Criminology and criminal justice is in its infancy in India. This book attempts to examine India's crime problem in detail and document if and how its criminal justice system has responded to emerging challenges and opportunities. The objective is to move beyond mere observations and thoughtful opinions, and make contributions that are the next steps in the development of an empirical (or evidence-based) criminology and criminal justice on this vast and diverse country-by focusing on research that is both balanced and precise.

This book brings together a diverse set of 32 academics from India, the US, and the UK who have authored 19 chapters on many aspects of crime and justice in India.

The organizational components or sectors of the criminal justice system are the police, the courts, and corrections. The studies collected here provide balanced coverage of the entire criminal justice system and not just one component of it. The first section of this book consists of overviews of several major issues that affect the entire criminal justice system. Section Two considers topics related to the gateway of the criminal justice system, policing. Section Three takes up the operational problems of criminal law and courts and Section Four deals with the difficult question of punishment and correction, the last part of the criminal justice system.

Punishment and Corrections in India

Punishment and Corrections in India
Punishment and corrections in India


Corrections is the last sector of the criminal justice system and is devoted to the punishment and treatment of offenders. On this issue, societies have moved among and experimented with several philosophical objectives such as retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, isolation, rehabilitation, restoration, restitution, and reintegration (Mays & Winfree, 2009). Similar to other sectors of the formal criminal justice system, corrections in India, as presently understood, began during British rule (Roy, 1989). Currently, India utilizes both institutional and non-institutional forms of corrections. Possible punishments include monetary fines, property confiscation, “simple” imprisonment (where physical labor is not required), “rigorous” imprisonment (involving hard physical labor), life imprisonment, and the death penalty (by hanging). There is a lively debate currently going ...

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