Part 3: Explores institutional responses to crimes and uses criminological theory to offer solutions

How and why have States and Governments been Constrained?

How and why have states and governments been constrained?

A review of the development of humanitarian law (HL) and human rights (HR) law reveals their growing universalization and a recent attribution of criminal liability to individuals. We seek to explain each of these trends by examining changes in global civil society and governance.

What Changed?

The principle of national sovereignty continues to dominate international law, impeding international intervention when governments abuse domestic populations. Yet, impressive changes in international law are underway (Fichtelberg 2008). They began in the late nineteenth century with one individual's remarkable initiative. Henry Dunant, founder of the International Red Cross, laid the foundation when he worked toward the establishment of the first of a series of ...

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