Changes since the last edition: • The previous edition didn't quite fit modules on either comparative politics or voters and elections. The new edition is more closely mapped to modules on the latter. • New chapters on authoritarian elections and regime change, and electoral integrity. • Re-inclusion of a chapter on voting behaviour. • Stronger focus on the economy.

The Political Representation of Women and Minorities

The political representation of women and minorities
Mona Lena Krook

The political representation of salient social categories has long been a theme in the theory and practice of democratic governance. Groups deemed salient have evolved over time, with the emergence of party systems organized around cleavages like territory, class, and religion (Lipset and Rokkan 1967) later giving way to social movements pressing for the inclusion of women and racial and ethnic minorities in the political process (Phillips 1995).1 These campaigns have achieved tangible gains over the last two decades, but both groups remain largely under-represented in electoral politics. By mid-2013, women comprised 20.9% of all parliamentarians worldwide2 – nearly double the figure of 11.7% in 1996,3 but still far ...

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