Counseling Across the Lifespan expands the perimeters of counseling with its emphasis on preventive techniques for adjustment problems in the lifespan of a normal individual. This cogent work focuses on counseling intervention strategies from the unique perspective of an individual’s lifespan, placing techniques in the proper development context. By concentrating on life stages—from childhood through old age—the authors identify the nature and origin of various psychological issues such as self-identity and healthy lifestyle development in adolescents, family violence in young adults, or retirement transitions for older adults. The intervention tools needed to confront these issues are presented through succinct pedagogical features including case examples, checklists for evaluating clients, and exercises.
Chapter 3: Fostering Resilience in Children
Today's children live and grow in environments filled with harm and risk. For instance, one fourth of children in the United States live in poverty and one third deal with poor health. Physical, educational, and social problems exist and affect all developmental phases from the fetal period to adolescence (Simeonsson, 1994). Risk factors, “biological or psychosocial hazards that increase the likelihood of a negative developmental outcome” (Werner & Smith, 1992, p. 3), abound. Some stem from direct threats, whereas others consist of lack of opportunities (Garbarino, 1990). Specific risk factors include characteristics of children themselves as well as circumstances in their families, schools, and communities that may impede their growth and adjustment (Morrison, Furlong, & Morrison, ...