Citizen Governance: Leading American Communities into the 21st Century


Richard C. Box

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    “… whenever the people are well-informed, they can be trusted with their own government.…

    Thomas Jefferson, 1789


    View Copyright Page


    In the early 1970s, I lived in a subdivision in a rapidly growing suburb of Pittsburgh. There was one street into the subdivision; every day, when the school bus stopped to let the kids off, the street was completely blocked. The community had a council-manager form of government, and many of the council members were representative of the “old” residents.

    As the community grew, the need for an additional fire station became apparent. Acting on the advice of the Community Planner, the Council approved locating a substation just within the entrance to the subdivision on a piece of land owned by the deputy fire chief, one of the old residents (it was an all-volunteer force at the time). Two hundred residents of the neighborhood presented a petition to the Council explaining the problem with the school bus and asking why the station could not be located in a vacant field across the road form the subdivision. We were assured by the planner that zoning variances would handle any problems although he had never been on the street when the school bus stopped.

    At the end of the meeting, the Mayor, a milkman by trade, thanked us for our participation and informed us that he was persuaded by the Planner because “he is our expert.” Shortly thereafter I decided to go to graduate school so I could be an expert too. The Planner ultimately became vice president of the largest development corporation in the area. The fire substation was not built in the neighborhood.

    This case illustrates many of the issues that Richard Box raises in this book—the citizen as outsider, the practitioner as expert, and the legislative body as representative of elite interests. The Community Governance Model outlined in this book would change those roles, making the citizens decision makers with the practitioner as expert adviser and legislators responding to the needs of all community residents.

    Professor Box has drawn on his rich experience as a local government manager, coupled with his studies of democratic processes and public administration, to develop a model of governance which serves the public and, in its ideal form, enhances the professional life of practitioners. He readily admits that his is a normative vision of how local governments can be managed, but he sees it emerging all over the country as citizens insist on meaningful participation in the development and implementation of policies that affect their lives.

    The Community Governance Model is carefully developed to address the traditional values of public administration—e.g., efficiency and effectiveness—while also involving citizens more dynamically in the process of governance. The primary role of the administrator is to ensure that the policy process is open and inclusive and to provide advice and technical assistance to citizens who have traditionally been left out of local government decision making.

    The model is compelling to those of us who believe deeply in the basic concept of government by the people—democracy with all its flaws. Early in this century, public administration was developed to improve government by importing management principles from business. One of the most important principles was executive control over implementation decisions in order to maximize efficiency and minimize political interference. Ironically, the Progressives who espoused “good government” also created a governance model which excluded ordinary citizens and skewed democracy toward the interests of elites.

    Richard Box is attempting to bring public administration back to democracy by drawing new roles for practitioners and citizens in the governance of their own communities. Pointing to the widespread distrust of government today, Box argues that the exclusion of citizens has diminished the expertise of practitioners and the legitimacy of legislators. The only way out of this dilemma is to restore democratic principles by giving citizens a positive, inclusive role in the policy process. Involving citizens in governance will develop greater understanding of the role of government in society, the complexities of policy development, the difficulties of achieving consensus among diverse interests, and the nature of the public administrator's job.

    Box's vision is no panacea, however, and he identifies some of the risks involved in implementing the Community Governance Model. Citizens will be involved not only in developing policy but also in implementing it. This may be expecting a lot of many citizens who are less involved in civic affairs today than earlier generations. There is a greater risk for practitioners who may offend powerful elite interests by working with other citizen groups; and they will no longer have the politics-administration dichotomy to hide behind with its imprimatur of expertise. Community governance implies that no individual has the solution to community problems so that involvement with citizens is a necessary function of the practitioner's work.

    I also worry, and continually remind Richard, about the narrow interests of communities. How can we in the broader community ensure that community governance does not devolve to the protection of parochial and exclusionary community interests? Isn't it easier to implement this model in the walled-in, economically elite subdivisions that are springing up all over the country? How will community governance serve the interests of the poor, the disabled, the “others” of our localities? How will communities expand their policy base to include the interests of the greater community outside their neighborhoods? How can community governance be implemented in the large urban areas of our nation?

    This book presents a vision of how our country could work if citizens were invited into the process of governing. The answers to the questions above will come in the refinement of the model during implementation. The book should be read by public administrators, citizens, and political leaders who are truly committed to improving government. The principles outlined here should become a part of what we teach to our public administration students as we prepare them for the twenty-first century.

