Communication for Development and Social Change
Publication Year: 2008
This volume underlines that development communication: - Is, first and foremost, about people and the process needed to facilitate their sharing of knowledge and perceptions in order to effect positive developmental change.- Is based on dialogue, which is necessary to promote stakeholders' participation. Such participation is needed in order to understand stakeholder perceptions, perspectives, values, attitudes and practices so they can be incorporated into the design and implementation of development initiatives.- Follows the two-way, horizontal model and not the traditional one-way, vertical model of Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver and increasingly makes use of emerging many to many forms of communication made possible through new technologies. - Gives voice to those most affected by the development issue(s) at stake, allowing them to participate directly in defining and implementing solutions ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Introduction
- Chapter 1: Communication and the Persistence of Poverty: The Need for a Return to Basics
- Chapter 2: Hybrid Interactions: Human Rights and Development in a Cultural Perspective
- Chapter 3: Media Globalization Through Localization
- Chapter 4: Vertical Minds versus Horizontal Cultures: An Overview of Participatory Process and Experiences
Part II: The Theoretical Underpinnings of Development Communication
- Chapter 5: The Panoptic View: A Discourse Approach to Communication and Development
- Chapter 6: Threads of Development Communication
- Chapter 7: Development Communication Approaches in an International Perspective
- Chapter 8: Tracing the History of Participatory Communication Approaches to Development: A Critical Appraisal
Part III: Communication Policies, Strategies and Exemplars
- Chapter 9: Communication for Development Approaches of Some Governmental and Non-Governmental Agencies
- Chapter 10: UNESCO's Contributions to Cultural Diversity and Communication for Development
- Chapter 11: Making a Difference Through Development Communication: Some Evidence-Based Results from FAO Field Projects
- Chapter 12: Involving People, Evolving Behaviour: The UNICEF Experience
Part IV: Special Case: HIV/AIDS Campaigns
- Chapter 13: Rural HIV/AIDS Communication/Intervention: From Using Models to Using Frameworks and Common Principles
- Chapter 14: Religion and HIV/AIDS Prevention in Thailand
- Chapter 15: Fighting AIDS with Edutainment: Building on the Soul City Experience in South Africa
Part V: More Complexity Added: Community Media and Conflict Resolution
Copyright © UNESCO, 2008
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from UNESCO.
Original title: Approaches to Development, directed by Jan Servaes
First published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 PARIS 07 SP, France.
© UNESCO, 2003
The present edition has been published by SAGE Publications by arrangement with UNESCO and Jan Servaes.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Communication for development and social change/Jan Servaes.
Originally published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) … under the original title: Approaches to development: studies on communication for development/directed by Jan Servaes. Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Communication in economic development. 2. Communication in community development. 3. Social change. 4. Communication—Developing countries. 5. Communication—Social aspects—Developing countries. I. Servaes, Jan, 1952–
HD76.C6523 338.9001'4—dc22 2007 2007036649
ISBN: 978-0-7619-3609-1 (PB) 978-81-7829-772-9(India-PB)
SAGE Production Team: Sugata Ghosh, Vaijayantee Bhattacharya and Girish Kumar Sharma
The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
The authors are responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this book and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization.
