abraham, I. and van Schendel, W. (2005) Illicit Flows and Criminal Things: States, Borders, and the Other Side of Globalization. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Arlacchi, P. and Calderone, A. (1992) Men of Dishonor: Inside the Sicilian Mafia: An Account of Antonio Calderone. New York: William Morrow & Co.
    Australia, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (2006) ‘Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and Australia on the framework for security cooperation’, (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Australian Federal Police (2008) ‘The Street review: a review of interoperability between the AFP and its National Security Partners’. Australian Federal Police, Canberra. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Ayling, J., P.Grabosky and C.Shearing (2009) Lengthening the Arm of the Law: Enhancing Police Resources in the 21st Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Baker, P. (2009) ‘Bush official, in book, tells of pressure on 1904 vote’, The New York Times, 20 August. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Baker, W. and R.Faulkner (1993) ‘The social organization of conspiracy: illegal networks in the heavy electrical equipment industry’, American Sociological Review, 58, 837–860.
    Ban, Ki-Moon (2007) ‘Secretary General, at launch of “stolen asset recovery initiative”, says measure is major step forward in collective efforts to address corruption’, SG/SM/11161 UN Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, September 17.
    Bayart, J.F., Ellis, S. and Hibou, B. (1999) The Criminalization of the State in Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    BBC News (2007) ‘Madrid Train Attacks’, (accessed 5 July 2010).
    BBC (2010) ‘Tamil Tigers admit leader is dead’, (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Belur, J. (2009) ‘Police use of deadly force: Police perceptions of a culture of approval’, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 25 (2): 237–252.
    Bennett, W., Lawrence, R. and Livingston, S. (2007) When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Bjørgo, T. and Horgan, J. (eds) (2009) Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement. London: Routledge.
    Bjornehed, E. (2004) ‘Narco-terrorism: The merger of the war on drugs and the war on terror’, Global Crime, 6 (3–4): 305–324.
    Black, W. (2005) The Best Way to Rob a Bank is to Own One: How Corporate Executives and Politicians Looted the S&L Industry. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    BlokAnton (1975) The Mafia of a Sicilian Village, 1860–1960: A Study of Violent Peasant Entrepreneurs. New York: Harper and Row.
    Boucek, C. (2009) ‘Extremist re-education and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia’, in Bjørgo, T. and Horgan, J. (eds), Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement. Routledge, London. pp. 212–223.
    Braun, S. (2007) ‘Bad guys make even worse allies,’ 13 August, Los Angeles Times.,0,1196900.story?coll=la-opinion-center (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Burton, F. (1978) The Politics of Legitimacy: Struggles in a Belfast Community. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Bush, G.W. (2002) Remarks at presidential press conference March, 13. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Bybee, J. (2002) Memorandum for Alberto R. Gonzales, Counsel to the President Re Standards of Conduct for Interrogation under 18 USC. ss2340–2340a. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Chu, Y. (2000) The Triads as Business. London: Routledge.
    Claiborne, R. (1970) Climate, Man and History. New York: W.W. Norton and Co.
    Clarke, R. and G.Newman (2006) Outsmarting the Terrorists. Westport: Praeger Security International.
    Cohen, L. & Felson, M. (1979) ‘Social change and crime rate trends: a routine activity approach’. American Sociological Review, 44
    Cohen, S (1996) ‘Crime and politics: spot the difference’, The British Journal of Sociology, 47 (1): 1–21.
    Coll, S. (2004) Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. New York: Penguin Press.
    Congressional Research Service (2006) Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information, (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Congressional Research Service (2009) Renditions: Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Cowell, A. (1992) Sicilians Jeer Italian Leaders at a Funeral Protest, 22 July, The New York Times, (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Crenshaw, M. (1978) Revolutionary Terrorism: The FLN in Algeria, 1954–1962. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
    Cressey, D. (1969) Theft of the Nation: The Structure and Operations of Organized Crime in America. New York: Harper & Row.
    Criminal Intelligence Service of Canada (2008) Report on Organized Crime, (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Cronin, A.K. (2006) ‘How Al Qaeda Ends: The Decline and Demise of Terrorist Groups’, International Security, 1, 7–48.
    Cronin, A.K. (2009) How Terrorism Ends: Understanding the Decline and Demise of Terrorist Campaigns. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Curtis, G. and T.Karacan (2002) ‘The Nexus Between Terrorists, Narcotics Traffickers, Weapons Proliferators and Organized Crime Networks in Western Europe’. Library of Congress, Washington. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Demaris, O. (1977) Brothers in Blood: The International Terrorist Network. New York: Scribners.