    Democracy is a messy system at best and not designed to be efficient. Yet it is still the best form of government devised to date. The development of public administration diminished democracy by installing experts in government positions at all levels and disenfranchising citizens from much participation beyond voting. Even with all our management techniques to increase efficiency and efforts to reinvent and improve government performance, public trust in public administration is at a historic low. The Community Governance Model seeks to restore our faith in government by bringing citizens to the table and public administrators to a central role in democracy. It is worthy of our consideration.

    Mary M.Timney


    Many colleagues, authors, students, citizen volunteers in communities, and historical figures have inspired this work. There are three individuals, one group of people, and some publishers I would like to thank specially for making the writing of this book possible.

    Professor Henry (Budd) Kass read the manuscript several times over 2 or 3 years, making detailed and insightful comments that I took very seriously. At one point, when I thought I might abandon the project, his encouragement led me to try once more.

    Professor Mary Timney has been kind enough to write the Foreword for the book. I asked Mary to do this for me because her view of American democracy is penetrating and critical in the best sense, with a strong emphasis on citizen self-governance and honest discussion of power relationships. When I write something normative I think what her reaction might be; though we might disagree, this internal dialogue serves as a compass for my work.

    This is my first book. I came to scholarly work late in life, having been a local government practitioner for a number of years before I chose to become a teacher and writer. Publication of this book carries a special meaning for me because the intended audience includes people I care about very much: scholars, public service practitioners, students, and citizens who want to advance the cause of democratic community governance. I want to thank Catherine Rossbach, Acquisitions Editor, and Sage Publications, for making it possible not just to get the book into print, but to publish it with a company that has done much to advance the study of public administration.

    The group of people I want to acknowledge are my students at the Graduate School of Public Affairs at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. Quite literally, the book could not have been written without them. This is because my thinking about the topics covered has been shaped by our in-class conversations and written dialogues, shaped both substantively and in terms of my conception of what students of public service need to know about the relationship between Americans and their governments.

    Finally, I have used portions of my published papers in this book, in places excerpting the material directly as a springboard for new writing, in places revisiting and reworking the concepts from this earlier work. I wish to thank the following publishers for kindly giving me permission to use this material here (citations are in the reference list): Sage Publications for two papers that appeared in American Review of Public Administration; Professor Jong Jun and California State University, Hayward, for two papers that appeared in Administrative Theory and Praxis, the journal of the Public Administration Theory Network; and Marcel Dekker, for a paper that appeared in the International Journal of Public Administration.