To Patchanee, Fiona, Lisa and the millions of strong women and girls who often remain invisible as the real change agents in today's world.[Page 4]
List of Tables[Page 7]
- 9.1 Distinct DevCom Approaches and Media Strategies within the Diffusion Model and Participatory Model 204
- 9.2 Mechanistic versus Organic Model 216
- 11.1 A Typology of Participation 238
- 16.1 Positioning the Four Theoretical Approaches 348
- 16.2 Defining Community 350
- 16.3 Access and Participation of the Community 350
- 16.4 Defining Alternative Media 353
- 16.5 Summarizing the Four Theoretical Approaches 361
List of Figures[Page 8]
- 12.1 A Model Showing Integrated Approach towards Involving People in Evolving Behaviour 255
- 15.1 The Soul City Edutainment Model 336
- 16.1 Private and Public Domains in Contemporary Western Societies 355
- 16.2 Media, Market and State 356
- 16.3 Civil Society and Community Media as Rhizome 359
- 16.4 Objectives of the KdW-Project 366
List of Boxes[Page 9]
- 6.1 ICT Helping Chinese Farmers 100
- 6.2 Bottom-up Development in Puerto Rico 129
- 6.3 The Internet and Village Development 144
- 6.4 Telecentres and Poverty Reduction 151
- 11.1 Case 1: Multimedia Advantage in Communication Campaigns 235
- 11.2 Case 2: Multimedia Campaign Propels Record Rice Harvests in the Philippines 240
- 11.3 Case 3: Comparison of Inputs and Outputs of Farmer Field School versus Non-Field School Trained Rice Farmers in Indonesia 245
- 12.1 Key Definitions 257
- 12.2 Key Definitions: Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) 258
- 12.3 Zimbabwe School AIDS Action Programme 265
- 12.4 Using VIPP: The Case of Zambia 269
- 12.5 Interpersonal Communication and Service Delivery 270
- 12.6 Mobilizing for Education for All in Bangladesh 271
- 13.1 From Behavioural Change to Social Change 285
- 15.1 (De-)Constructing the Field of Entertainment-Education 330
- 15.2 Steps to Develop on Edutainment Project 337
- 16.1 Community Media in Haiti 357
List of Abbreviations[Page 10]
ABC Abstinence, Be faithful, Condom use ABCFM American Board of Commissioner for Foreign Mission ACCE African Council for Communication Education/Conseil Africain d'Enseignement de Communication ACCT Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique/Agency for Cultural and Technical Co-operation ACD Applied Communication Division AKAP Awareness, Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices ALAIC Asociación Latinoamericana de Investigadores de la Comunicación AMARC Association Mondiale des Radiodiffuseurs Communautaires/World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters AMAS Antwerp Minor Asylum Seekers AMIC Asian Mass Communication and Information Centre ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASTINFO Regional Network for the Exchange of Information and Experiences in Science and Technology in Asia and the Pacific CAP Community Access Programme CAM Christian Aids Ministry CARSTIN Caribbean or Regional Network for the Exchange of Information and Experience in Science and Technology CATS Community Audio-Tower Systems CBO Community-Based Organization CDSC Communication for Development and Social Change CESO Centre for the Study of Education in Developing Countries CESPA Centre de Services de Production Audiovisuelle CESPAC Centro de Servicios de Pedagogía Audiovisual para la Capacitación CFSC Communication for Social Change CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CIESPAL Center for Advanced Studies and Research for Latin America CM Community Media [Page 11]CMC Community Multimedia Centre CNN Condom use, sterile Needles, safer sex Negotiation CPF Cultural Projects Fund CRAD Centre for Development Research and Action C4D Communication for Development DOI Diffusion of Innovations DSC Development Support Communication DSCS Development Support Communications Service ECREA European Communication Research and Education Association EDSA Epifanio de los Santos Avenue EE Entertainment Education EPI Expanded Programme on Immunisation ERDF European Regional Development Fund EST Experience in Science and Technology EU European Union FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FES Friedrich Ebert Stiftung FFS Farmer Field School FGM Female Genital Mutilation GKN Global Knowledge Network GNP Gross National Product HBM Health Belief Model HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome IAMCR International Association for Media and Communication Research IAP Information Access Points ICPD International Conference on Population and Development ICTs Information and Communication Technologies ICT4D Information and Communication Technology for Development IDRC International Development Research Centre IEC Information, Education and Communication IIC International Institute of Communication IIEP International Institute for Educational Planning ILO International Labour Organization IMF International Monetary Fund IMPACS Institute for Media, Policy and Civil Society INFOLAC Information Society Programme in Latin America and the Caribbean IPAL Instituto Para America Latina IPDC International Programme for the Development of Communication IPM Integrated Pest Management IPS Inter Press Service [Page 12]IT Information Technology ITU International Telecommunications Union JRS Jesuit Refugee Service KAP Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices LDC Least Developed Countries MCT Multipurpose Community Telecentre MDG Millennium Development Goal MPCC Multi-Purpose Communication Centre MPCT Multi-Purpose Community Telecentre MPTC Multi-Purpose Telecentre MSSRF M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation NAPAC Northern AIDS Prevention and Care Program NGO Non-Governmental Organization NWICO New World Information and Communication Order OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OFTDP On Farm Trial and Demonstration Programme PCARRD Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development PlanOps Plan of Operations PO Post Office PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal PRCA Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal PRI Institutional Revolutionary Party PRODERITH Programa de Desarrollo Rural Integrado del Trópico Húmedo-Program for Integrated Rural Development in the Tropical Wetlands PSA Public Service Announcement PSC Protestant Social Center RACO Regional Applied Communication Offices RBM Results-Based Management R&D Research & Development RH Reproductive Health RINAF Regional Informatics Network for Africa RINAS Regional Informatics Network for the Arab States RINSCA Regional Informatics Network for South and Central Asia RINSEAP Regional Informatics Network for South-East Asia and the Pacific RMCT Rural Multipurpose Community Telecentres RNTC Radio Nederland Training Centre RSF Reporters Sans Frontières Reporters Without Borders RTI Right To Information SADC South African Development Community [Page 13]SAKS Sosyete Animasyou Kominikasion Sisyal SCT Social Cognitive Theory SIDA Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency SIF Social Impulse Fund SMR Sender-Message-Receiver STIs Sexually Transmitted Infections TOT Transfer of Technology TRA Theory of Reasoned Action TRAI Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of India UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNFA Uganda National Farmers' Association UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNOCHA United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs USAID United States Agency for International Development VERCON Virtual Extension, Research and Communication Network VIPP Visualisation in Participatory Programmes VPA Visual Problem Appraisal WACC World Association for Christian Communication WANAD West and Central Africa News Agencies Development/Developpement des Agences de Presse en Afrique de l'Ouest et Centrale WEF World Economic Forum WFS World Food Summit WFS Women's Feature Service WFUNA World Federation of United Nations Associations WHO World Health Organization WIF Worldview International Foundation WSIS World Summit on the Information Society WTO World Trade Organization
All those involved in the analysis and application of communication for development and social change would probably agree that in essence, development communication is the nurturing of knowledge aimed at creating a consensus for action that takes into account the interests, needs and capacities of all concerned. It is thus a social process. Communication media and ICTs are important tools in achieving this process but their use is not an end in itself—interpersonal communication must also play a fundamental role.
This basic consensus on communication for development and social change has been interpreted and applied in different ways throughout the past century. Both at theory and research levels, as well as at the levels of policy and planning-making and implementation, divergent perspectives are on offer.
The relationship between the practical application of communication processes and technologies in achieving positive and measurable development outcomes is an emerging subject of research, discussion and conjecture. While media professionals, opinion-shapers and development assistance policy-makers have often sought to utilize communication systems for social mobilization and change, a lack of understanding of the complexity of behavioural, societal and cultural factors on end-user consumption patterns has more often led to ineffective, or even counterproductive, outcomes.
Experienced practitioners and scholars point to the need for a close study of society and culture in formulating communication and outreach strategies, thus ensuring that target audiences are reached in an appropriate manner to effect knowledge transfer. This is particularly urgent among developing countries, where access to information supporting health, agriculture, HIV/AIDS, literacy and other initiatives, can be vital, and where a lack of resources has rendered the sharing of information and knowledge difficult, and the reaching of consensus, problematic.
In establishing communication for development programmes, professionals have, in the past, often laboured under a misunderstanding commonly held by policy-makers relating to the nature of the discipline. Lay persons, understandably, confuse the subject with public relations, public information, corporate communications and other media-related activities. However, while communication for development and social change may incorporate skill-sets from those [Page 390]areas of information dissemination, the subject reaches far deeper and broader into the entire communication process.