    Denning, D. (2000) ‘Cyberterrorism’ Testimony before the Special Oversight Panel on Terrorism, Committee on Armed Services, US House of Representatives, 23 May. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Dishman, C. (2005) ‘The leaderless nexus: when crime and terror converge’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 28, 237–252.
    Donohue, L. (2008) The Cost of Counterterrorism: Power, Politics and Liberty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Dower, J. (1986) War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York: Pantheon Books.
    Duvall, R. and Stohl, M. (1983) ‘Governance by Terror’ in MichaelStohl (ed.), The Politics of Terrorism,
    2nd edition
    . New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 179–220.
    Ehrenfeld, R. (1987) ‘Narco terrorism: The Kremlin Connection’, Heritage Lecture #89. Available via (accessed 5 July 2010).
    EllingwoodKen (2009) ‘Ciudad Juarez police chief quits after killings of officers, threats’, Los Angeles Times, 21 February.,0,5260268.story (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Enders, W. and T.Sandler (2005) ‘After 9/11: is it all different now?’, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (2): 259–277.
    Erickson, B.H. (1981) ‘Secret societies and social structure’, Social Forces, 60, 188–210.
    EUROPOL (2008) ‘Organized Crime Threat Assessment’. The Hague: European Police Office.
    Farrah, D. and S.Braun (2007) Merchant of Death: Guns, Money Planes, and the Man Who Makes War Possible. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
    Fujimoto, T. (1998) ‘Organized crime in Japan’, Comparative Law Review, 32 (3): 1–22.
    Gambetta, D. (1996) The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Gambetta, D. (ed.) (2005) Making Sense of Suicide Missions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gamberra, D. (2009) Codes of the Underworld: How Criminals Communicate. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    GarrowDavid (1981) The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Gerth, H. and MillsC. Wright (1958) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Gilboy, J. (1998) ‘Compelled third-party participation in the regulatory process: legal duties, culture and noncompliance’, Law and Policy, 20, 135–155.
    Glenny, M. (2008) McMafia. New York: Knopf.
    Goldstock, R., Marcus, M., Thacher, T. and Jacobs, J. (1990) Corruption and Racketeering in the New York City Construction Industry: The Final Report of the New York State Organized Task Force. New York: New York University Press.
    Gordon, S. (2009) ‘Regionalism and cross-border cooperation against crime and terrorism in the Asia-Pacific’, Security Challenges, 5 (4): 75–102.
    Gurr, T. (1986) ‘The political origins of state violence and terror: a theoretical analysis’, in M.Stohl and G.Lopez (eds), Government Violence and Repression: An Agenda for Research. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 45–71.
    Grossman, H. and Noh, S. (1990) ‘A theory of kleptocracy with probabilistic survival and reputation’Economics & Politics, 2 (2): 157–171.
    Haber, S. (ed.) (2002) Crony Capitalism and Economic Growth in Latin America: Theory and Evidence. Stanford CA: Hoover Institution Press.
    Hacker, F. (1976) Crusaders, Criminals, Crazies: Terror and Terrorism in our Time. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Hobbs, D. (2001) ‘The firm: organizational logic and criminal culture on a shifting terrain’, British Journal of Criminology, 41, 549–560.
    Hoffman, B. (1998) Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Hoffman, B. (2003) Al Qaeda, Trends in Terrorism and Future Potentialities: An Assessment. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    HorganJohn (2009) Walking Away from Terrorism: Accounts of Disengagement from Radical and Extremist Movements. London: Routledge.
    Horne, A. (1977) A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954–196. London: Macmillan.
    Huggins, M. (1991) ‘US supported state terror: a history of police training in Latin America’ in M.Huggins (ed.), Vigilantism and the State in Modern Latin America: Essays on Extralegal Violence. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 219–242.
    Hutchinson, S. and O'Malley, P. (2007) ‘A crime terror nexus? Thinking on some of the links between terrorism and criminality,’Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 30: 1095–1107.
    Ianni, F. and Reuss-lanni, E. (1972) A Family Business: Kinship and Social Control in Organized Crime. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Innes, M. (2004) ‘Signal crimes and signal disorders: notes on deviance as communicative action’, British Journal of Sociology, 55(3): 335–355.
    Innes, M., Abbott, L., Lowe, T. and Roberts, C. (2007) Hearts and Minds and Eyes and Ears: Reducing Radicalisation Risk Through Reassurance-oriented Policing. Cardiff: Universities Police Science Institute.