  • References

    Abney, Glenn, and ThomasP. Lauth, 1986. The politics of state and city administration. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Adams, Guy B., Priscilla V.Bowerman, Kenneth M.Dolbeare, and CamillaStivers. 1990. Joining purpose to practice: A democratic identity for the public service. In Images and identities in public administration, ed. Henry D.Kass and Bayard L.Catron, 219–40. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage.
    Adrian, Charles R.1958. A study of three communities. Public Administration Review18 (Summer): 208–13.
    Adrian, Charles R.1988. Forms of city government in American history. Chapter in The Municipal Year Book. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association.
    Adrian, Charles R., and ErnestS. Griffith, 1976. A history of American city government. Vol. 2, The formation of traditions, 1775–1870. New York: Praeger.
    Anglin, Roland, 1990. Diminishing utility: The effect on citizen preferences for local growth. Urban Affairs Quarterly25 (June): 684–96.
    Bachrach, Peter, and MortonS. Baratz, 1962. The two faces of power. American Political Science Review56 (December): 947–52.
    Bailey, Stephen K.1964. Ethics and the public service. Public Administration Review23 (December): 234–43.
    Barber, Benjamin, 1984. Strong democracy: Participatory politics for a new age. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Bellah, Robert N., Richard, Madsen, William M.Sullivan, Ann, Swidler, and StevenM. Tipton, 1985. Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life. New York: Harper and Row.
    Berkowitz, Peter, 1995. Communitarian criticisms and liberal lessons. The ResponsiveCommunity5 (Fall): 54–64.
    Berry, Jeffrey M., Kent E.Portney, and KenThomson. 1993. The rebirth of urban democracy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
    Blodgett, Terrell. 1994. Beware the lure of the “strong” mayor. Public Management76 (January): 6–11.
    Box, Richard C.1990. The economic model of administrative behavior in local government. DPA dissertation, University of Southern California.
    Box, Richard C.1993. Resistance to professional managers in American local government. American Review of Public Administration23 (December): 403–18.
    Box, Richard C.1995a. Critical theory and the paradox of discourse. American Review of Public Administration25 (March): 1–19.
    Box, Richard C.1995b. Optimistic view of the future of community governance. Administrative Theory and Praxis17(1): 87–91.
    Box, Richard C.1995c. Searching for the best structure for American local government. International Journal of Public Administration18(4): 711–41.
    Boynton, Robert Paul, and DeilS. Wright. 1971. Mayor-manager relationships in large council-manager cities: A reinterpretation. Public Administration Review31 (January/February): 28–36.
    Burns, Nancy. 1994. The formation of American local governments: Private values in public institutions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Conte, Christopher R.1995. Teledemocracy for better or worse. Governing8 (June): 33–41.
    Cook, Edward M.1976. The fathers of the towns: Leadership and community structure in eighteenth-century New England. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Cooper, Terry L.1984. Public administration in an age of scarcity: A citizenship role for public administrators. In Politics and administration: Woodrow Wilson and American public administration, ed. JackRabin and James S.Bowman, 297–314. New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Cooper, Terry L.1991. An ethic of citizenship for public administration. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
    Craig, Stephen C.1993. The malevolent leaders: Popular discontent in America. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
    Dahl, Robert A.1961. Who governs? Democracy and power in an American city. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
    Dewey, John. 1927/1985. The public and its problems. Athens, Ohio: Swallow Press.
    Downs, Anthony. 1957. An economic theory of democracy. New York: Harper and Row.
    Eberly, Don E. ed. 1994. Building a community of citizens: Civil society in the 21st century. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.
    Eisenhardt, Kathleen M.1989. Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of Management Review14(1): 57–74.
    Elder, Shirley. 1992. Running a town the 17th-century way. Governing5 (March): 29–30.
    Etzioni, Amitai. 1992. Communitarian solutions/what communitarians think. The Journal of State Government65 (January-March): 9–11.
    Etzioni, Amitai., ed. 1995. Rights and the common good: The communitarian perspective. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Fannin, William R.1983. City manager policy roles as a source of city council/city manager conflict. International Journal of Public Administration5(4): 381–99.
    Fisher, Robert. 1981. From grass-roots organizing to community service: Community organization practice in the community center movement, 1907–1930. In Community organization for urban social change: A historical perspective, ed. RobertFisher and PeterRomanofsky, 33–58. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
    Flentje, H. Edward, and WendlaCounihan. 1984. Running a “reformed” city: The hiring and firing of city managers. Urban Resources2 (Fall): 9–14.
    Follett, Mary Parker. 1918. The new state: Group organization the solution of popular government. New York: Longmans, Green.
    Fox, Charles J., and ClarkeE. Cochran. 1990. Discretion advocacy in public administration: Toward a Platonic guardian class?Administration & Society22 (August): 249–71.