Communication for Development and Social Change is a multi-faceted, multi-dimensional and participatory process through which people are empowered to control their own destinies. Culture is central to development and deserves greater emphasis in communication for development and social change.
Policy-makers, academics and practitioners alike should recognize that communication is a process, not a product or a set of technologies. It includes formal (for example, campaigns) and informal (for example, community participation), direct (for example, media exposure) and indirect (for example, communication in social networks) forms of communication.
In other words, communication must be seen as an essential element of every development and social change project. Communication needs to be applied in different ways and at distinct levels according to the needs and characteristics of the context or community.
Hopefully, this book has offered perceptive insights and vivid examples to prove that the field of communication for development and social change is indeed vibrant.
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*Contributors: Rico Lie, Jan Servaes and Adinda Van Hemelrijck in collaboration with Nico Carpentier, Gustavo Cimadevilla and Sara Wendy Ferreira for non-English entries.
About the Editor and Contributors[Page 414]Editor
Jan Servaes (Ph.D., 1987, Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium) is Professor and Chair of the Department of Communication at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (USA), Editor-in-Chief of Communication for Development and Social Change: A Global Journal (Hampton Press), Associate Editor of Telematics and Informatics: An International Journal on Telecommunications and Internet Technology (Elsevier), Editor of the Southbound Book Series Communication for Development and Social Change, and Editor of the Hampton Book Series Communication, Globalization and Cultural Identity. He chaired the Scientific Committee for the World Congress on Communication for Development (Rome, 25–27 October 2006), organized by the World Bank, FAO and the Communication Initiative.
Servaes has taught International Communication and Development Communication in Australia (Brisbane), Belgium (Brussels and Antwerp), the USA (Cornell), the Netherlands (Nijmegen) and Thailand (Thammasat, Bangkok).
He has been President of the European Consortium for Communications Research (ECCR, http://www.eccr.info) and Vice-President of the International Association for Media and Communication Research (IAMCR, http://www.iamcr.net), in charge of Academic Publications and Research, from 2000 to 2004.
Servaes has undertaken research, development, and advisory work around the world and is known as the author of journal articles and books on such topics as international and development communication; ICT and media policies; intercultural communication and language; participation and social change; and human rights and conflict management. Some of his most recent book titles include:• 2002. Communication for Development. One World, Multiple Cultures, Cresskill: Hampton Press.• Servaes, J. (ed.). 2003. Approaches to Development. Studies on Communication for Development, Paris: UNESCO Publishing House.• Servaes, J. (ed.). 2003. The European Information Society: A Reality Check, Intellect, Bristol: ECCR Book Series.[Page 415]Servaes, J. and N.Carpentier (eds). 2006. Towards a Sustainable European Information Society, Intellect, Bristol: ECCR Book Series.Shi-Xu, M. Kienpointner and J.Servaes (eds). 2005. Read the Cultural Other. Forms of Otherness in the Discourses of Hong Kong's Decolonisation, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.ThomasP. and J.Servaes (eds). 2006. Intellectual Property Rights and Communications in Asia, New Delhiz: Sage Publications.Servaes, J. and S.Liu (eds). 2007. Moving Targets. Mapping the Paths between Communication, Technology and Social Change in Communities, Penang: Southbound.
Rachel Carnegie has worked in the field of communication and health promotion for 21 years. She lived and worked in South Asia for eight years, and, from a UK base, she has worked as an independent adviser, undertaking extended assignments in East and Southern Africa and in South and South East Asia. The main focus of her work is on HIV and AIDS programmes for children and youth.
Carnegie has worked with a range of multilateral organizations and NGOs. For UNICEF, she was responsible for developing the Meena Communication Initiative for the South Asian girl child, as writer and creative director from 1991–1994 and remaining as a consultant to the initiative until 2005. She has supported the development of UNICEF's life skills-based education programmes in a number of countries, including Building Resources Across Communities (BRAC) in Bangladesh, formerly known as the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee. Carnegie has evaluated and edited training materials for UNICEF's faith-based initiatives with the Buddhist and Muslim leadership in Asia.
