Counselling for Depression
Publication Year: 2000
Highly acclaimed in its First Edition for its practical and sensitive approach, Counselling for Depression is an insightful guide to depression and the essential interpersonal skills and techniques which can be used in counselling the depressed person. Taking account of new developments in the field, the Second Edition has been fully updated and features an additional chapter on interventions. Paul Gilbert examines the inherent features - a sense of failure, abandonment, powerlessness, shame and guilt - and highlights the fragility and negativity of the depressive state. Using illustrations and case examples, he traces the steps appropriate at different stages in the counselling process and shows how the counsellor can help clients to change and to cope independently, by managing the whole method of change for ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Depression and the Basic Principles of Cognitive Interpersonal Counselling
- Chapter 1: Depression and Dysphoria and the Counselling Relationship
- Chapter 2: Interpersonal and Evolutionary Dimensions of Depression
- Chapter 3: Cognitive Models of Helping and Change for Depressed Clients
- Chapter 4: Changing and Intervening I: Basic Principles and Behavioural Techniques
- Chapter 5: Changing and Intervening II: Challenging Negative Thinking and Developing Inner Warmth
Part II: The Application of Cognitive Interpersonal Counselling
- Chapter 6: Beginning and Engaging the Depressed Client
- Chapter 7: Working with Interpersonal Problems of Depressed Clients I: Approval, Achievement, Assertiveness and Rebellion
- Chapter 8: Working with Interpersonal Problems of Depressed Clients II: Shame, Guilt, Ideals and Envy
- Chapter 9: Overview, Termination and Personal Reflections on Depression
Counselling in Practice[Page ii]
Series editor: Windy Dryden
Associate editor: E. Thomas Dowd
Counselling in Practice is a series of books developed especially for counsellors and students of counselling which provides practical, accessible guidelines for dealing with clients with specific, but very common, problems. Books in this series have become recognized as classic texts in their field, including:
Donald L. Bubenzer and John D. West
Counselling People with Communication Problems
Counselling for Eating Disorders
Counselling for Anxiety Problems
Counselling for Grief and Bereavement
Geraldine M. Humphrey and David G. Zimpfer
Counselling for Stress Problems
Stephen Palmer and Windy Dryden
Counselling for Psychosomatic Problems
Counselling for Alcohol Problems
SAGE is pleased to announce second editions of the following:
Counselling Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Claire Burke Draucker
© Paul Gilbert, 1992, 2000
First published 1992
Reprinted 1993, 1994, 1995, 1998
This second edition first published 2000
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
32, M-Block Market
Greater Kailash – I
New Delhi 110 048
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0-7619-6577-7 (pbk)
Library of Congress catalog record available
Typeset by Mayhew Typesetting, Rhayader, Powys Printed in Great Britain by Biddies Ltd, Guildford, Surrey
Preface to the First Edition[Page vii]
Cognitive therapy began in America some thirty years ago. Since that time, it has seen enormous developments in the client groups treated and in its therapeutic approach. Two areas that have seen important changes to the early formulations are a renewed focus on the therapeutic relationship (e.g. Beck et al., 1990; Safran and Segal, 1990) and an increased focus on interpersonal cognitive processes (e.g. Bowlby, 1980; Liotti, 1988; Safran and Segal, 1990). Both these concerns are a main focus in this book. In 1988 Trower et al. published Cognitive-behavioural Counselling in Action. They outlined the basic techniques and issues of the cognitive approach. The present volume, for the ‘Counselling in Practice’ series, is designed to build on their introduction. It explores interpersonal counselling with a particular client group – depressed people.
The aims of this book are to focus on the interpersonal themes in counselling depressed clients, including those of the therapeutic relationship. The book is divided into two sections of four chapters each. Chapter 1 addresses issues of the nature of depression and the therapeutic relationship. Here I try to capture something of the nature of the depressive experience and focus on important counsellor skills. Chapter 2 explores the central issues of interpersonal approaches, the basic domains of relationships and how these are affected in depression. Chapter 3 outlines the basic premises of the cognitive approach and why cognitive counsellors are particularly concerned with the construction of internal meaning, ways of attributing causes to things, and basic attitudes and beliefs. Chapter 4 explores the many ways of conceptualizing therapeutic interventions and challenging dysfunctional thoughts and attitudes.
The second section aims to build on these concepts, and lead the reader through a step-by-step approach to the process of counselling the depressed person. Counselling scenarios are given to illuminate specific points and highlight types of intervention. Most of these scenarios are not derived directly from taped interviews [Page viii](although some are) but from notes made at the end of sessions. They are not meant to represent exact scenes but rather to indicate and highlight issues. All client names have been changed, and minor alterations introduced in the history, to avoid identification. Chapter 5 outlines the issues that arise during the early parts of the therapy, and how to engage and agree shared understandings and goals of counselling. Chapter 6 explores the kinds of issues that arise in the middle of counselling, as the counsellor and client engage in deeper explorations and seek opportunities for change. Chapter 7 looks at some special problems that arise in depressed clients. Special attention is given to shame, guilt, envy and idealizing which often figure prominently in depressive experience. Chapter 8 explores termination issues and offers some personal reflections.
Preface to the Second Edition[Page ix]
In the time since I wrote the first edition of Counselling for Depression things have changed, including gaining more experience in working with depressed people, who are the greatest teachers. Also our own research efforts on submission, escape and defeat behaviour have been illuminating in a number of ways (e.g. Allan and Gilbert, 1997; Gilbert and Allan, 1998). For example, we have found that many (but by no means all) depressed people feel unable to escape from the things that cause them pain. These may either be their relationships, dashed hopes and aspirations, relationships or physical illness. Depressed people can suffer a constant bombardment of negative thoughts, feelings or conflicts, from which escape seems impossible. So they often feel defeated and overwhelmed by their negatives. Therapy can help reduce that bombardment and help the person develop more internally supportive relationships, more helpful coping behaviours, and elicit more support in the external world.
