Lead between the lines– evaluate Ed policies to emphasize the positives and minimize the negatives Although educational reform is intended for positive change, sometimes it misses the mark. However, when school leaders capitalize on the positive aspects of reforms they can strategize to ensure the best outcomes for students. Christopher Tienken, professor and international speaker, shares his insights on how to identify both positive and negative aspects of education reform to maximize the benefits for students. This book introduces a practical framework for interpreting educational reform within an evidence-based practice, and provides thoughtful ways to finesse results out of challenging policies. Designed for use on the ground level, this book features: • Seven specific creative compliance strategies to maximize student and educator success • Case studies that illustrate how to critique reforms and take action • Reflective questions to guide evaluation and application • Ethical decision-making checklist Analyzing both successful and unsuccessful reform ideas from the past, this book champions creative compliance and how to lead innovatively/judiciously.

Case Study 2 : Using or Abusing Standardized Test Results?

Case Study 2

This case presents school leaders with clarity about limitations of standardized test results from the point of view of interpretation validity. Current practices of test interpretation are critiqued, and suggestions to improve professional practices through creative compliance strategies are presented.

Large-Scale Use

Large-scale use of commercial standardized tests in the United States began around 1918 with the introduction of the U.S. Army’s Alpha and Beta tests of intelligence. The tests were meant to efficiently screen, sort, and select recruits for Officer Candidate School and aid in the sorting of recruits into specific occupations within the army during World War I (Brandwein, 2011a, 2011b). The U.S. Army administered the tests to approximately 1.75 million recruits ...

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