    International Crisis Group (2005) ‘Zimbabwe's Operation Murambatsvina: The Tipping Point?’, Africa Report, n97, 17 August. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Jacobs, J. (2006) Mobsters, Unions and Feds: The Mafia and the American Labor Movement. New York: New York University Press.
    Jacobs, J. with Friel, C. and Radick, R. (1999) Gotham Unbound: How New York City was Liberated from the Grip of Organized Crime. New York: New York University Press.
    Jenkins, B. (1975) ‘International Terrorism: A New Mode of Conflict,’ in DavidCarlton and CarloSchaerf (eds), International Terrorism and World Security. London: Croom Helm.
    Kaiser, D. (2008) The Road to Dallas: The Assassination of John F. Kennedy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Kaplan, David (2005) ‘Paying for Terror: How Jihadist Groups are Using Organized Crime Tactics and Profits to Finance Attacks on Targets around the Globe.’ US News and World Report, December 5, 2005. (accessed 6 July 2010).
    Kaplan, D. and Dubro, A. (2003) Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Kazemian, L. and D.Farrington (eds) (2007) Special IssueJournal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 23 (4).
    Kenney, M. (2007) From Pablo to Osama: Trafficking and Terrorist Networks, Government Bureaucracies, and Competitive Adaptation. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Landesco, J. (1968) Organized Crime in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Laub, J. and R.Sampson (2001) ‘Understanding Desistance from Crime’ in Crime and Justice: an Annual Review of Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–69.
    Leo, R. (2008) Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Levi, M. (2006) ‘Organising serious, transnational and terrorist crimes’, in M.Maguire, R.Morgan and R.Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology,
    4th edition
    . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 23.
    Levi, M., Nelen, H. and Lankhorst, F. (2005) ‘Lawyers as crime facilitators in Europe: An introduction and overview’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 42 (2–3): 117–121.
    LichtblauEric (2005) ‘Justice Dept. Defends Patriot Act Before Senate Hearings’, The New York Times, 5 April. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Lifton, R. (2000) Destroying the World to Save It: Aum Shinrikyo, Apocalyptic Violence, and the New Global Terrorism. New York: Henry Holt.
    Lopez, G. A. (1986) ‘National security ideology as an impetus to state violence and terror’, in MichaelStohl and GeorgeLopez (eds), Government Violence and Repression: An Agenda for Research. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 73–96.
    McIntosh, M. (1975) ‘Changes in the organization of thieving’, in S.Cohen (ed.), Images of Deviance. London: Penguin. pp. 98–133.
    MaasPeter (1968) The Valachi Papers. New York: Putnam.
    Makarenko, T. (2004) ‘The crime-terror continuum: tracing the interplay between transnational organised crime and terrorism’, Global Crime, 6 (1): 129–145.
    Mallory, S. (2007) Understanding Organized Crime. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
    Marighela, C. (1971) The Mini-Manual of the Urban Guerrilla. London: Penguin.
    Mayer, J. (2008) The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How The War on Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals. Doubleday, New York.
    McCoy, A. (1972) The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. New York: Harper and Row.
    McGee, R. (2004) The Philosophy of Taxation and Public Finance. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    McGloin, Jean Marie (2005) ‘Policy and intervention considerations of a network analysis of street gangs’, Criminology & Public Policy, 4 (3): 607–635.
    McSherry, P. (2002) ‘Tracking the origins of a state terror network: Operation Condor’, Latin American Perspectives, 29 (1): 38–60.
    Merari, A., (2005) ‘Social, organizational and psychological factors in suicide terrorism’, in T.Bjørgo (ed.), Root Causes of Terrorism. New York: Routledge. pp. 70–86.
    Merton, R. (1938) ‘Social Structure and Anomie’, American Sociological Review, 3 (6): 72–82.
    Miller, A. and Damask, N. (1996) ‘The dual myths of narco-terrorism: how myths drive policy’, Terrorism & Political Violence, 8, 114–131.
    Mincheva, L. and Gurr, T. (2010) ‘Unholy Alliances: Ethnonationalism, International Crime, and the State in Post-Communist East Europe: The Case of Serbia.’ Paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, 17–20 February.
