Criminology and criminal justice is in its infancy in India. This book attempts to examine India's crime problem in detail and document if and how its criminal justice system has responded to emerging challenges and opportunities. The objective is to move beyond mere observations and thoughtful opinions, and make contributions that are the next steps in the development of an empirical (or evidence-based) criminology and criminal justice on this vast and diverse country-by focusing on research that is both balanced and precise.
This book brings together a diverse set of 32 academics from India, the US, and the UK who have authored 19 chapters on many aspects of crime and justice in India.
The organizational components or sectors of the criminal justice system are the police, the courts, and corrections. The studies collected here provide balanced coverage of the entire criminal justice system and not just one component of it. The first section of this book consists of overviews of several major issues that affect the entire criminal justice system. Section Two considers topics related to the gateway of the criminal justice system, policing. Section Three takes up the operational problems of criminal law and courts and Section Four deals with the difficult question of punishment and correction, the last part of the criminal justice system.
Policing in India
Formal policing in India began during the era of British colonialism. Currently, responsibilities for the maintenance of order and the enforcement of laws through prevention, investigation, and detection of crime belong to the police. While other government bodies (e.g., Customs) may undertake some law enforcement, the major police organization tasked with the above is run by each state. Various state governments (see Bayley, 1969; Gupta, 1978; Raghavan, 1999; Verma & Subramaniam, 2009) control police forces in India who are assigned to the different districts that each state is divided into. However, it should be remembered that the upper echelon of each state's police force (headed by a Director General of Police and assisted by Inspectors-General and/or by Deputy Inspectors-General) consists ...