    Fox, Charles J., and HughT. Miller. 1995. Postmodern public administration: Toward discourse. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
    Frisby, Michele, and MonicaBowman. 1996. What we have is a failure to communicate: The case for citizen involvement in local government decision making. Public Management78 (February): A1-A5.
    Gale, Dennis E.1992. Eight state-sponsored growth management programs: A comparative analysis. Journal of the American Planning Association58 (Autumn): 425–39.
    Geuss, Raymond. 1981. The idea of a critical theory: Habermas and the Frankfurt School. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1984. The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Goodnow, Frank J.1904/1991. City government in the United States. Holmes Beach, Fla.: Wm. W. Gaunt & Sons.
    Goodsell, Charles. 1996. A memo to the public employees of America. Administrative Theory and Praxis18(1): 48–49.
    Gould, John. 1940. New England town meeting: Safeguard of democracy. Brattleboro, Vt.: Stephen Daye Press.
    Griffith, Ernest S.1938. History of American city government. Vol. 1, The colonial period. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Griffith, Ernest S.1974. A history of American city government. Vol. 3, The conspicuous failure, 1870–1900. New York: Praeger.
    Gulick, Luther. 1937. Notes on the theory of organization. In Classics of public administration,
    3d ed.
    , ed. Jay M.Shafritz and Albert C.Hyde, 1992. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Gurwitt, Rob. 1992. A government that runs on citizen power. Governing6 (December): 48–54.
    Gurwitt, Rob. 1993a. The lure of the strong mayor. Governing6 (July): 36–41.
    Gurwitt, Rob. 1993b. Communitarianism: You can try it at home. Governing6 (August): 33–9.
    Habermas, Jurgen. 1970. Toward a rational society: Student protest, science, and politics. Boston: Beacon Press.
    Harrigan, John J.1989. Political change in the metropolis.
    4th ed.
    Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman.
    Hill, B. W., ed. 1976. Edmund Burke: On government, politics, and society. New York: International Publications Service.
    Hummel, Ralph P.1987. The bureaucratic experience.
    3d ed.
    New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Hunter, Floyd. 1953. Community power structure. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Jefferson, Thomas. 1984. January 8, 1789 letter to Richard Price. In Thomas Jefferson, writings, ed. Merrill D.Peterson, 1935. New York: Literary Classics of the United States.
    Johnson, David B.1991. Public choice: An introduction to the new political economy. Mountain View, Calif.: Mountain View.
    Joyce, Michael S.1994. Citizenship in the 21st century: Individual self-government. In Building a community of citizens: Civil society in the 21st century, ed. Don E.Eberly, 3–10. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.
    Kass, Henry D., and Bayard L.Catron, eds. 1990. Images and identities in public administration. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage.
    Kaufman, Herbert. 1969. Administrative decentralization and political power. Public Administration Review29 (January/February): 3–15.
    Kemmis, Daniel. 1990. Community and the politics of place. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
    King, Leslie, and GlennHarris. 1989. Local responses to rapid rural growth. Journal of the American Planning Association55 (Spring): 181–91.
    LappeFrances Moore, and Paul MartinDu Bois. 1994. The quickening of America: Rebuilding our nation, remaking our lives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Lasch, Christopher. 1996. The revolt of the elites and the betrayal of democracy. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Lockridge, Kenneth A.1970/1985. A New England town the first hundred years: Dedham, Massachusetts, 1636–1736. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Logan, John R., and HarveyL. Molotch. 1987. Urban fortunes: The political economy of place. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Lord, George F., and AlbertC. Price. 1992. Growth ideology in a period of decline: Deindustrialization and restructuring, Flint style. Social Problems39 (May): 155–69.
    Loveridge, Ronald O.1971. City managers in legislative politics. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Lowery, David, RuthHoogland DeHoog, and WilliamE. Lyons. 1992. Citizenship in the empowered locality: An elaboration, a critique, and a partial test. Urban Affairs Quarterly28 (September): 69–103.
    Mansbridge, Jane. 1980. Beyond adversary democracy. New York: Basic Books.
    Martin, Lawrence L.1993. American county government: An historical perspective. In County governments in an era of change, ed. David R.Berman, 1–13. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
    Massialas, Byron G.1990. Educating students for conflict resolution and democratic decision making. The Social Studies81 (September/October): 202–5.
    Matthews, Richard K.1986. The radical politics of Thomas Jefferson: A revisionist view. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
    McDonald, Forrest. 1985. Novus ordo seclorum: The intellectual origins of the Constitution. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
    McDonald, Lee Cameron. 1968. Western political theory. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Moe, Terry M.1984. The new economics of organization. American Journal of Political Science28 (November): 739–77.
    Molotch, Harvey L.1976. The city as a growth machine: Toward a political economy of place. American Journal of Sociology82 (September): 309–32.
