Crime and Everyday Life

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Marcus Felson & Rachel Boba

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    Preface to the Fourth Edition

    This book seeks to explain crime basics in plain language. Three guiding ideas govern this book from beginning to end. First, we think it inadequate to study “criminality”—the criminal tendencies of persons. As interesting as people might be, it is essential to study what they do. This book focuses on criminal action—who, what, when, where, and how it occurs, and what can be done here and now to prevent it from happening. We believe that criminal events are central for understanding crime, and that such events must be studied in their everyday settings.

    Second to understand crime, we must study its very diverse forms, not lump them all together. Thus, we note several different types of auto theft, such as joyriding, stealing a car for transport, stripping its parts, taking its contents, and stealing a car to get back at somebody else. These auto theft forms have rather different patterns that require different prevention strategies.

    Our third guiding idea is that crime is best understood from the offender's viewpoint at the time of the crime. Indeed offenders act with a purpose. That doesn't mean their decisions are good wise, or carefully considered; but they are still decisions. Crime is designed to meet rudimentary and commonplace needs, such as money, sex, status, excitement, control, revenge, and attention from others. Even violence is seldom “senseless” from the offender's viewpoint at the time of the crime. These three themes—criminal events, diverse forms, and offender decisions—recur throughout, offering the student a perspective on crime.

    This is the fourth edition of a book that first appeared 15 years ago. Despite the consistent title, this book keeps changing. This version includes additional details, refined ideas, and updated references. Moreover, the final chapter offers a more refined articulation of the underlying theory of how crime changes in response to larger shifts in society. The key to such change is the technology of everyday life, which organizes where we are, what we do, and what happens to us. That technology governs how crime carves its niche into everyday life. Small inventions can alter ordinary activities and products, causing old crimes to fade and new crimes to emerge. We are in an era of dramatic technological shift, helping to transform crime. Despite our use of plain language, we designed this book to help students and other readers understand that complex process.

    Acknowledgments

    For the many ideas influencing the fourth edition, we are deeply in debt to Ronald V. Clarke, Paul and Patricia Brantingham, George Rengert, Richard Wortley, Johannes Knutsson, and our other colleagues at ECCA—the annual seminar in Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis. We thank Gohar Petrossian at Rutgers University for her considerable efforts to update the statistics and references, and Adam Graycar of Australian National University for his repeated encouragement. John Eck assisted us in formulating the dynamic crime triangle. Mary Adelaide Eckert provided intellectual and emotional support to her husband (Marcus Felson), and Roberto Santos has encouraged and inspired Rachel Boba. We also thank Jerry Westby and Eve Oettinger at SAGE Publications.

    SAGE Publications would like to thank the following reviewers: Charles Hanna, Duquesne University; Michael Costelloe, Northern Arizona University; Anthony J. Luongo, Temple University; Richard Block, Loyola University Chicago; Jerome (Jerry) McKean, Ball State University; Shawna Cleary, University of Central Oklahoma; and Ken Venters, University of Tennessee, Chattanooga.

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    About the Authors

    Marcus Felson (PhD, University of Michigan) is Professor of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University. He is author of Crime and Nature (Sage Publications) as well as “A Theory of Co-Offending” (Crime Prevention Studies, Volume 15, 2003) and “Redesigning Hell: Preventing Crime and Disorder at the Port Authority Bus Terminal” (Crime Prevention Studies, Volume 6, 1997). With Ronald V. Clarke, he has co-authored Opportunity Makes the Thief. Professor Felson is the originator of the routine-activity approach to crime rate analysis and has been a guest lecturer in many nations, including Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. He has given talks on crime to applied mathematicians at four universities, including UCLA and the Centro di Ricerca Matematica at the Ennio De Giorgi Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa, Italy.

    Rachel Boba (PhD, Arizona State University) is an Associate Professor at Florida Atlantic University. Her expertise includes crime prevention, crime analysis, problem-oriented policing, and police accountability. She is author of Crime Analysis With Crime Mapping (Sage Publications), one of the first books to provide specific techniques and examples for students and practitioners preparing to enter the crime analysis profession. In addition, her collaborative research with the Port St. Lucie (Florida) Police Department has earned two prestigious awards—the International Association of Chiefs of Police Excellence in Law Enforcement Research Award (2008) and Finalist for the Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing (2006).


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