Cognitive Psychology provides student readers with essential help with all aspects of their first course in cognitive psychology, including advice on revising for exams, preparing and writing course assessment materials, and enhancing and progressing their knowledge and skills in line with course requirements in cognitive psychology.

Language (Speech) Production

Language (Speech) Production

Language (speech) production

Core Areas

  • Agrammatism
  • Anomia
  • Anticipatory errors
  • Aphasia
  • Broca's area
  • Co-operative principle
  • Exchange errors
  • Lexicon
  • Lexicon bias
  • Morphological encoding
  • Perseverated errors
  • Phonetic encoding
  • Phonological encoding
  • Prosodic cues
  • Semantics
  • Spreading activation theory
  • Syntactics
  • WEAVER++ (Word-form Encoding by Activation and VERification)
  • Wernicke's area

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this chapter you should be able to:

  • define the key terms;
  • understand what speech errors tell us about normal language production;
  • outline and evaluate the models of language production offered by the key thinkers in this area, including the spreading activation model, anticipation and perseverated errors and WEAVER++ (Word-form Encoding by Activation and VERification); and
  • critically discuss the neurological evidence into this area, including the parts of the brain involved in speech production, and Broca's area and Wernicke's area.

Running Themes

  • Bottom-up processing
  • Cognitive neuropsychology
  • Cognitive neuroscience
  • Ecological validity
  • Experimental cognitive psychology
  • Schema
  • Semantics
  • Top-down processing


Language is produced with an aim in mind, so language production is ...

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