    Morison, Samuel Eliot. 1965. The Oxford history of the American people. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nalbandian, John. 1989. The contemporary role of city managers. American Review of Public Administration19 (December): 261–78.
    Nelson, Arthur C.1992. Preserving prime farmland in the face of urbanization. Journal of the American Planning Association58 (Autumn): 467–88.
    Nelson, Lisa S., and LouisF. Weschler. 1996. Community sustainability as a dimension of administrative ethics. Administrative Theory and Praxis18(1): 13–26.
    Nice, David C.1987. Federalism: The politics of intergovernmental relations. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Niskanen, William A.1971. Bureaucracy and representative government. Chicago: Aldine Atherton.
    Niskanen, William A.1991. A reflection on bureaucracy and representative government. In The budget-maximizing bureaucrat: Appraisals and evidence, ed. AndreBlais and StephaneDion, 13–31. Pittsburgh, Penn.: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Osborne, David, and TedGaebler. 1993. Reinventing government: How the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector. New York: Penguin Books.
    Ostrom, Elinor. 1993. A communitarian approach to local governance. National Civic Review (Summer): 226–33.
    Ostrom, Vincent, Charles M.Tiebout, and RobertWarren. 1961. The organization of government in metropolitan areas: A theoretical inquiry. American Political Science Review55 (December): 831–42.
    Pealy, Dorothee Strauss. 1958. The need for elected leadership. Public Administration Review18 (Summer): 214–16.
    Peterson, Paul E.1981. City limits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Phillips, Derek L.1993. Looking backward: A critical appraisal of communitarian thought. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
    Protasel, Greg J.1988. Abandonments of the council-manager plan: A new institutionalist perspective. Public Administration Review48 (July/August): 807–12.
    Rodgers, Daniel T.1979. The work ethic in industrial America, 1850–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Rodgers, Joseph Lee. 1977. Citizen committees: A guide to their use in local government. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger.
    Rohr, John A.1986. Ethics for bureaucrats: An essay on law and values. New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Rohr, John A.1993. Toward a more perfect union. Public Administration Review53 (May/June): 246–9.
    Ross, Bernard H., and MyronA. Levine. 1996. Urban politics: Power in metropolitan America.
    5th ed.
    Itasca, Ill.: F.E. Peacock.
    Ross, Bernard H., Myron A.Levine, and MurrayS. Stedman. 1991. Urban politics: Power in metropolitan America.
    4th ed.
    Itasca, Illinois: F. E. Peacock Publishers.
    RossiterClinton, ed. 1961. The federalist papers. New York: New American Library.
    Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 1762/1978. On the social contract. Ed. by Roger D.Masters, trans, by Judith R.Masters. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Saltzstein, Alan L.1974. City managers and city councils: Perceptions of the division of authority. The Western Political Quarterly27 (March): 275–88.
    Schachter, Hindy Lauer. 1997. Reinventing government or reinventing ourselves. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Schattschneider, E. E.1975. The semisovereign people: A realist's view of democracy in America. Hinsdale, Ill.: Dryden Press.
    Schlesinger, Arthur M.1986. The cycles of American history. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Schneider, Mark, and PaulTeske. 1993a. The antigrowth entrepreneur: Challenging the “equilibrium” of the growth machine. The Journal of Politics55 (August): 720–36.
    Schneider, Mark, and PaulTeske. 1993b. The progrowth entrepreneur in local government. Urban Affairs Quarterly29 (December): 316–27.
    Schon, Donald A.1983. The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.
    Scott, William G., and DavidK. Hart. 1979. Organizational America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Selznick, Philip. 1992. The moral commonwealth: Social theory and the promise of community. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Shefter, Martin. 1985. Political crisis/fiscal crisis: The collapse and revival of New York City. New York: Basic Books.
    Sheldon, Garrett Ward. 1993. The political philosophy of Thomas Jefferson. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Sinopoli, Richard C.1992. The foundations of American citizenship: Liberalism, the Constitution, and civic virtue. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Smith, Page. 1966. As a city upon a hill: The town in American history. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Sparrow, Glen. 1985. The emerging chief executive: The San Diego experience. National Civic Review74 (December): 538–47.
    Spicer, Michael W., and LarryD. Terry. 1993. Legitimacy, history, and logic: Public administration and the Constitution. Public Administration Review53 (May/June): 239–46.
    Stene, Edwin O., and GeorgeK. Floro. 1953. Abandonments of the manager plan: A study of four small cities. Lawrence: University of Kansas Governmental Research Center.
    Stone, Clarence N.1993. Urban regimes and the capacity to govern: A political economy approach, Journal of Urban Affairs15(1): 1–28.
    Stillman, Richard J.1974. The rise of the city manager: A public professional in local government. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