Carnegie's most recent work has involved an evaluation of UNICEF's humanitarian programme in Northern Uganda, an evaluation of a school-based HIV and AIDS programme in Zambia with the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, and a mentoring role with NGOs promoting child-centred approaches to HIV and AIDS in Uganda and Kenya.
In addition to being an editor and co-author of Involving People, Evolving Behaviour (2000), Carnegie is author of a number of resource books and training manuals on health promotion and Child-to-Child approaches, including The River of Hope: Helping children to cope with the impact of HIV and AIDS, Healthlink Worldwide (2006) and Things Change: A Resource Book for Working with Youth and Communities on Female Genital Cutting (Maskew Millar Longman, 2003).
Nico Carpentier (Ph.D., University of Antwerp, Belgium) is a media sociologist working at the Free (VUB) and Catholic (KUB) Universities of Brussels, Belgium. He is Co-Director of the VUB research centre CEMESO and an Executive Board member of the European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA). His theoretical focus is on discourse theory. His research interests are situated in the relationship between media and [Page 416]journalism, and especially towards social domains as war and conflict, ideology, participation and democracy.
His publications include the following books and articles: Médias et citoyens sur la même longueur d'onde. Initatives journalistiques favorisantant la participation citoyenne (2002, in Dutch and French, with B. Grévisse and M. Harzimont); BBC's Video Nation as a Participatory Media Practice (2003); Media in movement, 22 Journalistic Experiments to Enhance Citizen Participation (2004, in Dutch and French, with B. Grévisse); The Ungraspable Audience (ed.) (2004, combined Dutch and English, with C. Pauwels and O. Van Oost); Identity, Contingency and Rigidity (2005); Towards a Sustainable Information Society. Deconstructing WSIS (ed.) (2006, with J. Servaes); Reclaiming the Media: Communication Rights and Democratic Media Roles (ed., 2007 with B. Cammaerts) and Discourse Theory and Cultural Analysis. Media, Arts and Literature (ed., 2007 with E. Spinoy).
Gary Coldevin (Ph.D., University of Washington, Seattle, USA) is a full-time international consultant specializing in ICTs for development and distance education. Previously, he was a Professor for 25 years in the Graduate Programme in Educational Technology, Concordia University, Montreal. He has collaborated with FAO over a 20-year period, principally as an information campaign specialist, on several assignments in Africa and Asia. Currently based in the Philippines, his research interests are focussed on the design, delivery, and quantitative evaluation of a mix of low- to high-end technologies for development, and emerging best practices.
For more information on the FAO Communication for Development Group contact: Senior Officer, Communication for Development (SDWDD), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
Royal D. Colle (Ph.D., Cornell University, Ithaca, USA) is a Professor Emeritus at Cornell University where he has been on the faculty for more than 40 years. He has lived and worked abroad in countries ranging from India and Indonesia to Western Samoa and Guatemala. Colle has served as a consultant for a variety of international organizations including the World Bank, WHO, FAO, the UN, UNFPA, UNESCO, USAID, and the Ford Foundation. His work has focused on institution-building related to communication; the design of communication strategies for development programmes; and innovative uses of information technology for development. His most recent projects have been in Asia and Africa working on university-supported telecentre systems. He is co-author of A Handbook for Telecenter Staffs and author of an online book Advocacy and Interventions, Readings in Development Communication, 2007.
Alfonso Gumucio-Dagron (Bolivia, 1950) is a communication specialist, photographer, filmmaker and writer with years of experience working in development programmes in Africa, Asia, [Page 417]South Pacific, Latin America and The Caribbean with UN organizations (UNICEF, UNDP, FAO, UNESCO), foundations (Rockefeller Foundation), bi-laterals (AusAid) and NGOs (Conservation International). He is currently the Managing Director for Programmes at the Communication for Social Change Consortium and the author of various studies on communication such as Communication for Social Change Anthology (2006) (co-edited with Thomas Tufte), Making Waves, Participatory Development for Social Change (2001), and 20 other books of poetry, narrative and essays on communication, cinema and literature. He directed a dozen of documentary films on cultural and social issues in various countries.
