Counselling Older Clients


Ann Orbach

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    ‘Old age hath yet his honour and his toil’ Tennyson

  • Some Suggestions for Further Reading

    On Old Age
    For an exhaustive study of how it feels to be old and how society has treated its senior citizens, I recommend Simone de Beauvoir'sOld Age, (1970, London: Penguin).
    Betty Friedan'sThe Fountain of Age (1993, London: Jonathan Cape) gives a more up-to-date American view.
    M., Featherstone and A., WernickImages of Ageing: Cultural Representations in Later Life (1985, London and New York: Routledge).
    On Death
    John Hinton's standard work Dying (first published in 1967, and republished in 1990; London: Penguin) gives a medical view, as does Sherwin Nuland'sHow We Die (1994, London: Chatto & Windus), with its clearly defined descriptions of death.
    Elizabeth, Kübler RossOn Death and Dying (1970, London: Tavistock) has become a standard textbook in the helping professions.
    Ernest, BeckerThe Denial of Death (1973, New York: The New Press) gives a post-Freudian study of the psychology of death.
    Ann, OrbachLife, Psychotherapy and Death (1999, London: Jessica Kingsley).
    Counselling Older People
    I include D.P. McAdam'sThe Stories We Live By: Personal Myths and the Making of the Self (1993, London and New York: Guilford Press) as a useful introduction to narrative therapy, even though not written particularly with older people in mind.
    Ann, OrbachNot too Late: Psychotherapy and Ageing (1996, London: Jessica Kingsley) gives a psychodynamic study of therapy with older people.
    Steve, ScruttonCounselling Older People: A Creative Response to Ageing (1994, London: Edward Arnold), and also his Bereavement and Grief: Supporting Older People through Loss (1995, London: Edward Arnold).
    Paul, TerryCounselling the Elderly and their Carers (1997, London: Macmillan) is an interesting account of working as psychologist and counsellor in a geriatric hospital.
    Working with Ethnic Minority Elders
    Y.Alibhai-BrownCaring for Ethnic Minority Elders: A Guide (1998, Age Concern: England) is an excellent introduction to the subject.


