Communication for Development in the Third World: Theory and Practice for Empowerment

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Srinivas R. Melkote & H. Leslie Steeves

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
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    List of Tables

    • 3.1 Bipolar Theories of Modernization 82
    • 4.1 Stage Theories in Behavior Change 130
    • 4.2 Overview of Most Frequently Used Theories of Human Behavior 135
    • 4.3 Popular Entertainment-Education Programs in the Third World 142
    • 8.1 Western and Buddhist Models of Communication 316
    • 9.1 Differences between Development Communication and Development Support Communication 349
    • 9.2 Comparison of Development Communication in the Modernization Paradigm with Development Support Communication in the Empowerment Paradigm 352

    List of Figures

    • 1.1 World Map: Mercator Projection Comparing the North and South 23
    • 1.2 World Map: Mercator Projection Comparing Europe and South America 24
    • 1.3 World Map: Mercator Projection Comparing North America and Africa 25
    • 1.4 World Map: Peters Projection 27
    • 2.1 Pro-persuasion Model of Development 56
    • 2.2 Change Agency Communication and Mass Media Model of Development 58
    • 4.1 Graphic Presentation of Lasswell's Formula 105
    • 4.2 Models Denoting Powerful Effects of Mass Media 106
    • 4.3 Shannon and Weaver's Model of Communication 107
    • 4.4 One-way, Linear Model of Communication 108
    • 4.5 Berlo's Formula for the Process of Communication 108
    • 4.6 Two-step Flow Model of Communication Effects 109
    • 4.7 Rings of Defense of Receivers 111
    • 4.8 Marketing and Agricultural Extension Models 113
    • 4.9 Cumulative S-shaped Curve of Diffusion 124
    • 4.10 Standard Normal Diffusion Curve 124
    • 5.1 Lorenz Curve 160
    • 5.2 Relation between GNP and Income Inequality 161
    • 5.3 Chayanov's Curves of Utility/Disutility of Output and Drudgery of Labor 164
    • 6.1 Constraints in the Use of ICT-based Information by the Poor 263
    • 8.1 Five-stage Model of the Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement in Sri Lanka 310
    • 9.1 Praxis in Participatory Action Research 343
    • 9.2 Role of DSC Professional in the Initial Stages of Empowerment Process 362
    • 9.3 Likely Scenario in the Later Stages of Empowerment Process 364

    List of Boxes

    • 2.1 Diversity in the New Millennium 63
    • 6.1 Flow of Innovations can be a Multi-way Process 230
    • 6.2 Radio Station in a Briefcase 251
    • 6.3 Slum Kids Surf the Internet 261
    • 7.1 Biblical Arguments for Christian Liberation Theology 278
    • 7.2 Qur'anic Tenets for Islamic Liberation Theology 283
    • 9.1 A World that is Out of Balance 329
    • 9.2 Marginalized Languages Are Disappearing 340

    Foreword

    The challenge for communication research in developing countries is the design of strategies that bear in mind our colonial past and our semi-feudal semi-capitalist present to focus on how to transcend the negative aspects of these realities. Those committed to Third World development need to go beyond critiques of Western theories to design proactive recommendations and models. Srinivas Melkote's first edition of this book, published in 1991, was a major contribution by a son of India: it described the rise and fall of the media-for-modernization paradigm that dominated the 1960s and 1970s, and hinted at the emergence of another kind of development and an alternative kind of communication strategy to match. Ten years later, he and Africa specialist Leslie Steeves have collaborated on a new edition that tells us what has taken the place of the inaugural older paradigms and how well these new perspectives have fared in light of the old critiques.

    The retrospective strength of the first edition, which questioned the old materialist development vision, is complemented in the new edition by new conceptualizations of liberation that come from theology and yet focus on the distribution of material power in the here-and-now. The new edition also presents research literature that goes behind development messages designed by the state and non-governmental organizations to analyze reasons for this discourse in the media, (both historical and contemporary) as well as the economic, environmental, religious, and gender-based literature. The focus in the field has been on the media yantra (instrument) rather than on the message: this analytical focus on the nature of discourse is very welcome.