Robert Huesca (Ph.D., Ohio State University, Columbus, USA) is Professor in the Department of Communication at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. His research interests include alternative media and participatory communication for social change. His research on international and development communication issues has been published in a number of books and journals, including Communication Studies, Gazette, Journal of Communication, Media, Culture and Society, and the Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication.
Rico Lie (Ph.D. 2000, Catholic University of Brussels, Belgium) is a social anthropologist working at the Department of Communication Science, which is based at the Wageningen University in The Netherlands. He previously worked at the University of Brussels in Belgium and the Universities of Nijmegen and Leiden in The Netherlands. In Wageningen he is an assistant professor in international communication and interested in the areas of development communication and intercultural communication. He is author of the book Spaces of Intercultural Communication. An Interdisciplinary Introduction to Communication, Culture and Globalizing/Localizing Identities (2003, Hampton Press, USA).
Patchanee Malikhao is a senior consultant and researcher in mass communication and printing technology. She has been involved in projects for both public and private, national and international organizations, such as Agfa Gevaert, AMIC, the Europe-Asia Foundation, UNESCO, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, and the Rochester Institute of Technology. She is currently enrolled as a Ph.D. student at the University of Queensland and finishing a research project on HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in two villages in Thailand.
Erma Manoncourt (Ph.D. in Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA) is the Country Representative for the UNICEF in the Arab Republic of Egypt, since January 2005. UNICEF-Egypt's present programme of cooperation focuses on girls' education, early child development and quality education, including school sanitation. Another major area of focus is child protection with initiatives on children at risk, combating child labour, street children, [Page 418]female genital cutting, and violence against children. Prior to her current assignment, she served in the India Country Office where she spent five years overseeing and coordinating technical programming for the largest UNICEF country programme in the world. In her previous positions, Dr. Manoncourt has also served as an assistant professor at the Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine in New Orleans, Louisiana and Director of a Regional Support Center for the Caribbean and Southern United States before joining the United Nations in 1995.
As a public health specialist, she has worked more than 10 years in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean in the areas of community-based development, nutrition and health programming. A key focus of her work has been on promoting behaviour and social change through participatory methodologies and approaches.
Neill McKee is an international development Programme Manager from Canada with 38 years of experience, 17 of those years based in developing countries/emerging economies. He is presently based in Moscow, Russia, as head of Healthy Russia 2020, a USAID-funded project of the Center for Communication Programs (CCP), Johns Hopkins University's Bloomberg School of Public Health. He manages a team in the design and development of country-specific initiatives and tools in health system improvement, cost analysis and advocacy, social mobilization and behaviour change communication in the fields of HIV/AIDS, reproductive health and family planning, and youth health lifestyles. McKee also served as Senior Advisor for HIV/AIDS and adolescent health communication at CCP, Baltimore, from 2001 to early 2004.
McKee worked for UNICEF from 1990 to 2000, serving as Regional Communication Advisor and HIV/AIDS Network Coordinator in Eastern and Southern Africa (1994–1999) based in Nairobi, and as Chief of Basic Education and Adolescent Development, Uganda (1999–2000). Besides being editor and co-author of Involving People, Evolving Behaviour (2000) McKee is author of Social Mobilization and Social Marketing in Developing Communities, Southbound (1993) and Strategic Communication in the HIV/AIDS Epidemic (Sage, 2004), he is also co-creator of VIPP (Visualisation in Participatory Programmes), a participatory planning and training methodology which has become popular through many parts of the world.
Sujatha Sosale (Ph.D., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA) serves on the faculty of the School of Journalism and Mass Communication, The University of Iowa, USA. She teaches courses in the areas of international communication, and globalization and journalism. Her latest works include the book Communication, Development, and Democracy: Mapping a Discourse (in press).
