The Standards for Mathematical Practice, according to the CCSS document describe the mathematical “habits of mind” that teachers, at all levels, should develop in their students, and without which the content standards cannot be successfully implemented. Attention to the Mathematical Practices connected with content must be enacted in teaching, which will require professional development. Though the CCSS Mathematical Content Standards differ in detail from other content standards, their form is familiar to teachers: a list of things to know. The Mathematical Practices are not so easily condensed into a lesson or unit, not so easily tested and, generally, not so familiar. Content standards are specified grade by grade and build on each other rather than repeating year after year. The Mathematical Practices are different. Though they can be enacted in an appropriate way at any level, they evolve and mature over years rather than days, along with children's cognitive development and the nature and sophistication of the Mathematical Content. It can be expected that the developers of the CCSS, and the states that collaborated in calling for the development of the CCSS, will work with the developers of assessments to ensure that the Mathematical Practices are taken seriously in testing. Hull, Miles, and Balka are writing this book as PD resource to help school and math leaders grapple with the changes that must be addressed, in order to move their teachers toward implementation of the practices required by the CCSS.
The CCSS came into existence in 2010 through a joint effort of the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). Many stakeholders were involved in writing the standards. The NCTM monitored the drafts and provided continuous feedback to the NGA during the writing process. As noted in the preface of the NCTM (2011, p. ix) publication Making It Happen: A Guide to Interpreting and Implementing Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, NCTM supported the goal and intent of the CCSS, which focus on work that the Council had previously done.
According to the development teams, the standards:
- Are aligned with college and work expectations;
- Are clear, understandable, and consistent;
- Include rigorous content and application ...