This centennial collection of essays and original research studies captures the varied spectrum of philosophies and concerns of the Board and staff of the National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD) over the past century . The criminological experts represented in this volume are renowned for their study and research into the far reaches of this field of study. As a chronicle of the NCCD’s development, editors Barry Krisberg, Susan Marchionna, and Christopher Baird include some of the most groundbreaking material to come out of the workings of this unique American institution.

We Do Not Deserve to Kill

We do not deserve to kill
Marvin E.Wolfgang

Punishment That is Deserved

The major purposes of punishment historically have been retribution, expiation, deterrence, reformation, and social defense. Throughout history, an eye for an eye, the payment of one's debt to society by expiation, general deterrence of crime by exemplary punishment and specific or special deterrence of an individual offender, reformation of the individual so that he or she will not commit further crime, and protection of society against criminality by detaining or imprisoning offenders have been the principal rationales for the disposition of criminal offenders.

These rationales have not moved through history like a Roman army phalanx but have moved instead, as the historian Crane Brinton has said, “Like a train-wreck in time, ...

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