    Mincheva, L. and Gurr, T. (In press; a) ‘Unholy Alliances: How Trans-state Terrorism and International Crime Make Common Cause,’ chapter 8 in RafaelReuveny and WilliamThompson (eds), Coping with Contemporary Terrorism: Origins, Escalation, Counter Strategies and Responses. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    Mincheva, L. and Gurr, T. (In press; b) ‘Unholy Alliances: Evidence on Linkages between Trans-State Terrorism and Crime Networks. The Case of Bosnia,’ in WolfgangBenedek, ChristopherDaase, Petrusvan Duyne, and VojinDimitrijevic (eds), Transnational Terrorism, Organized Crime, and Peace-Building. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Ministry of Justice, Japan (2008) White Paper on Crime 2006. Research and Training Institute, Ministry of Justice, Tokyo.
    Morgan, W.P. (1960) Triad Societies in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
    Morselli, C., Giguere, C. and Petit, K. (2007) ‘The efficiency/security trade-off in criminal networks’, Social Networks, 29, 143–153.
    MorselliCarlo (2009) Inside Criminal Networks. New York: Springer.
    National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (2004) The 9/11 Commission Report. (accessed 11 August 2010).
    Nikolic-Ristanovic, V. (1998) ‘War and Crime in the former Yugoslavia’, in V.Ruggiero, N.South and I.Taylor (eds), New European Criminology. London: Routledge. pp. 462–480.
    Norton, A. (1988) ‘Terrorism in the Middle East’, in V.Pisano (ed.), Terrorist Dynamics: A Geographical Perspective. Arlington, VA: International Association of Chiefs of Police. pp. 1–44.
    O'Brien, K. (2000) ‘Truth and reconciliation in South Africa: Confronting the past, building the future?’, International Relations, 15 (1): 1–16.
    Ocampo, L. (2002) ‘Building institutions: corruption and democracy. The Peruvian case of Montesinos’, in ReVista: Harvard Review of Latin America, Fall 2002.
    Ownby, David (2001) ‘Recent Chinese Scholarship on the History of Chinese Secret Societies’Late Imperial China, 22 (1) June: 139–158.
    Paoli, L. (2003) Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime Italian Style. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Pape, R. (2005) Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Passas, N. (2006) ‘Fighting terror with error: the counter-productive regulation of informal value transfers’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 45 (4–5): 315–336.
    Peceny, M. and Durnan, M. (2006) ‘The FARC's Best Friend: US Antidrug Policies and the Deepening of Colombia's Civil War in the 1990s’, Latin American Politics and Society, 48 (2): 95–116.
    Perl, R. (2007) ‘Combating Terrorism: The Challenge of Measuring Effectiveness’, Report RL 33160, Congressional Research Service, March 12.
    Pfeffer, J. and Salancik, G. (1978) The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. New York: Harper & Row.
    Pickering, S., McCulloch, J. and Wright-Neville, D. (2008) Counter-Terrorism Policing. New York: Springer.
    Pion-Berlin, D. (1989) The Ideology of State Terror. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
    Pluchinsky, D. (2008) ‘Global Jihadist Recidivism: A Red Flag’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 31 (3): 182–200.
    Quinney, R. (1970) The Social Reality of Crime. Boston: Little Brown.
    Rapoport, David (1992) ‘Terrorism’ in M. E.Hawkesworth and M.Kagan (eds), Routledge Encyclopedia of Government and Politics. London: Routledge. p. 1067.
    Risen, James and Lichtblau, Eric (2005) ‘Bush Lets US Spy on Callers Without Courts’The New York Times, 16 December. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Rock, P. (1977) ‘Law, order and power in late seventeenth and early eighteenth century England’, Annales Internationales de Criminologie, 16 (1–2): 233–265.
    Ron, J. (1997) ‘Varying methods of state violence’, International Organization, 51 (2): 275–300.
    Rosenthal, J. (2008) ‘For-profit terrorism: the rise of armed entrepreneurs’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 31 (6): 481–498.
    Ross, J.I. and Gurr, T. R. (1989) ‘Why terrorism subsides: a comparative study of Canada and the United States’, Comparative Politics, 21 (4): 405–426.
    Rummel, R. (2007) ‘Statistics of democide: genocide and mass murder since 1900’, Charlottesville, Virginia: Center for National Security Law, School of Law, University of Virginia, 1997; and Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University.
    Russell, C., & Miller, B. (1977) ‘Profile of a terrorist’, Terrorism, 1, 17–34.
    Sageman, M. (2008) Leaderless Jihad. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Sanderson, T. (2004) ‘Transnational terror and organized crime: blurring the lines’, SAIS Review, 24 (1): 49–64.
    Scherer, M. (2004) ‘Dealing with the merchant of death’Mother Jones, September 20. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Schloenhardt, Andreas (2009) Palermo on the Pacific Rim: Organized crime Offences in the Asia-Pacific Region. UN Office of Drugs and Crime, Vienna. (accessed 11 August 2010).