The outline of the book is similar to the first edition but some chapters have been extensively re-written and updated and there is an extra chapter devoted to interventions. Chapter 1 discusses the nature of depression and the importance of various aspects of the therapeutic relationship. Chapter 2 has been re-written to accommodate new understandings and findings in research on depression. The typical backgrounds, themes of depressive thinking and various coping behaviours that often can be ineffective for depressed people are covered. Chapter 3 outlines some of the basic premises of the cognitive approach to depressive disorders and notes how depressed people tend to ‘dwell’ on various negative thoughts, feelings and negative scenarios of the future. Chapter 4 explores the different processes for cognitive behavioural interventions for challenging the various negative thoughts and behaviours. Chapter 5 offers insight into challenging negative cognitions in specific ways and in particular internal shaming cognitions. I also cover in more detail the importance of developing inner warmth.
[Page x]Part 2 begins with Chapter 6 which outlines some of the ways to begin the counselling process for the depressed person. Chapters 7 and 8 then focus on special issues that are likely to arise in counselling depressed people. Because this book is focused on interpersonal themes, these two chapters give examples of working with specific problems. Chapter 9 gives an overview of the types of interventions discussed, explores termination issues and basic therapeutic relational issues that can arise in counselling. In particular we will finish by exploring some of the beliefs and thoughts of counsellors when they try to help depressed people.
This edition also contains new appendices to help guide you in identifying negative thoughts, questions to challenge them, and how to work with thought forms.
As for the first edition, this book is not designed for people with no training or experience in counselling. We anticipate that people using these techniques will have undergone proper training in counselling and that the approaches outlined here can be weaved into their practice. Ideally this should be done with supervision from trained cognitive therapists. This book also gives a particular approach to counselling a depressed person. There are many excellent cognitive therapy books currently on the market and no one book can cover all of the basic principles and ways of working.
This book is focused primarily on the interpersonal dynamics and interpersonal thinking styles of depressed people. This book is designed to take you through a form of counselling process step by step. It also offers some thoughts about how to deal with specific problems. It has not gone into detail about counselling couples or families, even though the book is concerned with interpersonal cognition. Again, this would be too much for one book and is better dealt with by those who are skilled in working and writing on depression in that way. You will note that the text has been updated with new references, which I hope will be useful for you to explore deeper into the depression literature. Working with depressed patients is always a challenge. Each person is unique, although depressed people will have many themes and issues in common. A book such as this can only be a guide that I hope will be useful to various therapists and their clients.
Acknowledgements[Page xi]First Edition
Special thanks go to the series editor, Professor W. Dryden, for asking me to attempt this endeavour, and his encouragement during the writing. His advice was, as always, invaluable. He worked hard on the manuscript, and tried to steer me away from obscurity and lapsing into evolutionary theory. Appreciation goes to Dr C. Gillespie for his support and advice, and his comments on various chapters. Many thanks also go to Susan Worsey and Sue Ashton, who both worked hard on the text. I am indebted to the many clients who, over the years, have shared their depressive experience with me and enabled me to learn from them. They have been the best teachers. Gratitude also goes to Nell Hadlow who helped to correct the manuscript and get it into readable form. Thanks also to Joyce Chantrill and Pat Gibbins.Second Edition
The Southern Derbyshire Mental Health Trust and University of Derby have been supportive in setting up the Mental Health Research Unit which has aided our research into depression. Many thanks to them, especially Dawn Forman (Dean of Health & Community Studies) and Dorothy Lane, Director of Nursing and Human Resources (SDMHT). I am also grateful to Diane Woollands for her expert, efficient and supportive secretarial skills. And as always love and gratitude to my family and the many patients who continue to teach me.
[Page xii]To Jean, Hannah and James, who love and support me, the many clients who have guided and taught me, and Professor A.T. Beck who got us all thinking cognitively and revolutionized the psychological treatment of depression.
Appendix 1: Typical Styles of Thinking[Page 203]
Here is a quick review of typical depressive cognitive styles. They are written in a way that can be shared with clients. When people become depressed they tend to see themselves in negative ways. They may see themselves as failures, inferior or worthless, their relationships as unfulfilling and the future as rather black. These thoughts and beliefs are often maintained by particular styles of thinking and make depression worse. When we are depressed we look on the black side of things and overestimate dangers and setbacks. Some of the more common depressive thinking styles include the following:
Jumping to conclusions When we are depressed we tend to jump to conclusions easily, particularly negative conclusions. For example, your friend is in an irritable mood so you conclude this is because she doesn't like you. The shop assistant gives you the wrong change and you conclude he/she takes you for a ‘soft touch’.
Emotional reasoning Emotional reasoning is related to jumping to conclusions. This is when we go for ‘gut reactions’ to things: it is our first, immediate, emotional response. So if you get the ‘feeling’ that somebody doesn't like you, you assume that it is true rather than test the evidence for it. It is quite useful for both jumping to conclusions and emotional reasoning to practice generating alternatives. Do not assume that your emotions have necessarily given you an accurate view of the world.
Discounting the positive When we get depressed it is very easy to discount our positives. We are not able to focus on things we do have, only those that we don't. Discounting positives is often related to disappointment in not being able to achieve exactly what one wants. Even when people who are depressed achieve things they tend to discount it with the idea that ‘anyone could do that’ or ‘I used to do so much more when I wasn't depressed’. However, remember overcoming depression is a step by step process and if you continually discount your positives it is going to be difficult to start moving up the ladder.
Disbelieving others When we become depressed it is very common to believe that others are only being nice because they want to appear good themselves. Depressed people often believe that individuals have one set of thoughts that they express outwards and a set of thoughts that they keep private. Depressed people and socially anxious people worry that the private thoughts of people are very [Page 204]negative towards them. Again, however, it is important to explore this and not take it for granted.
