Cigarettes, Nicotine, & Health: A Biobehavioral Approach
Publication Year: 2001
Smoking is one of the world’s most pressing public health problems. Cigarettes, Nicotine, and Health reviews the severe problems caused by smoking and examines individual and public health approaches to reducing smoking and its attendant health problems. Cigarettes are the most popular, most addictive, and most deadly form of tobacco use, with cigarette design contributing directly to the dangers of smoking; most of the book focuses on this predominant form of nicotine use.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Why Biobehavioral? Why Cigarettes, Nicotine, and Health?
- Chapter 2: The History of the Use of Nicotine: A Tasty Wonder Drug for Many, if Not All, Occasions
- Chapter 3: Who Smokes and What Kills Them
- Chapter 4: What Nicotine Does to the Body
- Chapter 5: The Natural History of a Dependence Disorder
- Chapter 6: Tobacco Use as Nicotine Addiction
- Chapter 7: Smoking, Drinking, and Drug-Taking: A Biobehavioral Syndrome
- Chapter 8: “Low-Tar,” “Light” Cigarettes: Lessons from a Dangerous Boondoggle
- Chapter 9: Helping Smokers Quit
- Chapter 10: Tobacco, Public Health, and Policy
Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology Series[Page ii]
J. Rick Turner
Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology brings the latest advances in these fields directly into undergraduate, graduate, and professional classrooms via individual texts that each present one topic in a self-contained manner. The texts also allow health professionals specializing in one field to become familiar with another by reading the appropriate volume, a task facilitated by their short length and their scholarly yet accessible format.
The development of the series is guided by its Editorial Board, which comprises experts from the disciplines of experimental and clinical psychology, medicine and preventive medicine, psychiatry and behavioral sciences, nursing, public health, biobehavioral health, behavioral health sciences, and behavioral genetics. Board members are based in North America, Europe, and Australia, thereby providing a truly international perspective on current research and clinical practice in behavioral medicine and health psychology.Editorial Board
William B. Applegate, M.D., University of Tennessee, Memphis
Jacqueline Dunbar-Jacob, Ph.D., R.N., F.A.A.N., University of Pittsburgh
Marc D. Gellman, Ph.D., University of Miami, Florida
Laura L. Hayman, Ph.D., R.N., F.A.A.N., University of Pennsylvania
Jack E. James, Ph.D., La Trobe University, Australia
Marie Johnston, Ph.D., University of St. Andrews, United Kingdom
Lynn T. Kozlowski, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University
Laura C. Leviton, Ph.D., University of Alabama at Birmingham
Andrew Sherwood, Ph.D., Duke University
Shari R. Waldstein, Ph.D., University of Maryland-Baltimore County
Books in This Series
Stress & Health: Biological and Psychological Interactions
- by William R. Lovallo
Understanding Caffeine: A Biobehavioral Analysis
- by Jack E. James
Physical Activity and Behavioral Medicine
- by James F. Sallis and Neville Owen
Behavior Change and Public Health in the Developing World
- by John P. Elder
Cigarettes, Nicotine, and Health: A Biobehavioral Approach
- by Lynn T. Kozlowski, Jack E. Henningfield, and Janet Brigham
Copyright © 2001 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Kozlowski, Lynn T.
Cigarettes, nicotine, and health : A biobehavioral approach / by Lynn T. Kozlowski, Jack E. Henningfleld, Janet Brigham.
p. cm. — (Behavioral medicine and health psychology series ; v, 5)
ISBN 0-8039-5947-8 (alk. paper) — ISBN 0-0839-5946-X (alk. cloth)
1. Tobacco—Physiological aspects. 2. Tobacco—Psychological aspects. 3. Nicotine—Physiological aspects. 4. Health psychology. I. Henningfleld, Jack E. II. Brigham, Janet. III. Title. IV. Series.