    Albery, N., Elliot, G. and Elliot, J. (1977) The Natural Death Handbook. London, Sydney, Auckland, Johannesburg: Rider.
    Alibhai-Brown, Y. (1998) Caring for Ethnic Minority Elders: A Guide. London: Age Concern.
    Ashley, P.M. and Barrett, P.W. (1997) A Life Worth Living: Practical Strategies for Reducing Depression in Older Adults. London, Toronto, Sydney: Health Education Press.
    Beck, A.T. (1976) Cognitive Therapy and Emotional Disorders. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Becker, E. (1973) The Denial of Death. New York: Macmillan.
    Bennet, A. and Cass, B. (1998) Counselling Work with Older People: A Report on Behalf of Age Concern England's Activ/Age Unit. London: Age Concern.
    Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and Loss, Vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
    Bowlby, J. (1980) Attachment and Loss: Loss, Sadness and Depression. London: Hogarth Press.
    Brotherton, C. (1995) Social and Legal Context of Counselling. Diploma in Independent Professional Counselling. West Sussex: Institute of Higher Education.
    Buber, M. (1970) I and Thou. Edinburgh: T & T Clark.
    Burton, M. (1998) Psychotherapy and Primary Health Care: Assessment for Brief or Longer Term Treatment. Chichester: Wiley.
    Butler, R.N. (1963) ‘The Life Review: An Interpretation of Reminiscence in Ageing’, Psychiatry, 26: 67-75.
    Butler, R.N. (1975) ‘The Elderly: An Overview’, American Journal of Psychiatry: 132.
    Butler, R.N. and Lewis, M.I. (1974) ‘Life Review Therapy’, Geriatrics: 65-75.
    Butler, M. and Orbach, A. (1993) Being Your Age: Pastoral Care for Older People. London: SPCK.
    Casement, P. (1985) On Learning from the Patient. London, New York: Tavistock.
    Chester, R. and Smith, J. (1997) Older People's Sadness. London: Counsel and Care.
    Comfort, A. (1977) A Good Age. London: Michael Beazley.
    Counsel and Care (1994) Being Cared For: A Discussion Document About Old People With Depression Living at Home. London: Counsel and Care.
    Cummings, E. and Henry, W.E. (1961) The Process of Disengagement. New York: Basic Books.
    Davanloo, H. (1980) Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. New York: Jason Aronson.
    Ellis, A. (1962) Cognitive Therapy and Emotional Disorders. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Erikson, E. (1959) ‘Identity and the Life-Cycle’, Psychological Issues, Monograph 1.
    Erikson, E. (1974) Childhood and Society. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Etherington, K. (2000) Narrative Approaches to Working with Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse: the Client's, the Counsellor's and the Researcher's Story. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Etherington, K. (2001) ‘Writing Qualitative Research: a Gathering of Selves’, Counselling Psychotherapy Research, 1 (2): 119-25.
    Featherstone, M. and Wernick, A. (1985) Images of Ageing: Cultural Representations of Later Life. London and New York: Routledge.
    Fonagy, P. (1993) ‘Psychoanalytic and Empirical Approach to Developmental Psychology: Can They be Usefully Integrated?Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 86: 577-81.
    Fonagy, P. (1996) ‘Psychoanalysis and Attachment Theory’, in J.Cassidy and P.Shaver (eds), Handbook of Attachment. London: Guildford.
    Frankl, V. (1987) Man's Search for Meaning. London: Hodder & Stroughton.
    Freud, S. (1895) ‘Psychotherapy of Hysteria’, in S.Freud and J.Breuer (1974) Studies in Hysteria. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Freud, S. and Breuer, J. (1974) Studies in Hysteria. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Friedan, B. (1993) The Fountain of Age. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Fyro, K., Hardell, C., Westlund Cederroth, K. (1999) ‘Problem-Oriented Sessions: Presentation of a Method for Therapeutic Work in a Narrow Frame’, Psychodynamic Counselling, 5 (4): 465-81.
    GAD (1998) Based National Populations Projection. London: Government Actuary's Department.
    Gilchrist, C. (1999) Turning Your Back on Us: Older People in the NHS. London: Age Concern.
    Gilleard, C.J. (1984) Living with Dementia: Community Care of the Elderly Mentally Infirm. Beckenham, Kent and Surrey Hills; NSW, Australia: Croom Helm.
    Goncalves, O.F. (1995) ‘Cognitive Narrative Psychotherapy: the Hermeneutic Construction of Alternative Meanings’, in M.J.Mahoney (ed.), Cognitive and Constructive Psychotherapies: Theory, Research and Practice. New York: Springer. pp. 139-62.
    Greenson, R. (1974) The Technique and Practice of Psychoanalysis. London: Hogarth.
    Gross, S. (1999) ‘The Place of Therapy in Training’, Psychodynamic Counselling, 5 (1): 123.
    Haight, B.K. and Burnside, I. (1993) ‘Reminiscence and Life Review: Explaining the Difference’, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 7: 91-8.
    Hall, J. (1991) Patterns of Dreaming: Jungian Techniques in Theory and Practice. Boston and London: Shambola.
    Hartley, L.P. (1953) The Go Between. London: Hamish Hamilton.
    Haviland, W. (1975) Cultural Anthropology. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Hawkins, P. and Shohet, R. (1989) Supervision in the Helping Professions: An Individual and Organisational Approach. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Henry, W.P., Schact, T.E., Strupp, H.H., Butler, S.F. and Binder, J.R. (1993) ‘Effects of Training in Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy: Changes in Therapist Behaviour’, Journal of Constructive Clinical Psychology, 61: 434-40.
    Hinton, J. (1990) Dying. Harmondsworth: Penguin. (First published 1967).
    Holmes, J. (2000) ‘Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis: A Rapprochement’, British Jounal of Psychotherapy, 7 (2): 157-72.
    Hyer, L.A. and Sohnle, S.J. (2001) Trauma Among Older People: Issues and Treatment. Philadelphia, Hove: Brunner-Routledge.