Black and white thinking When we become depressed it becomes less easy for us to think about life in complex ways. Therefore we tend to become very black and white, that is ‘either or’ in our thinking. Either we are a success or we are a failure; either this relationship is good or it is a complete failure. It is useful to remind ourselves that most things in life are a bit of this, a bit of that, a bit of good, a bit of bad, a bit of black, a bit of white, rather than absolutes. When we become depressed we can forget this. So try thinking in shades of things; a bit of this, a bit of that. If you are thinking about relationships focus on the things that you like about them and things that you prefer as well as the things you dislike and try to conceptualize this as a complex mixture of different things rather than all good or all bad. Indeed, try to avoid using terms like good or bad. They, in themselves, imply that such things can exist, in an absolute way – which is rarely the case.
Self-criticism We may become depressed because we are disappointed in the way things have gone, for example how we look, or maybe achievements haven't worked out, or relationships haven't gone so well. We can become quite frustrated. This frustration can sometimes turn in on the self as if we believe that ‘if only I had been different, looked different or behaved differently then everything would have worked out fine’. Self-criticism often generates negative emotions, particularly anger towards the self and this increases the ‘stress’ on your stress systems. That in turn will continually fuel the depression. One of the key things to learn is how to be less self-critical, and take the emotional sting out of the self-criticism. Learn to be caring and nurturing when times are hard or when you are disappointed. If you learn to develop a friendly attitude to yourself when things go badly this is going to put you in very good stead to be able to cope with the roller coaster ups and downs of life.
For more information on cognitive distortions and how to combat them see Gilbert (2000) Overcoming Depression.
Appendix 2: Sample Case Formulation Sheet[Page 205]
Early history (key relationships and meanings given to them)
Sees self as Sees others as
Depressive attitudes and rules for living
Key social behaviours that can maintain depression and/or increase vulnerability
Typical negative automatic thoughts and depressive thinking styles
Appendix 3: Some Useful Challenges to Negative Automatic Thoughts[Page 206]
When challenging negative styles of thinking it is useful to keep in mind that you will want to avoid pitting yourself against your clients – getting into unhelpful debates. So you will need to explore with your clients what they can come to challenge and question and teach them how to challenge their own thinking. Some useful questions for this might be:
What is the evidence that supports your belief and what is the evidence that may not support it?
If you look at this event again is there anything you might be excluding or not focusing on?
How would you typically seek this if you were not depressed?
What alternatives might there be to this view?
What other explanations can you think of for this event?
What kind of thoughts would help you cope with this at the moment?
How would you like to see this, which helps you to control your depression?
How might you see this event in (say) six months’ time?
How might we take a more complex and varied view of this?
If you had a friend, how would you help them see this?
How would you like someone who cared about you to help you see this differently?
If your thoughts were warm and compassionate, what would they be?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of thinking about this difficulty in this way?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of changing the way you think?
What are the fears of changes?
What do you see as your greatest blocks to change?
How could we break this problem down into smaller, step by step problems?
How could we generate step by step approaches to this difficulty?
If you overcame your depression, how might you look at this situation?
What might one learn from changing negative thoughts?
Appendix 4: Thought Monitoring and Challenging Form[Page 207]
Below are two worked examples using one particular thought form.[Page 210]Writing Things down – Why This is Important
It is important for cognitive counsellors to really get familiar with the procedures of writing things down. It is usually not enough for clients to simply understand the principles of challenging their negative thoughts and to do it in their heads. The reason for this is that the client won't spend enough time focusing on their thoughts and their efforts at challenging are likely to be arbitrary and haphazard. The importance of writing things down include:
Writing down and slowing down Helping patients to learn to write down their thoughts also helps them slow down their thoughts. This can be extremely important both for thought catching and for challenging.
Thought catching By slowing things down and helping people really focus on what is going through their minds they may be able to recognize all kinds of meanings and thoughts which would not become fully conscious had they not taken the time to try and write down their key thoughts. In other words, clients have to ask themselves questions such as ‘how do I explain this feeling to myself?’ ‘how can I account for what I feel?’ the more clients learn to do this the better they will be at thought catching.
Attention Writing down also provides an opportunity to focus and attend to the issues at hand. This attentional focusing is again an important function of cognitive therapy.
Gain a new perspective Seeing thoughts written out in front of the client may help them to see that their depression is pushing them into overly negative positions where they are losing perspective. Having things written in front of them allows clients to stand back and view it from a slight distance.
Thought challenging Writing down is also very important for exploring thought challenging. Firstly, it helps the client to focus on ‘point by point’ challenges such as ‘what is the evidence’, ‘what might an alternative view be’ ‘what might I say to a friend?’ If they have a list of challenging questions on the form in front of them then they can try to write out the alternatives to their negative thoughts.
It is important therefore that clients should be educated into the importance of slowing down, writing down, spending time working on challenging the way they think rather than trying to do it quickly and rush through it. It is also important to help clients recognize that there is a distinction between those automatic thoughts that pop into the mind very rapidly and the kind of thoughts that they dwell and ruminate on. The ruminative thoughts are particularly important for depression.What Type of Thought Form?
If you have read a number of books on cognitive therapy you will probably recognize that there are many types of thought form that you can use with your clients. It is very important that you understand the purpose of thought forms rather than to try and use forms off the shelf simply because the book says so. If [Page 211]you feel proficient in your cognitive techniques then you may wish to read Treating Complex Cases (Tarrier et al., 1998). If you do, you will see a number of chapters by various authors tackling different types of problems where they will use a variety of thought forms. The reason for this is that forms should be designed to meet specific purposes – to do a job.