    Stillman, Richard J.1995. The American bureaucracy: The core of modern government.
    2d ed.
    Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers.
    Stivers, Camilla. 1990. The public agency as polis: Active citizenship in the administrative state. Administration & Society22 (May): 86–105.
    Stivers, Camilla. 1993. Rationality and romanticism in Constitutional argument. Public Administration Review53 (May/June): 254–7.
    Storing, Herbert J.1981. What the Anti-Federalists were for. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Svara, James H.1986a. Contributions of the city council to effective governance. Popular Government51 (Spring): 1–8.
    Svara, James H.1986b. The mayor in council-manager cities: Recognizing leadership potential. National Civic Review75 (September-October): 271–305.
    Svara, James H.1990. Official leadership in the city: Patterns of conflict and cooperation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Terry, Larry D.1993. Why we should abandon the misconceived quest to reconcile public entrepreneurship with democracy: A response to Bellone and Goerl's “Reconciling public entrepreneurship and democracy.”Public Administration Review53 (July/August): 393–5.
    Thomas, John Clayton. 1986. Between citizen and city: Neighborhood organizations and urban politics in Cincinnati. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
    Thompson, Victor A.1975. Without sympathy or enthusiasm: The problem of administrative compassion. University: University of Alabama Press.
    Tiebout, Charles M.1956. A pure theory of local expenditures. The Journal of Political Economy64 (October): 416–24.
    de Tocqueville, Alexis. 1969. Democracy in America. Ed. by J. P.Mayer, trans, by GeorgeLawrence. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.
    Verba, Sidney, and NormanH. Nie. 1972. Participation in America: Political democracy and social equality. New York: Harper and Row.
    Vogel, Ronald K., and BertE. Swanson. 1989. The growth machine versus the antigrowth coalition: The battle for our communities. Urban Affairs Quarterly25 (September): 63–85.
    Waldo, Dwight. 1981. The enterprise of public administration: A summary view. Novato, Calif.: Chandler and Sharp.
    Wamsley, Gary L., Charles T.Goodsell, John A.Rohr, Camilla M.Stivers, Orion F.White, and JamesF. Wolf. 1987. The public administration and the governance process: Refocusing the American dialogue. In A centennial history of the American administrative state, ed. Ralph C.Chandler, 291–317. New York: Free Press.
    Warren, Kenneth F.1993. We have debated ad nauseum the legitimacy of the administrative state—but why?Public Administration Review53 (May/June): 249–54.
    Waste, Robert J., ed. 1986. Community power: Directions for future research. Beverly Hills: Sage.
    Waste, Robert J.1989. The ecology of policy making. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Waste, Robert J.1993. City limits, pluralism, and urban political economy. Journal of Urban Affairs15(5): 445–55.
    White, Louise G.1982. Improving the goal-setting process in local government. Public Administration Review42 (January/February): 77–83.
    Whitt, J. Allen, and JohnC. Lammers. 1991. The art of growth: Ties between development organizations and the performing arts. Urban Affairs Quarterly26 (March): 376–93.
    Wikstrom, Nelson. 1979. The mayor as policy leader in the council-manager form of government: A view from the field. Public Administration Review39 (May/June): 270–6.
    Williams, Oliver P., and CharlesR. Adrian. 1963. Four cities: A study in comparative policy making. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Wilson, Woodrow. 1887. The study of administration. In Classics of public administration, ed. Jay M.Shafritz and Albert C.Hyde, 11–24.
    3d ed
    . Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks/Cole.
    Yankelovich, Daniel. 1991. Coming to public judgment: Making democracy work in a complex world. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.
    Zuckerman, Michael. 1970. Peaceable kingdoms: New England towns in the eighteenth century. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

    About the Author

    Richard C. Box is Associate Professor of Public Administration in the Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. He served for 13 years in local governments in Oregon and California as a planner, as a department head in the areas of planning, building safety, housing, and public works, and as a city manager. He completed his doctorate in Public Administration at the University of Southern California in 1990, the year in which he came to the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs.

    Richard Box teaches several courses in the GSPA, including Introduction to Public Service, Financial Management, Human Resources Management, Local Government Politics, and Intergovernmental Management. His research focuses on the relationship between political responsiveness and professional rationality in a democratic society, and his work has been published in several national journals in the field of public administration. He has taken part in a variety of community activities, including serving on citizen committees examining community issues and making presentations on the theory and practice of areas of financial and personnel management, organizational structures, and the roles of professionals and elected officials. His community activities are directed toward improving the quality of public governance through open dialogue and citizen access to the public policy process.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website