Cognitive Psychology provides student readers with essential help with all aspects of their first course in cognitive psychology, including advice on revising for exams, preparing and writing course assessment materials, and enhancing and progressing their knowledge and skills in line with course requirements in cognitive psychology.

Working Memory Model

Working Memory Model

Working memory model

Core Areas

  • Articulator control system
  • Central executive
  • Inner scribe
  • Phonological loop
  • Visual cache
  • Visuo-spatial scratch pad
  • Working memory model

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this chapter you should be able to:

  • define the key terms outlined above;
  • understand how the three components of the working memory model (WMM) work;
  • show an awareness of the experimental evidence to support this theory; and
  • be able to evaluate the model using research evidence.

Running Themes

  • Cognitive neuroscience
  • Ecological validity
  • Experimental cognitive psychology
  • Gestalt psychology
  • Modularity
  • Rehearsal
  • Schema


The WMM is a model of memory proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) to replace the concept of the STM. It instead proposes separate stores of memory, controlled by a central executive, that are responsible for processing auditory and visual data. The central executive is an attentional system that has a limited capacity and is involved ...

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