My general advice here is to keep it simple. Use whatever thought form suits the issue and don't struggle with forms that are too complex, either for you or your client. The most basic thought challenging form is simply two columns, this is where between you, you write out the negative thoughts in one column and then practise challenging them in the other. For example, it might look like this.
Negative Thoughts Challenging Thoughts
- I am feeling depressed and not able to do anything.
- There is a lot of work piling up on my desk.
It's true I'm not feeling at my best right now and there is a lot of work to do, however, let's try and do say five or ten minutes and see how much I can get through. Nothing I do is going to make a lot of difference.
- If I am able to do a little, this will be better than doing none.
- I am perhaps getting overwhelmed by thinking that I have to sort it all out in one go. That would be nice but it is not practical.
- I am going to start my 10 minutes now. What have I got to lose by trying?
Beliefs 80% Beliefs 40%
Rate belief You will note at the bottom of the table that we can also rate how much a client believes in something they have written down. Some people find that if they learn to rate the extent of their beliefs they realize that their beliefs are not always black and white or if they are, then this is unrealistic. So as time passes they may begin to note that they feel more comfortable and believe more in their challenges.
Make your own thought forms As long as you understand the principles of cognitive therapy (e.g. identifying negative thinking that maintains or worsens a depression, and the importance of learning to challenge negative thinking in a way that the client finds acceptable and understandable) then you probably won't go far wrong. For example, you may wish to write out thought forms which are focused on the advantages or disadvantages of a belief. You might want to write out columns that have a focus on negative self evaluative thoughts (or the attacking part of self), or make a thought form looking at things in the past in one column, and things now and in the future in another column (see page 103). You may want to help clients [Page 212]recognize their change in feelings after they have done thought challenging, in which case you would have three or four columns. This allows people to rate how much they feel their feelings have changed as a result of doing these challenging exercises. You might have a series of columns which are:
Negative Thoughts Challenging Thoughts How I Feel Compared to Before
- I am feeling depressed and not able to do anything. There is a lot of work piling up on my desk. Nothing I do is going to make a lot of difference.
- It's true that I'm not feeling at my best right now and there is a lot of work to do, however, let's try and do say five or ten minutes and see how much I can get through.
- If I am able to do a little, this will be better than doing none.
- I am perhaps getting overwhelmed by thinking that I have to sort it all out in one go. That would be nice but it is probably not practical.
- I am going to start with 10 minutes now. What have I got to lose by trying?
- Having done a little, I realize that it is difficult but not impossible. I certainly feel I have made a small amount of progress, perhaps not as much as I would like, but at least I am a bit further forward. I feel maybe 5 to 10 per cent less down.
The thought form that has been supplied for you in this book (as given earlier in Appendix 4) is a very basic form, which can be used in many different ways. You may find it suits most of your purposes or you may wish to explore other kinds of forms. For example, Padesky and Greenberg (1995) in their book Mind over Mood, provide a number of other types of thought form that clients can use.
If you are providing thought forms for clients to take away it is useful if they are accompanied by a series of questions for the clients to put to themselves to monitor and catch their thoughts, as well as a series of questions that they can put to themselves to challenge those thoughts. Appendix 3 gives a selection of such challenges that can be used.Some Useful Ideas
It is important to fill in whatever form you use with the client together in the first instance, and to check that they understand it. When clients understand the principles, it can be useful to leave the client alone for ten minutes or so during an [Page 213]actual interview so they can practise doing thought forms themselves. Sometimes the counsellor's role is to provide opportunities for training and this can't happen unless the counsellor makes training opportunities available. If clients are having difficulties in doing thought forms on their own then leaving them in the room for five or ten minutes to practise by themselves can be a good way of helping them with that difficulty. One can then return to the room and see where their problems are in monitoring, challenging and writing down alternative thoughts. Explore how the client feels about this.
It is useful to ask clients to bring their own thought forms to the counselling session. This allows a number of things. First, it enables you to monitor the progress of the patient and explore how they are doing in their challenging. Second, it makes clear that this is an expectation of therapy. Remember that the ‘shame of homework’ is always a possibility here (see page 90). Check that clients are not filling in their thought forms just before they come to therapy to please you and to prove that they have done ‘good homework’. Also remember that some clients will avoid doing homework or filling in forms in session because they are frightened of doing it incorrectly or being shamed by the therapist. It is therefore important to make sure that clients understand why they are doing this kind of work, take responsibility for it and are not carrying fears of being shamed for trying things out and experimenting (e.g. getting it wrong).
One can also help patients to focus on how their behaviour would change if they really believed their alternative thoughts. Could they try this behaviour change for a morning or afternoon, a day or week? With all these interventions practice is important.
