What lies behind decision-making and improved educational and managerial performance? This book tries to answer by putting forth meaningful strategies in the context of planning and executive functions. This is based on five broad themes: Decisions are based on both emotions and rationality in varying proportions. Emotions and rationality are functions of the brain. Origin of planning and executive functions engaged in problem-solving, and how these functions are measured from three worlds, viz., world of physical objects, world of conscious and unconscious states and psychological control, and world of cultural products, such as language, theories in science, and objects of art. Improvement in planning and executive functions helps in better performance in both educational achievements and managerial decision-making. Methods to boost decision-making and planning.
This book will interest Educational Planners and Managers in business administration as well as the undergraduate and postgraduate students of Psychology, Management and Education.
Chapter 6: Assessments: History and Selected Studies
Assessments: History and Selected Studies
Part I: History of Constructs and Tests
In one of the earliest papers on planning in PASS theory, Das and Heemsbergen (1983) defined planning as follows: “Planful behavior is a broad category of responses including decision-making, judgments, and evaluation of one's own activity as well as those of others” (p. 1). More recently, a similar view of executive functions (EFs) was found in Tranel, Anderson, and Benton (1994). The authors define EF as planning, decision making, judgment, and self-perception, as already mentioned in the previous chapter. All of these characteristics of EF are also elements of the construct of Planning in PASS theory. These definitions will fit EFs also in the context of more recent conceptualizations, such ...