    Schmid, A. (1996) ‘Links between transnational organized crime and terrorist crimes’, Transnational Organized Crime, 2 (4): 40–82.
    Schneider, Jane and Schneider, Peter (2002) ‘The Mafia and al-Qaeda: violent and secretive organizations in comparative and historical perspective’, American Anthropologist, 104 (3): 776–782.
    Scott, J.C. (1969) ‘Corruption, Machine Politics and Political Change’, American Political Science Review, 63 (4): 1142–1158.
    Serious Organized Crime Agency (SOCA) (2008) UK Threat Assessment of Serious Organised Crime 2008/9. (accessed 2 February 2009).
    Sipress, A. (2004) ‘An Indonesian's prison memoir takes Holy War into cyberspace’: In Sign of New Threat, Militant Offers Tips on Credit Card Fraud, Washington Post, December 14, A19. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Sterling, C. (1981) The Terror Network. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    Stern, J. (2003) Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: Harper Collins.
    Stern, J. (2006) ‘Jihad: a global fad’, The Boston Globe, August 1. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Stohl, M. (1983) ‘The International Network of Terrorism’, Journal of Peace Research, 20 (1): 59–66.
    Stohl, M. (1998) ‘Demystifying terrorism: the myths and realities of contemporary terrorism’, in M.Stohl (ed.), The Politics of Terrorism. New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 1–19.
    Stohl, M. (2006) ‘The state as terrorist: insights and implications’, Democracy and Security, 2, 1–25.
    Stohl, C. and Stohl, M. (2007) ‘Networks of terror: theoretical assumptions and pragmatic consequences’, Communication Theory, 17 (2): 93–124.
    Stohl, M., D.Carleton and S.Johnson (1984) ‘Human rights and US foreign assistance from Nixon to Carter’, Journal of Peace Research, 3, 1–11.
    Sutherland, E.H. and Cressey, D.R. (1947) Principles of Criminology,
    4th edition
    . Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.
    Szabo, Stephen (ed.) (1983) The Successor Generation: International Perspectives of Postwar Europeans. London: Butterworths.
    Thacher, D. (2005) ‘The Local Role in Homeland Security’, Law and Society Review, 39 (3): 635–676.
    Tilly, C. (1975) ‘Reflections on the History of European State-Making’, in CharlesTilly (ed.), The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 42.
    Tilly, C. (1985) ‘War Making and State Making as Organized Crime’, in PeterEvans, DietrichRueschemeyer and ThedaSkocpol (eds), Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 169–191.
    Treverton, G., Matthies, C., Cunningham, C., Goulka, J., Ridgeway, G. and A.Wong (2009) Film Piracy, Organized Crime and Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
    Tuchman, B. (1978) A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York: Knopf.
    United Nations (2008) UN Action to Counter Terrorism. (accessed 15 December 2008).
    United Nations, Office of Drugs and Crime (2009) World Drug Report 2009, Executive Summary. (accessed 5 July 2010).
    USCongress (1987) ‘Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair (S. Rep. No. 216, H.R. Rep. No. 433, 100th Cong., 1st Sess.)’. Washington: United States Government Printing Office.
    Van Gennep, A. (1909) Les Rites de Passage. Étude Systématique des rites. Paris: E Nourry.
    Williams, P. (1999) ‘Transnational criminal networks’, in J.Arquilla and D.Ronfeldt (eds), Networks and Netwars. Santa Monica: Rand. pp. 61–97.
    Williams, P. (2001) ‘Transnational Criminal Networks’ in JohnArquilla and DavidRonfeldt (eds), Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime and Militancy. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica. pp. 65–97.
    Williams, P. (2001) ‘Crime, illicit markets, and money laundering in managing global issues lessons learned’, in Chantalde Jonge Oudraat and P.J.Simmons (eds), Managing Global Issues: Lessons Learned. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. pp. 106–150.
    Wolfe, T. (1970) Radical Chic and Mau Mauing the Flak Catchers. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    Worth, R. (2009a) Freed by the US, Saudi Becomes a Qaeda Chief. New York Times, 22 January, (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Worth, R. (2009b) Alumni of Saudi Program for Ex-Jihadists Are Arrested. New York Times, 26 January, (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Zawahiri, A. (2005) Letter from al-Zawahiri to al-Zarqawi, (accessed 5 July 2010).
    Zoepf, K. (2008) ‘Deprogramming Jihadists’The New York Times Magazine, November, 9, 50–53.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website