Georgios Terzis (Ph.D., Catholic University Brussels, Belgium) is an associate professor at Vesalius College, Vrije Universiteit Brussel in Belgium (http://www.vesalius.edu) and the chair of the journalism [Page 419]studies section of the European Communication Research and Education Association (http://www.journalismstudies.edu). He studied Journalism and Mass Communication in Belgium, Greece, UK, USA and The Netherlands. He worked as a foreign correspondent for Greek Media and as a course leader for the European Journalism Centre (http://www.ejc.nl), training journalists from all over the world on EU affairs. He also worked for Search for Common Ground (http://www.sfcg.org) and organized Media and Conflict Resolution programmes and trainings for journalists and journalism students from Angola, Cyprus, Greece, the Middle East, Sri Lanka and Turkey.
Pradip Thomas Thomas (Ph.D. University of Leicester, UK) is Associate Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication, University of Queensland, Australia. Before he was Director, Studies and Publications at the World Association for Christian Communication in London, England. His research interests include Intellectual Property Rights and the Media and the Political Economy of Communications. His 2006 publications include two co-edited volumes, (with Jan Servaes), Intellectual Property Rights and Communication in Asia: Conflicting Traditions, Sage and (with Issac Mazondei), Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Intellectual Property Rights in the 21st Century: Perspectives from Southern Africa, CODESRIA.
Thomas Tufte (Ph.D.,) is Professor in Communcation at Roskilde University, Denmark. Since the inception in 1999 he was a frequent lecturer at the masters in communication for development at Malmoe University, Sweden. UNESCO Chair in Communication at Universidad de Barcelona, 2003.
Recent publications include: The Communication for Social Change Anthology—Historical and Contemporary Readings (2006, co-ed.); Media and Glocal Change—Rethinking Communication for Development (2005, co-ed.); The Media, The Minorities and the Multicultural Society—Scandinavian Perspectives (2003, ed.) and Living with the Rubbish Queen—Telenovelas, Culture and Modernity in Brazil (2000).
Adinda Van Hemelrijck is an applied researcher and process advisor in organizational and social change processes at OXFAM in Boston, USA. She is an anthropologist with a research interest and experience in participatory communication, monitoring and evaluation, and the gender and development approach. She has worked for a Belgian NGO in Indonesia, the Belgian Special Evaluator for Development Cooperation, at the research centre Communication for Social Change at the Catholic University of Brussels, as well as for organizations from the social profit sector in Belgium, and most recently at the department of communication and innovation studies at the Wageningen University in the Netherlands. She also studied international relations and European decision-making, with a focus on international cooperation.
[Page 420]Myria Vassiliadou (Ph.D., University of Kent at Canterbury, UK) worked as an Assistant Professor of Sociology and Gender Studies at Intercollege, Cyprus for over a decade (http://www.intercollege.ac.cy). She is a founding member and the Director of the Board of the Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies (http://www.medinstgenderstudies.org) and is also a Summer Fellow at the Solomon Asch Centre for Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict, University of Pennsylvania, USA. For the last two years, she has been attached to the European Commission as a National Expert at the Directorate of Social Sciences and Humanities of DG Research (http://ec.europa.eu/research/social-sciences/index_en.htm). She has worked extensively in the area of gender, conflict and the media. She has been involved in various non-governmental organizations and has published in books and journals.
Chris Verschooten (Ph.D., Catholic University of Brussels, Belgium) is Assistant Professor at the Department of Communication at the KU Brussels. She teaches Communication and International Relations, Intercultural Communication and International Communication. Her main focus is on South Asia. Her research interests include Dalits and Indian politics, Indo-Pakistan relations, foreign policy, women issues and communication.
Chin Saik Yoon has been a practitioner of participatory communication for development over the past 30 years. His fieldwork has been undertaken mainly in the Asian and Arab regions. He is the publisher of Southbound, a scholarly press that specializes in titles that concern development information and communication issues. Chin is the editor-in-chief of the first two editions of the Digital Review of Asia Pacific that analysed the ways in which information and communication technologies have been deployed across 29 economies in the region to support social and economic activities. His recent work has been in the building of incident command systems in Southeast Asia to prepare for outbreaks of infectious diseases, particularly avian influenza.