The behavioral and cognitive-behavioral models described previously offer a view of consultation that is grounded in the modernist philosophy that reality is objective and knowable. Solution-focused counseling, on the other hand, is rooted in a postmodern philosophy, a view that believes reality and knowledge are, and remain, subjective. Consultants interested in this approach should understand two key paths within constructive theory: constructivism and social constructivism. Constructivists believe that individuals create their own knowledge and reality, while social constructivists regard knowledge and reality as being created through and within dialogue and interaction with others. As posited by John Sommers-Flanagan and Rita Sommers-Flanagan (2012), “everything is perspective and perspective is everything” (p. 370). As a result, consultants taking the constructivist perspective would attend ...