    I met Srinivas in the mid-1970s when I worked in India's space agency on the Satellite Instructional TV Experiment in Ahmedabad. Srinivas was an M.A. student who had decided that the bottom line was how residents of a village had interpreted satellite television programs. This then was the focus of his thesis. I remember Srinivas as a gentle, soft-spoken young man who was asking difficult ungentle questions then, questions like: Did it work? Who benefited most? He went on to ask similar questions in the doctoral program at Iowa. Srinivas worked with Joseph Ascroft, the first African communication researcher sent by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to the US to learn how to use media to diffuse Western innovations to develop Third World societies. Joseph Ascroft's doctoral dissertation fieldwork in his native Malawi raised doubts about the modernization impacts of media pipelines in highly stratified developing societies. Joseph Ascroft has continued to have a major influence on this scholar, professor and academic administrator.

    H. Leslie Steeves was an assistant professor at Iowa when Srinivas attended. There, she became increasingly interested in Africa, served on the committees of several graduate students studying development support communication, and also chaired Iowa's interdisciplinary Women in Development program. Fifteen years later, they found themselves together, both professor now, at a conference at the University of Texas organized by Karin Wilkins on redeveloping communication for social change from its modernization era origins. Professor Steeves is well known in the field for her work on gender in communication and development, and her attention to Africa. She chairs the African Studies Committee at the University of Oregon where she directs the master's and doctoral programs in Communication. As Srinivas talked about revising the first edition, it became clear that Professor Steeves would be an excellent collaborator: the evidence is in this new edition.

    BellaMody, Michigan State University

    Preface

    The second edition of this book builds on the framework provided by the earlier edition. In this edition, we will continue to trace the history of development communication, present diverse approaches and their proponents, critique these approaches as appropriate, and provide ideas and models for development communication in the 21st century. However, in contrast to the first edition, which is organized historically, the organization of the second edition is primarily conceptual. Following two introductory chapters, the body of the book is divided into three parts, representing modernization, critical, and liberation perspectives. We end with a chapter that argues for communication strategies for empowerment, defined beyond the level of the individual as collective social action.

    The second edition is also updated to include the literature on development and communication from the 1990s, and integrated with the theory and practice of development communication. The newer literature includes contributions from postmodernism, feminist studies, environmental studies, and postcolonial studies. We critically examine the discourse on modernization and development that has guided much of development theory and practice in the Third World since World War II. Two overlapping areas that we explore in some detail are liberation theology and empowerment, themes that resonate in the literature and practice of development in the 1990s. Underlying goals throughout the book include: critiquing the power of dominant knowledge systems, challenging the truth claims of modernism, and sensitizing the reader to the relationship between dominant knowledge and the exercise of social power.

    Our interest in examining the discourse on modernization and development is not just to indulge in a textual analysis, but to identify and critique interventions and practices that have been promoted by the discourse, and analyze their political, economic and cultural origins and consequences. We examine the local and “other” contexts and assert the heuristic value of alternative, non-Western, local experiences and knowledge systems to the tasks of social change.

    There are several individuals who we wish to acknowledge. We thank Professors Bella Mody and Arvind Singhal for reading the manuscript and providing us with their comments. We are especially thankful to Professor Joseph Ascroft for his input in Chapter 2 and the historical overviews of development/development communication theories. Colleagues who provided insights and ideas include Rebecca Arbobast, Professor Archie Smith, Jr., Professor Karin Wilkins, and Dr. Sundeep Muppidi. Our students, Sanjanthi Velu, Prahalad Sooknanan, Fay Patel, Ashley Overbeck, and Kumi Silva helped us on innumerable occasions during the writing of this book. We are indebted to them.

    We hope that the readers will like the new edition and find it useful. That will give us the ultimate satisfaction.