Bibliography[Page 214]1989) Hopelessness: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.96.2.358, and (1997) Submissive Behaviour and Psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 467–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1997.tb01255.xand (1998) Shame and childhood abuse. In P.Gilbert and B.Andrews (eds), Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 176–90.(1990) Attributions of blame for marital violence: A study of antecedents and consequences. Journal of Family and Marriage, 52, 757–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352940and (1984) The Psychology of Interpersonal Behaviour,(4th edn.Harmondsworth: Penguin.1980a) The psychological organization of depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 1360–5.and (1980b) Severe and Mild Depression: The Psychotherapeutic Approach. London: Tavistock.and (1988) The structure of assertiveness: A confirmatory approach. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26, 337–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2888%2990087-3, , , and (1988) Arthur Miller's ‘Death of a Salesman’: Lessons for the self psychologist. In A.Goldberg (ed.), Progress in Self Psychology, vol. 4. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.and (1998) A new cognitive treatment for social phobia: A single case study. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 12, 289–302.and (1990) Suicide as escape from self. Psychological Review, 97, 90–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.97.1.90(1995) The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497and (1994) Guilt: An Interpersonal Approach. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 243–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.115.2.243, and (1990) Depression in Marriage. New York: Guilford Press., and (1989) The risk of minor depression before age 65: Results from a community survey. Psychological Medicine, 19, 393–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700012435, , , and (1967) Depression: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Aspects. New York: Harper and Row.([Page 215]1976) Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.(1983) Cognitive therapy of depression: New perspectives. In P.J.Clayton and J.E.Barrett (eds), Treatment of Depression: Old Controversies and New Approaches. New York: Raven Press.(1985) Anxiety Disorders and Phobias: A Cognitive Approach. New York: Basic Books., and (1983) Development of the sociotropy-autonomy scale: A measure of personality factors in depression. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania., , and (1990) Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York: Guilford Press., and associates (1979) Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Wiley., , and (1979) Vulnerable self-esteem as a predisposing factor in depressive disorders. In R.A.Depue (ed.), The Psychobiology of the Depressive Disorders: Implications for the Effects of Stress. New York: Academic Press.(1990) Psychotherapy of depression research at a crossroads: Directions for the 1990s. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 207–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2890%2990058-I(Beckham, E.E. and Leber, W.R. (eds) (1995) Handbook of Depression,2nd edn.New York: Guilford.1998) Shy Children Phobic Adults: Nature and Treatment of Social Phobia. Washington, DC: American Psychology Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10285-000and (1988) Relapse after recovery from unipolar depression: A critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 84–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.104.1.84and (1990) Inventories and scales. In B.B.Wolman and G.Stricker (eds), Depressive Disorders: Facts, Theories and Treatment Methods. New York: Wiley.(1953) The mechanism of depression. In P.Greenacre (ed.), Affective Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.(1998) Wednesday's Child: Research into Women's Experiences of Neglect and Abuse in Childhood, and Adult Depression. London: Routledge.and (1995) Cognitive Therapy for Depression and Anxiety,and (2nd edn.Oxford: Blackwell.1996) Cognitive Therapy in Action. London: Souvenir Press.and (1982) Dependency and self criticism: Psychological dimensions of depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 113–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.50.1.113, , , and (1988) Empathy: Misconceptions and misuses in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 420–4.(1979) The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 16, 252–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085885(1973) Separation, Anxiety and Anger: Attachment and Loss, vol. 2. London: Hogarth Press.(1980) Loss: Sadness and Depression: Attachment and Loss, vol. 3. London: Hogarth Press.(1986) Attributional and pre-attributional variables in self-esteem and depression: A comparison and test of learned helplessness theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1013–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1683and ([Page 216]1989) Depression: A radical social perspective. In K.Herbst and E.Paykel (eds), Depression: An Interactive Approach. Oxford: Heinemann Medical Books.(1978) The Social Origins of Depression. London: Tavistock.and (1995) Loss, humiliation and entrapment among women developing depression: A patient and non-patient comparison. Psychological Medicine, 25, 7–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329170002804X, and (Buunk, B.P. and Gibbons, F.X. (eds) (1997) Health, Coping and Weil-Being. Perspectives From Social Comparison Theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.1980) Feeling Good. New York: Morrow.(1989) Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1247, and (1995) Social and cognitive approaches to depression: Towards a new synthesis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 485–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1995.tb01484.xand (1998) The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 3–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3and (1999) Anxiety disorders: why they persist and how to treat them. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 5–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2899%2900048-0(1988) Affective Disorders and the Family: Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford Press., and (1990) Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 644–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1994and (1991) Theory and Practice of Counselling and Psychotherapy. California: Brooks/Cole.(1976a) Depression and response to others. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.85.2.186(1976b) Towards an interactional description of depression. Psychiatry, 39, 28–40.(1996) Rhythm and blues: The assessment and treatment of seasonal affective disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 163–82., and (1988) Self-psychological interventions for major depression. American Journal of Psychotherapy, XLII, 597–609.(1982) A Woman in your own Right,(rev. edn.London: Quartet Books.1998) Ethological strategies for defence in animals and humans: Their role in some psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 417–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1998.tb01001.x(1989) Self-condemnation: A conceptual framework for assessment and treatment. Psychotherapy, 26, 104–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085394(Dryden, W. (ed.) (1984) Individual Therapy in Britain. London: Harper and Row.1985) Challenging but not overwhelming: A compromise in negotiating homework assignments. British Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 3, 77–82.(Dryden, W. (ed.) (1989a) Key Issues for Counselling in Action. London: Sage.1989b) The therapeutic alliance as an integrating framework. In W.Dryden (ed.), Key Issues for Counselling in Action. London: Sage.