Comparative, International and Global Justice: Perspectives from Criminology and Criminal Justice presents and critically assesses a wide range of topics relevant to criminology, criminal justice and global justice. The text is divided into three parts: comparative criminal justice, international criminology, and transnational and global criminology. Within each field are located specific topics which the authors regard as contemporary and highly relevant and that will assist students in gaining a fuller appreciation of global justice issues. Authors Cyndi Banks and James Baker address these complex global issues using a scholarly but accessible approach, often using detailed case studies. The discussion of each topic is a comprehensive contextualized account that explains the social context in which law and crime exist and engages with questions of explanation or interpretation. The authors challenge students to gain knowledge of international and comparative criminal justice issues and think about them in a critical manner. It has become difficult to ignore the global and international dimensions of criminal justice and criminology and this text aims to enhance criminal justice education by focusing on some of the issues engaging criminology worldwide, and to prepare students for a future where fields of study like transnational crime are unexceptional. FREE Online Resources give students access to helpful learning tools for study and review! Learn more at http://study.sagepub.com/banksbaker
Chapter 6: Punishment
Most countries have systems of trial and punishment for acts adjudged to be criminal. Ordinarily, punishments for specified violations of the criminal law are prescribed by law or regulations and may include imprisonment, the death penalty, as well as less severe penalties such as fines, probation, and community work. This chapter focuses primarily on the role of punishment as an instrument in crime control but also explores the history and sociology of punishment because while punishment has an instrumental objective, it also possesses “a cultural style and an historical tradition” (Garland 1990, 19). A fuller understanding of punishment will therefore be gained if it is thought of as being formed and influenced by dynamic social, cultural, and historical forces.
In terms of punishment as ...