    Srinivas R.Melkote, Bowling Green, Ohio
    H. LeslieSteeves, Eugene, Oregon
  • Appendices

    Appendix A: Historical Overview of Third World Development/Underdevelopment*

    I. Period of Great Development (3500bc to ad1700)
    Ancient World Civilizations

    North Africa and West Asia:

    • Mesopotamia (3500bc to 2000bc);
    • Egypt (3000bc to 2100bc)

    Indian Subcontinent:

    • Indus Valley (2700bc to 1700bc)

    China:

    • Shang (1500bc to 1000bc);
    • Han (350bc to ad200);
    • Ming (ad1368 to ad1644)

    Sub-Saharan Africa:

    • Axum (ad300 to ad1100);
    • Ghana (ad700 to ad1200);
    • Mali (ad1200 to ad1400);
    • Songhai (ad1500 to ad1700);
    • Zimbabwe (ad1200 to ad1500)

    Central America:

    • Mayan (ad500 to ad1500);
    • Aztec (ad1325 to ad1525)

    South America:

    • Inca (ad1200 to ad1525)

    *Prepared with the help of Dr. Joseph R. Ascroft, Iowa City, USA.

    II. Period of Colonization: Emergence of the Third World (16th to 20th Century)

    (From a state of development to underdevelopment)

    Period of Pillage and Rise of European Commerce (16th to 17th Century)

    European Expansion to the Americas:

    • Iberian settler migration to South and Central America;
    • Spanish Armada; English, French, North European settlers to North America.

    European Expansion to Africa:

    • Portuguese slave traders to Angola;
    • French and English commercial traders to West African Coast;
    • Dutch to Cape of Good Hope.

    European Expansion to Asia:

    • Portuguese to Malacca and coastal stations throughout the East;
    • Foundations of British and Dutch East India Companies;
    • English acquire Indian coastal towns;
    • Dutch take Malacca, dominate Eastern trade;
    • Spanish conquer Pacific Islands, notably the Philippines (ad 1570).
    Period of Dominance of Merchant Capital (18th Century)

    Main period of slave trade:

    • From Africa to Americas;
    • Enforced labor through slavery and reduction to serfdom;
    • Enrichment of metropolitan Europe, especially its rulers.

    Protectionism:

    • Iberian market closed to competing colonial produce;
    • British textiles protected from Indian cloth imports (ad1700);
    • Raw agricultural produce, precious metals, spices became colonial export staples.

    Mercantilism:

    • Rise of merchant class;
    • Merchant marines, navy protection;
    • Colonies limited to trade only with motherland empires.

    Britain and France vie for Global Dominance:

    • British Industrial Revolution and French Revolution;
    • British expansion into India and the plunder of Bengal.
    Period of the Rise of Industrial Capital (19th Century)

    Britain defeats Napolean, gains worldwide naval supremacy:

    • British opium wars against China;
    • Chinese and Indian indentured labor to Africa and West Indies.

    French conquest of Algeria and expansion to West Africa European revolutions of mid-1800s:

    • European settlers to White Dominions in Africa, Asia, and Oceania.
    Period of New Imperialism: Late 19th Century
    • Scramble for Africa (and rest of Asia) by European powers (1880 to 1914);
    • Spanish–American War;
    • US acquisition of the Philippines and other Pacific territories.
    III. Period of Decolonization (19th to 20th Century)

    (Emancipation of underdeveloped colonies)

    • Rise of European liberalism and decolonization in the Americas (early 19th century);
    • Decolonization of Asia and most of Africa (1945–70).

    Appendix B: Historical Overview of Development and Development Communication Theories Since World War II*

    I. Genesis of Organized Development Assistance (ODA)

    Birth of Multilateral Development Assistance (1945):

    • International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, the United Nations family of specialized agencies.