([Page 217]1989c) The use of chaining in rational-emotive therapy. Journal of Rational-Emotive Therapy, 7, 59–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01246504(1989d) Attributions, beliefs and constructs: Some points of comparison. In D.Lane (ed.), Attributions, Beliefs and Constructs in Counselling Psychology. Leicester: British Psychological Society.(Dryden, W. (ed.) (1990) Individual Therapy: A Handbook. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.1991) Dryden on Counselling, vol. 3. Training and Supervision. London: Whurr.(1992) The Incredible Sulk. London: Sheldon Press.(1998) The Skilled Helper: A Problem-management Approach to Helping,(6th edn.Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.1977a) Characteristics of psychotic and borderline psychotic individuals. In A.Ellis and R.Grieger (eds), Handbook of Rational Emotive Therapy. New York: Springer.(1977b) A rational approach to interpretation. In A.Ellis and R.Grieger (eds), Handbook of Rational Emotive Therapy. New York: Springer.(Ellis, A. and Whiteley, L.M. (eds) (1979) Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Rational Emotive Therapy. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.1996) Counselling within the forgiveness triad: On forgiving, receiving forgiveness, and self-forgiveness. Counselling and Values, 40, 107–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-007X.1996.tb00844.x(1999) Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty. New York: Doubleday.(1989) Depression. In K.Hawton, P.M.Salkovskis, J.Kirk and D.M.Clark (eds), Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric Problems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1989) Rating instruments in psychiatric research. In C.Freeman and P.Tyrer (eds), Research Methods in Psychiatry: A Beginner's Guide. London: Gaskell/The Royal College of Psychiatrists.and (1999) Time trends in affective disorders. In P.Cohen, C.Slomkowski and L.N.Robins (eds), Historical and Geographical Influences on Psychopathology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 115–40.(1989) Early recurrence in unipolar depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 397–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810050011002, and (1982) Therapeutic components shared by psychotherapies. In J.H.Harvey and M.M.Parkes (eds), Psychotherapy Research and Behavior Change, vol. 1. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.(1999) Inner Strengths: Contemporary Psychotherapy and Hypnosis for Ego Strengthening. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.and (1996) Forgiveness as an intervention goal with incest survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 983–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.5.983and (Freeman, A., Simon, K.M., Beutler, L.E. and Arkowitz, H. (eds) (1989) Comprehensive Handbook of Cognitive Therapy. New York: Plenum.1984) Depression: From Psychology to Brain State. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.(1989) Human Nature and Suffering. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.(1992) Depression: The Evolution of Powerlessness. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum and New York: Guilford Press.(1993) Defence and safety: Their function in social behaviour and psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 131–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1993.tb01039.x([Page 218]1995) Biopsychosocial approaches and evolutionary theory as aids to integration in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2, 135–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.5640020302(1997) The evolution of social attractiveness and its role in shame, humiliation, guilt and therapy. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 70, 113–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1997.tb01893.x(1998a) What is shame? Some core issues and controversies. In P.Gilbert and B.Andrews (eds), Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 3–38.(1998b) The evolved basis and adaptive functions of cognitive distortions. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 447–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1998.tb01002.x(1998c) Shame and humiliation in complex cases. In N.Tarrier, G.Haddock and A.Wells (eds), Treating Complex Cases: The Cognitive Behavioural Approach. Chichester: Wiley. pp. 241–71.(2000) Overcoming Depression: A Self-Guide Using Cognitive Behavioural Techniques. (Revised Edn). London: Robinsons and New York: Oxford University Press.(Varieties of social behaviour and forms of social defence. In L.Slamon and P.Gilbert (eds), Subordination and Defeat: An Evolutionary Approach to Mood Disorder and Therapeutic Implications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.(in press a)The evolved social self: Internal conflict and the role of inner warmth and compassion in cognitive therapy. In P.Gilbert and K.Bailey (eds), Genes on the Couch: Explorations in Evolutionary Psychotherapy. London: Routledge.(in press b)1998) The role of defeat and entrapment (arrested flight) in depression: an exploration of an evolutionary view. Psychological Medicine, 28, 584–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291798006710and (Gilbert, P. and Andrews, B. (eds) (1998) Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Gilbert, P. and Bailey, K. (eds) (in press) Genes on the Couch: Explorations in Evolutionary Psychotherapy. Hove: The Psychology Press.1999) Recall of favouritism in relation to psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 357–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466599162962and (1989) The therapist as the crucial variable in psychotherapy. In W.Dryden and L.Spurting (eds), On Becoming a Psychotherapist. London: Routledge., and (1998) Shame, social roles and status: The psychobiological continuum from monkey to human. In P.Gilbert and B.Andrews (eds), Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 99–125.and (1995) Social comparison, social attractiveness and evolution: How might they be related?New Ideas In Psychology, 13, 149–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0732-118X%2895%2900002-X, and (1985) Empathy: Development, Training and Consequences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.and (1989) Self-report assessment of depression and anxiety. In P.C.Kendall and D.Watson (eds), Anxiety and Depression: Distinctive and Overlapping Features. New York: Academic Press.and (1987) Treatment of Depression: An Interpersonal Systems Approach. New York: Pergamon Press.and ([Page 219]1991) All in the mind? The psychologisation of illness. The Psychologist: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 4, 449–53.and (1995) Mind Over Mood. New York: Guilford Press.and (1979) Resolving splits: Use of the two-chair technique. Psychotherapy, Theory, Research and Practice, 16, 316–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085895(1997) Emotion in the creation of personal meaning. In M.Power and C.Brewin (eds), The Transformation of Meaning: Reconciling Theory and Therapy in Cognitive, Behaviour and Related Therapies. Chichester: Wiley. pp. 157–73.and (1990) Experiential processes in the psychotherapeutic treatment of depression. In CD.McCann and N.S.Endler (eds), Depression: New Directions in Theory, Research and Practice. Toronto: Wall and Emerson., and (1993) Facilitating Emotional Change: The Moment-by-Moment Process. New York: Guilford Press., and (1987) Emotion in Psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.and (1988) Suicide: Prevention, Intervention and Postintervention,(2nd edn.Boston: Beacon Press.1983) Cognitive Processes and Emotional Disorders. New York: Guilford Press.and (1989) Productive and Unproductive Depression: Success or Failure of a Vital Process. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1997) The transformation of meaning in cognitive therapy. In M.Power and C.Brewin (eds), The Transformation of Meaning in Psychological Therapies. Chichester: Wiley. pp. 125–40.(1987) Assessment of suicide risk. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 145–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.150.2.145(1987) Attempted Suicide: A Practical Guide to its Nature and Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1986) The attachment dynamic in adult life. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 430–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.149.4.430and (1992) Cognitive therapy and the prevention of depression. Applied and Preventative Psychology, 1, 89–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-1849%2805%2980149-0, and (1984) Cognitive factors in clinical research and practice. Clinical Psychology Review, 4, 35–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2884%2990036-9and (1991) Cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 88–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.1.88, and (1989) Predictors of relapse in unipolar depressives: Expressed emotion, marital distress and perceived criticism. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 229–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.98.3.229and (1989) The Wish for Power and the Fear of Having It. Northdale: Jason Aronson.(1986) The interpersonal basis of psychiatric symptoms. Clinical Psychology Review, 6, 443–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2886%2990031-0and (1991) Attribution and intervention in self-poisoning. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 64, 345–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1991.tb01672.xand (1997) Britain on the Couch: Why We're Unhappier Than We Were in the 1950s – Despite Being Richer: Treating a Lower Serotonin Society. London: Century.(1979) Characterological versus behavioral self-blame: Inquiries into depression and rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1798–809. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.528([Page 220]1988) Depression, vulnerability, and world assumptions. In L.B.Alloy (ed.), Cognitive Processes in Depression. New York: Guilford Press.and (1988) Beyond Childhood Abuse: Therapy for Women who were Childhood Victims. Chichester: Wiley.(1989) Mood disturbances among women clients abused in childhood: Prevalence, etiology and treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 164–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626089004002003(1985) Heinz Kohut and Carl Rogers: A timely comparison. American Psychologist, 40, 893–904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.8.893(1989) Heinz Kohut and Carl Rogers: Towards a constructive collaboration. Psychotherapy, 26, 555–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085476(1990) Toward a clinical model of the psychotherapy for depression, II: An integrative and selective treatment approach. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 269–78.(1989) Anxiety and depression in seasonal affective disorder. In P.C.Kendall and D.Watson (eds), Anxiety and Depression: Distinctive and Overlapping Features. New York: Academic Press.and (1989) Stages of psychotherapy: Progressive reconceptualisation as a self-organizing process. Psychotherapy, 26, 484–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085467(1995) The assessment of severity and symptom patterns in depression. In E.E.Beckham and W.R.Leber (eds), Handbook of Depression,, , and (2nd edn.New York: Guilford. pp. 61–85.1982) The Evolving Self: Problem and Process in Human Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1955) The Psychology of Personal Constructs. New York: Norton and Co.(1990) Guilt, shame, and embarrassment: Cognitive-behavioural approaches. In H.Leitenberg (ed.), Handbook of Social and Evaluation Anxiety. New York: Plenum.(1988) The current age of youthful melancholia: Evidence for increase in depression among adolescents and young adults. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 4–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.152.1.4(1984) Interpersonal Psychotherapy of Depression. New York: Basic Books., , and (1977) The Restoration of the Self. New York: International Universities Press.(1993) Cognitive Therapies in Action: Evolving Innovative Practice. New York: Jossey Bass.and (1988) Vulnerability and episodic cognitions in a self-worth contingency model of depression. In L.B.Alloy (ed.), Cognitive Processes in Depression. New York: Guilford Press.(1986) Dysfunctional attitudes and a self-worth contingency model of depression. In P.C.Kendall (ed.), Advances in Cognitive Behavioral Research and Therapy. New York: Academic Press.and (1999) Stress and Emotion: A New Synthesis. London: Free Association Press.(1994) Coping and the Self-Management of Emotion. New York: Oxford University Press.([Page 221]1995) Self-Presentation: Impression Management and Interpersonal Behavior. Dubuque: Brown and Benchmark.(1957) The Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality. New York: Ronald Press.(1986) The role of shame in depression. In M.Rutter, C.E.Izard and P.B.Read (eds), Depression in Young People: Developmental and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Guilford Press.(1987a) Introduction: Shame – the ‘sleeper’ in psychopathology. In H.B.Lewis (ed.), The Role of Shame in Symptom Formation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.(Lewis, H.B. (ed.) (1987b) The Role of Shame in Symptom Formation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.1988) Attachment and cognition: A guide for the reconstruction of early pathogenic experiences in cognitive therapy. In C.Perris, I.M.Blackburn and H.Perris (eds), Handbook of Cognitive Psychotherapy. New York: Springer.(Disorganized attachment: Models of borderline states and evolutionary psychotherapy. In P.Gilbert and K.Bailey (eds), Genes on the Couch: Explorations in Evolutionary Psychotherapy. Hove: Psychology Press.(in press)1990) Human Change Process. New York: Basic Books.(1987) Psychotherapy and cognitive science. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 1, 39–60.and (1984) Toward empathy: The uses of wonder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 1025–33.(1995) Interpersonal psychotherapy. In E.E.Beckham and W.R.Leber (eds), Handbook of Depression,and (2nd edn.New York: Guilford. pp. 376–90.1988) Trauma and victimization: A model of psychological adaptation. The Counselling Psychologist, 16, 531–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000088164002, and (2000) Treatment for Chronic Depression: Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy. New York: Guilford.(1997) Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 321–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2061, and (1998a) Darwinian Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press.and (1998b) Prevalence differences in depression among males and females: Are there evolutionary explanations?British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 479–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1998.tb01004.xand (1989) The therapeutic empathic communication (TEC) process. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 43, 531–45.(1996) Embarrassment: Poise and Peril in Everyday Life. New York: Guilford.(1996) Shame in Context. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.(1999) Social Therapy: A Guide to Social Supportive Interventions for Mental Health Practitioners. Chichester: Wiley.(1984) Shame in relation to narcissistic disturbance. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 57, 207–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1984.tb02580.x(1984) The fragile self: Narcissistic disturbance and the protective function of depression. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 57, 137–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1984.tb01592.xand ([Page 222]1990) The self-system in depression: Conceptualization and treatment. In C.D.McCann and N.S.Endler (eds), Depression: New Directions in Theory, Research and Practice. Toronto: Wall and Emerson., and (1984) Shame and the psychology of the self. In P.E.Stepansky and A.Goldberg (eds), Kohut's Legacy: Contributions to Self Psychology. New York: Analytic Press/Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.(1978) The advent of guilt feelings as a common depressive symptom: A historical comparison on two continents. Psychiatry, 41, 229–42.(Nathanson, D.L. (ed.) (1987) The Many Faces of Shame. New York: Guilford Press.1998) The neurobiology of depression. Scientific American, June, 28–35.(1990) Evolutionary explanations of emotions. Human Nature, 1, 261–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02733986(1999) Coping with Loss. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.and (1985) A social theory of depression in reaction to life events. Psychological Review, 92, 372–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.92.3.372and (1993) Distinguishing the experiences of envy and jealousy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 906–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.116and (1995) Clinicians Guide to Mind over Mood. New York: Guilford Press.and (1996) Changing Moods: The Psychology of Mood and Mood Regulation. London: Longman., , and (1989) The background: Extent and nature of the disorder. In K.Herst and E.Paykel (eds), Depression: An Integrative Approach. Oxford: Heinemann Medical Books.(1988) Confiding traumatic experiences and health. In S.Fisher and J.Reason (eds), Handbook of Life Stress, Cognition and Health. Chichester: Wiley.(1986) Confronting a traumatic event: Toward an understanding of inhibition and disease. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 274–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.95.3.274and (1997) Opening Up: The Healing Power of Expressing Emotions. New York: Guilford.(1993) Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control. New York: Oxford University Press., and (1995) Couple and family therapy in depression. In E.E.Beckham and W.R.Leber (eds), Handbook of Depression,and (2nd edn.New York: Guilford. pp. 404–24.1987) Self-regulatory preservation and the depressive self-focusing style: A self-awareness theory of reactive depression. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 122–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.102.1.122and (1999) Intrusive memories in depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy, 37, 201–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2898%2900132-6and (1989) Anger and hostility in depression. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 668–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198911000-00002, and (1957) The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0045357(1989) Piagetian theory and cognitive therapy. In C.Freeman and P.Tyrer (eds), Research Methods in Psychiatry: A Beginner's Guide. London: Gaskell The Royal College of Psychiatrists.([Page 223]1990) Subpersonalities: The People Inside Us. London: Routledge.(1990) Cognitive-Analytic Therapy: Active Participation in Change. Chichester: Wiley.(1995) Cognitive theory and therapy. In E.E.Beckham and W.R.Leber (eds), Handbook of Depression,and (2nd edn.New York: Guilford. pp. 329–51.1998) Widening the Scope of Cognitive Therapy: The Therapeutic Relationship, Emotion, and the Process of Change. Northvale: Jossey Bass.(1990) Interpersonal Process in Cognitive Therapy. New York: Basic Books.and (1998) Early shame experiences and infant brain development. In P.Gilbert and B.Andrews (eds), Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 57–77.(1991) Early superego development: The emergence of shame and narcissistic affect regulation in the practising period. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought: A Quarterly of Integrative and Interdisciplinary Studies, 14, 187–250.(1988) Chronic depression. British journal of Psychiatry, 153, 287–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.153.3.287(1994) Negative reactions to depressive behaviours: A communication theories analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 655–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.103.4.655and (1975) Helplessness: On Depression, Development and Death. San Francisco: Freeman & Co.(1989) Explanatory Style: Predicting Depression, Achievement and Health. In M.D.Yapko (ed.), Brief Approaches to Treating Anxiety and Depression. New York: Brunner/Mazel.(1990) Interviewing methods. In B.B.Wolman and G.Stricker (eds), Depressive Disorders: Facts, Theories and Treatment Methods. New York: Wiley.(1992) The Evolving Professional Self: Stages and Themes in Therapist and Counsellor Development. Chichester: Wiley.and (The syndrome of rejection sensitivity: An evolutionary perspective. In P.Gilbert and K.Bailey (eds), Genes on the Couch: Explorations in Evolutionary Psychotherapy. Hove: Psychology Press.(in press)1994) Subjective injustice and inferiority predictors of hostile and depressive feelings in envy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 705–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167294206008, , and (1988) Social comparison and negative self evaluation: An application to depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 55–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2888%2990049-9and (Tangney, J.P. and Fischer, K.W. (eds) (1995) Self-conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment and Pride. New York: Guilford.1998) The emotional disorders of shame. In P.Gilbert and B.Andrews (eds), Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 161–75.(1998) Treating Complex Cases: The Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Approach. Chichester: Wiley., and (1988) Illusion and well being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.103.2.193and (1987) Cognitive vulnerability to depression: An investigation of two hypotheses. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26, 113–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1987.tb00737.xand ([Page 224]1995) Biological processes in depression: An updated review and integration. In E.E.Beckham and W.R.Leber (eds), Handbook of Depression,and (2nd edn.New York: Guilford. pp. 213–79.1988) Cognitive-behavioural Counselling in Action. London: Sage., and (1987) A biopsychosocial approach to treating patients with affective disorders. American journal of Psychiatry, 144, 341–4., , , , , , and (1997) The Primal Wound: Understanding the Adopted Child. Baltimore, MD: Gateway Press.(1989) Termination of individual counselling: Concepts. In W.Dryden (ed.), Key Issues for Counselling in Action. London: Sage.(1989a) Transference phenomena in the counselling situation. In W.Dryden (ed.), Key Issues for Counselling in Action. London: Sage.(1989b) Countertransference: Its impact on the counselling situation. In W.Dryden (ed.), Key Issues for Counselling in Action. London: Sage.(1997) Cry of Pain. London: Penguin Books.(1989) Suicide patients. In J.Scott, I.M.G.Williams and A.T.Beck (eds), Cognitive Therapy in Clinical Practice: An Illustrative Casebook Practice. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203359365and (1988) Treating the Self: Elements of Clinical Self Psychology. New York: Guilford Press.(1999) Malignant Sadness: The Anatomy of Depression. London: Faber and Faber.(1980) Existential Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.(1993) Depression. In H.D.Barlow (ed.), Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders. New York: Guildford. pp. 240–77., and (1993) Reinventing Your Life. New York: Dutton-Penguin.and (