Though important strides have been made in the last three decades in the research efforts on African Americans, there continues to be a lack of significant new understanding about the impact of the African American culture on the therapy process and dynamics. This volume provides an in-depth analysis of the counseling literature pertaining to African American clients. Specifically, the analysis includes a review of the different variables (client, counselor, counseling process, and assessment) that have received the bulk of research attention. This sets the stage for the presentation of a counseling model for African American clients. The authors discuss philosophical premises upon which the model is based and suggest specific counseling strategies and interventions related to the model. Case study material is integrated throughout the chapters, focusing on individual and group approaches. This volume is an important work for counseling professionals as well as for students in social work and counseling programs. 

African-Centered Conceptualizations of Self and Consciousness: The Akan Model

African-centered conceptualizations of self and consciousness: The Akan model
CherylGrills and MartinAjei

The definitions and meanings ascribed to the self are the most basic, the deepest, and the furthest from awareness. “While assumptions about what a self is are furthest from our conscious awareness, they are also the most powerful and significant assumptions behind and beneath our behaviors” (Landrine, 1992). Western psychology operates from the model of a referential self (Gaines, 1982). This referential self is a separate, encapsulated self that is presumed to be the originator, creator, and controller of behavior. This referential self has unique abilities, preferences, needs, and desires that define and differentiate it from other selves. As such, the referential self can be described ...

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