Comparative Youth Justice is the first book to critically reflect on contemporary juvenile justice reform in England and Wales and across various other western jurisdictions including the US, Canada, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Australia, Belgium, Scotland, Japan, Italy and Finland. In doing so, it identifies major international differences in juvenile policy and practice. However, Contemporary Youth Justice is not simply an attempt to document national similarities and differences, but looks critically at how global trends are translated at the local level. This book also examines how youth justice is implemented in practice with a view to promoting change as well as reflection.
Chapter 2: Canada: Repenalization and Young Offenders' Rights
Canada: Repenalization and Young Offenders' Rights
In the past century Canada has seen the introduction of three different legislative regimes for administering juvenile justice, the 1908 Juvenile Delinquents Act (JDA), the 1984 Young Offenders Act (YOA), and the 2002 Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) (Smandych, 2001). In the course of this legislative history, Canada has followed a pattern of legislative change that appears similar to many other Western countries, including England and Wales, Australia, and the United States. In each of these jurisdictions recent decades have witnessed earlier predominately child-welfare models of juvenile justice eroded and replaced with more legalistic and punitive ‘justice’ and ‘crime-control’ models of juvenile justice procedure. Despite evident similarities in the direction of recent juvenile justice ...