    Emergence of Bilateral Development Assistance (1949):

    • Truman's Point Four Program
    II. Development of Emerging Third World (1950s)
    • Foster self-help by capital infusion and diffusion of modern innovations mostly from the West;
    • Industrialization, urbanization, and westernization considered critical for development;
    • Prescription of universal stages for industry-driven national growth (Rostow);
    • Emphasis on need for radical change in Third World social structure and individual attitudes and behavior;
    • Subjugation of agriculture (large and small scale) to priorities of industrialization.
    III. First Decade of Development (1960s)

    (Period of great optimism)

    Dominant Paradigm of Development

    Economic growth through industrialization and urbanization Capital-intensive technology Centralized economic planning

    *First edition version, prepared with the help of Dr. Joseph Ascroft, Iowa City, USA.

    Underdevelopment in Third World is due to internal problems in a country:

    • Biased social structure;
    • Traditional attitudes and behavior that constrain development.
    Dominance of the Mass Media and Powerful Media Effects Hypothesis
    • Belief in the bullet theory of communication effects: powerful, direct, and uniform effects on people;
    • Mass media considered as magic multipliers of development benefits;
    • Mass media considered as agents and indices of modernization;
    • Potential of mass media to give rise to the Revolution of Rising Expectations;
    • Setting of standards for minimum criteria of media availability for development: 10 newspapers, five radios, two televisions, and two cinema seats per 100 people;
    • Importance attached to diffusion of modernizing (but mostly exogenous) innovations.
    IV. Second Decade of Development (1970s)

    (Period of pessimism)

    • Disappointment with rate and nature of development;
    • Explication of the “Development of Underdevelopment” hypothesis:
      • Focused on exploitation of the periphery (i.e., the Third World);
      • Underdevelopment of the Third World seen as a consequence of development of Europe;
    • Critique of the Dominant Paradigm of Development:
      • Neglect of social structural and political barriers to change;
      • Exaggerated emphasis on the individual as locus of change;
      • Victim-blame hypothesis;
    • Problems with the use of mass media for development:
      • Potential to widen knowledge gaps between the information rich and the information poor;
      • Could lead to Revolution of Rising Frustrations;
      • Mass media not an independent variable in development but dependent on environmental factors;
    • Weaknesses of the diffusion of innovations model to help the disadvantaged due to:
      • Communication effects bias;
      • Pro-innovation bias;
      • Pro-source bias;
      • In-the-head variable bias;
      • Pro-persuasion bias;
      • Top-down flow bias of messages and decisions;
      • Authority-driven models rather than user-driven models;
      • Absence of a process orientation;
      • Widening of socio-economic and communication benefits gaps;
      • Gender gap increasingly evident.
    V. Alternative Conceptions of Development (1970s)
    • Growth with Equity models: Reduce inequality and improve conditions of the poorest of the poor;
    • Emphasis on active participation of the people in development activities;
    • Encouragement of self-determination and self-reliance of local communities; freedom from external dependency;
    • Opening of the people's Republic of China to the world and the lessons learnt from its development model;
    • Importance given to small, indigenous technology;
    • Emphasis on meeting basic needs of people: food, clean water, shelter, basic education, security of livelihood;
    • Sustainable Environment Models first discussed;
      • UN Conference on Environment, Stockholm, 1972;
    • McNamara's (President, World Bank) New Directions Policy (1973):
      • Integrated rural development—all existing constraints to development must be addressed simultaneously;
    • Percy Amendment to the United States Foreign Assistance Act (1973), mandated that USAID projects to explicitly consider women;
    • Distinguished between relative poverty and absolute poverty: relative poverty signifies that some countries/people are poorer than others while absolute poverty means a life degraded by denial of basic human necessities;
    • Shifts in views on overpopulation as primary constraint. Population Conference in Bucharest, 1974;
    • Proposed reorientation of development policy from trickle-down to equitable distribution of economic benefits;
    • Proposed switch from economic targets to meeting basic needs;
    • Re-emergence of local culture and religion in development activities: renewed interest in studying the positive role of local culture in social change;
    • Highlighted the role of folk media in development communication;
    • Growing awareness of gender inequities in development;
    • WID initiatives launched;
    • UN Decade for Women begun with 1975 conference in Mexico City;
    • New roles suggested for communication in development:
      • Communication in self-development efforts, i.e., user initiated activity at the local level considered essential for successful development at the village level;
      • Communication should be a catalyst for change rather than sole cause;
      • encouraged dialogue between users and experts. MacBride Commission Report, Many Voices, One World discussed by UNESCO (later published, 1980);
    • Suggested communication strategies to narrow knowledge gaps between the information rich and information poor;
    • Reduce pro-literacy bias through tailored messages and formative evaluations;
    • Attempted the use of communication to conscientize the people to the harsh realities in their environment.
    VI. Third Decade of Development (1980s)