    Jacobs, M. (1982) Still Small Voice: An Introduction to Pastoral Counselling. London: SPCK.
    Jerome, D. (1994) ‘Family Estrangement: Parents and Children who “Lose Touch”‘, Journal of Family Therapy, 16 (3).
    Jung, C.G. (1967) Memories, Dreams, Reflections. London: Fontana.
    Jung, C.G. (1990) Symbols of Transformation, CW5. London: Routledge.
    Jung, C.G. (1977) The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche, CW8. London: Routledge.
    Kelly, G.A. (1955) The Psychology of Personal Constructs, Vol. 1 & 2. New York: Norton.
    Killick, J. (1994) Please Give Me Back My Personality: Writing and Dementia. Stirling: University of Stirling.
    Kohut, H. and Wolf, E. (1978) ‘The Disorders of the Self and their Treatment: An Outline’, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 54: 413-25.
    Kübler-Ross, E. (1970) On Death and Dying. London: Tavistock.
    Lashley, M.E. (1993) ‘The Painful Side of Reminiscence’, Geriatric Nursing, 14 (3): 138-41.
    Lee, W.M.L. (1999) An Introduction to Multicultural Counselling. Philadelphia, London: Accelerated Development (Taylor & Francis Group).
    Lewith, G.T. and Horne, S. (1987) Drug-free Pain Relief. Wellingborough: Thorsons.
    Lomax, E. (1996) The Railway Man. London: Vintage.
    Luborsky, L. and Crits-Christoph, P. (eds) (1990) Understanding Transference: The CCRT Method. New York: Basic Books.
    McAdams, D.P. (1993) The Stories We Live By: Personal Myths and the Making of the Self. London, New York: Guilford Press.
    McLeod, J. (1998) An Introduction to Counselling,
    second edition
    . Buckingham, Philadelphia. Open University Press.
    Mahrer, A.R., Nadler, W.P., Dessaulles, A., Gervaize, P.A., Sterner, J. (1987) ‘Good and Very Good Moments in Psychotherapy: Content, Distribution and Facilitation’, Psychotherapy, 24: 7-14.
    Main, M. and Goldwyn, S. (1995) ‘Interview-Based Adult Attachment’, Developmental Psychology, 19: 227-39.
    Malan, D.H. (1976) The Frontiers of Brief Therapy. New York: Plenum Press.
    Malan, D.H. (1979) Individual Psychotherapy and the Science of Psychodynamics. London: Butterworth.
    Maluccio, A. (1979) Learning from Clients: Interpersonal Helping as Viewed by Clients and Social Workers. New York: Free Press.
    Mander, G. (2000) ‘Beginnings, Endings and Outcomes: A Comparison of Methods and Goals’, Psychodynamic Counselling, 6 (3): 301-17.
    Martin, P. (2000) ‘It Takes Two to Tango: Research and Practice in an Amazing Dance’, Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 1 (3): 163-5.
    Mellor-Clark, J. (1997) ‘Evaluating Effectiveness: Needs, Problems and Potential Benefits’ paper presented at the BAC Counselling Research Conference, Birmingham, 14 June, 1997.
    Orbach, A. (1996) Not Too Late: Psychotherapy and Ageing. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Parlett, M. and Hemming, J. (1996) ‘Gestalt Therapy’, in W.Dryden (ed.), A Handbook of Individual Therapy. London: Sage.
    Plato (translated by J.Llewellin Davies) (1908) The Republic of Plato. London: Macmillan.
    Polkinhorne, D.E. (1992) ‘Post Modern Epistemology of Practice’, in S.Kate (ed.), Psychology and Postmodernism. London: Sage.
    Rennie, D.L. (1990) ‘Towards a Representation of the Client's Experience of the Psychotherapeutic Hour’, in G.Lietaer, and J.R.Rombauts Van Balen (eds), Client-Centred and Experiential Therapy in the Nineties. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press. pp. 155-72.
    Rennie, D.L. (1992) ‘Qualitative Analysis of Client's Experience of Psychotherapy: the Unfolding of Reflexivity’, in S.G.Toukmanian and D.L.Rennie (eds), Psychotherapy Process Research: Paradigmatic and Narrative Approaches. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.
    Rogers, C.R. (1963) ‘The Concept of the Fully Functioning Person’, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 1: 17-26.
    Rogers, C.R. (1978) On Personal Power: Inner Strength and its Revolutionary Impact. London: Constable.
    Roth, A. and Fonagy, P. with Parry, G., Target, M. and Woods, R. (1996) What Works for Whom: A Critical View of Psychotherapy Research. New York: Guilford Press.
    Scott-Maxwell, F. (1968) The Measure of My Days. London: Stuart & Wilkins.
    Scrutton, S. (1995) Bereavement and Grief: Supporting Older People Through Loss. London, Sydney, Auckland: Edward Arnold (Hodder Headline Group).
    Scrutton, S. (1998) Counselling Older People: A Creative Response to Ageing. London: Edward Arnold.
    Stirling, E. (1996) ‘Social Role Valorisation: Making a Difference to the Lives of Older People’, in R.T.Woods (ed.), Handbook of Clinical Psychology and Ageing. Chichester: Wiley.
    Storr, A. (1989) Solitude. London: Flamingo.
    Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. London: Sage.
    Terry, P. (1997) Counselling the Elderly and their Carers. London: Macmillan.
    Thompson, D. (1993) Mental Illness: The Fundamental Facts. London: Mental Health Foundation.
    Tomer, H. (2000) ‘Closing Thoughts and Open Questions’, in H.Tomer (ed.), Death Attitudes and Older Adults. Pensylvania: Brunner Routledge.
    Vaughan, P. (2002) ‘Age Cannot Wither Them’, The Guardian, 13/3/02.
    Walter, T. (1994) The Revival of Death. London, New York: Routledge.
    West, W. (2001) ‘Beyond Grounded Theory: The Use of a Heuristic Approach to Qualitative Research’, Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 1 (2): 29-39.
    Wiener, J. and Sher, M. (1993) Counselling and Psychotherapy in Primary Health Care: A Psychodnamic Approach. London: Macmillan.
    Winnicott, D.W. (1941) ‘The Observation of Infants in a Set Situation’, in D.W.Winnicott, Collected Papers: Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalyis. London: Hogarth.
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    Zera, D. (1992) ‘Coming of Age in a Heterosexual World: The Development of Gay and Lesbian Adolescents’, Adolescence, 27: 849-54.

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