    (Lost Decade of Development)

    • Global recession in most industrialized countries;
    • Serious economic difficulties in developing countries: balance of payment problems, loan repayment difficulties, drastically lowered prices for exports;
    • Structural Adjustment Policy (SAP) adopted by lending agencies:
      • A neo-liberal economic model employed;
      • Role of the state curtailed;
      • Increased reliance on the market;
      • State expenditures in social services sectors significantly reduced;
    • Increase in poverty among the poor and marginalized; heavy pressure on the natural resource base among the poor and the marginalized;
    • Increased awareness of gender inequities and of global differences in women's priorities and analyses of inequities. Mid-Decade Conference, Copenhagen, 1980. End-of-Decade Conference, Nairobi, 1985.
    VII. Decade of the 1990s and Beyond
    • Sustainable-environment perspective strengthened; Sensitivity to environmental degradation; Environment and Development Conference, Rio dc Janeiro, 1992;
    • Human needs-oriented development proposed: concern for human rights, more humane values and respect for human life; Human Rights Conference, Vienna, 1993;
    • Discussions on global population policy. Population and Development Conference, Cairo, 1994;
    • Discussions on global social welfare policy. World summit on Social Development, Copenhagen, 1995;
    • Return to basic needs orientation;
    • Focus on participatory approaches in communication and development:
      • Participatory Action Research;
      • Strengthening of critical consciousness among people in a community;
      • Empowerment strategies proposed;
    • Rise of postmodern, post-structuralist, postcolonial, and feminist scholarship:
      • Challenges to logocentric and Western views and models;
      • Questioning of universal truths and notions of objective social reality;
      • Deconstruction of dominant ideology of power;
      • Sensitivity to diversity in cultures, views, practices;
      • Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995;
    • People-centered development approaches stressed: self-reliant, participatory, local, and sustained;
    • Increased trends toward globalization in lifestyles, tastes, fashions, and mass mediated entertainment; Ascendancy of global markets and companies;
    • Rise of cyberspace, new information and communication technologies, and time–space compression;
    • Beijing+5 women's Conference, New York, 2000.

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    About the Authors

    Srinivas R. Melkote has been a teacher in the field of journalism, communication, and media studies for almost 25 years. He has taught at universities in India and in the United Studies, and is currently Professor at the Department of Telecommunications, School of Media and Communication, Bowling Green State University Ohio, USA. Professor Melkote has published extensively on issues such as satellite broadcasting, the role of communication media in development support and participatory communication, and the theory and practice of communication in the Third World. Among his previous publications is the widely used text Communication for Development in the Third World and his latest publication is Critical Issues in Communication (co-editor).

    Professor Melkote's research interests include media effects, international communication, communication strategies for HIV and AIDS prevention, and the impact of satellite television in the developing world.

    H. Leslie Steeves is Professor and Associate Dean for Graduate Affairs and Research School of Journalism and Communication, University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon, USA. Prior to this, she was Assistant Professor, School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Iowa USA; Visiting Professor, School of Journalism, University of Nairobi, Kenya; and Visiting Professor, Schooli of Communication Studies. University of Ghana, Ghana. Dr Steeves has been the recipient of two Fulbright grants for teaching and research in Africa. Her research focuses on two areas and their intersection: women's roles and representations in the media and communication in developing countries, especially suh-Saharan Africa. Dr Steeves has published several articles in reputed journals and is also the author of Gender Violence and the Press: The St. Kizito Story.


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