RC567 .K65 2000
01 02 03 04 05 06 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Jim Brace-Thompson
Production Editor: Claudia A. Hoffman
Editorial Assistant: Candice Crosetti
Typesetter: Marion Warren
Cover Designer: Michelle Lee
L. T. K.: To Norma, John, Sheldon, and Stanley
J. E. H.: To Lucy, Travis, Vincent, and my mother
J. B.: To Richard, Carol, Kerri, Brendan, Mother and Daddy, Shantal, Janine, Kristin, Rachelle, and Tania—troupers all[Page viii]
Series Editor's Introduction[Page ix]
Cigarettes, Nicotine, and Health: A Biobehavioral Approach, the fifth volume in this series, addresses worldwide tobacco use and its health consequences from a multidisciplinary perspective. Cigarette smoking, the most common form of tobacco use in many regions of the world, has enormous relevance for health promotion and disease prevention since it is the largest preventable cause of disability and death in many industrialized nations and a disturbingly accelerating trend in developing countries.
Professor Kozlowski has been a member of the Editorial Board since the inception of the series. He has now recruited two colleagues, Dr. Jack Henningfield and Dr. Janet Brigham, to coauthor this volume. All three scientists are exceptionally well qualified to introduce the reader to the many aspects (behavioral, biological, economic, public health) of cigarette marketing, use, and research.
As you will learn from the following chapters, a cigarette is an extremely sophisticated drug delivery system. The drug in question is nicotine (named after Jean Nicot, a French ambassador to Portugal in the 1500s). Nicotine is a psychoactive, addictive drug that is 10 times more potent, milligram for milligram, than cocaine and morphine. When cigarette smoke is inhaled into the lungs, nicotine is distributed throughout the body. In the brain, nicotine has many effects, including the stimulation of reward pathways.
[Page x]However, the health consequences of tobacco use are devastating. For example, smokers may suffer from cardiovascular disease, cancer (especially, but not only, lung cancer), emphysema, and bronchitis. These diseases often lead not only to premature death but also to years of ill heath beforehand. Smoking can also cause or exacerbate musculoskeletal injuries and arthritis, and lead to birth defects. The combination of the severity of these conditions and the staggering numbers of individuals affected makes smoking reduction a major focus of the world's leading medical and public health authorities.
My thanks are extended to the authors for writing this volume, which illuminates a central topic in the fields of behavioral medicine and health psychology. Their organizational focus on cigarettes, nicotine, and health enables them to present a wide array of information on the consequences of tobacco use in a highly structured and integrated manner, and their insights complement their factual presentation very effectively.—Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Thanks to Richard O'Connor, Andrew Strasser, and Kristy Minarsky for critical readings of the manuscript. Thanks to J. Rick Turner, series editor, for his encouragement. In addition, Richard O'Connor and Andrew Strasser helped with references and manuscript preparation. Lisa Grove, Kathy Barefoot, and Virginia Lucas also helped prepare the manuscript.[Page xxi]
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About the Authors[Page 191]
Lynn T. Kozlowski, Ph.D., is professor and head of the Department of Biobehavioral Health, College of Health and Human Development, at Pennsylvania State University. Before moving to Penn State, he was Head of Behavioral Research on Tobacco Use at the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario and Professor of Preventive Medicine and of Psychology at the University of Toronto. He has published widely on cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction. He has written chapters for surgeons general's reports and National Cancer Institute Monographs. He was a member of an expert committee for the Royal Society of Canada and has consulted for Health and Welfare Canada, the Canadian Cancer Society, the Ontario Heart and Stroke Foundation, and the Canadian Public Health Association. In the United States, he has advised the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration, the Federal Trade Commission, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. He is an assistant editor of Addiction.
Jack E. Henningfield, Ph.D., is associate professor of Behavioral Biology in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore. He is also vice president for Research and Health Policy at Pinney Associates in Bethesda, Maryland, where he consults on a [Page 192]wide variety of issues related to drug addiction treatment, prevention, policy, and medications development. He took a leading role on tobacco and nicotine issues at the National Institute on Drug Abuse where he was serving as chief of Clinical Pharmacology when he retired in 1996. He has published research on the effects of a wide range of psychoactive drugs on animals and humans. He has contributed to numerous reports of the U.S. surgeon general on the health consequences of tobacco use, assisted the Food and Drug Administration in its tobacco regulations, and serves as an expert adviser to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, European Union, and other agencies concerning the science of tobacco addiction and its prevention and treatment.
Janet Brigham, Ph.D., is a research psychologist for SRI International in Menlo Park, California. The author of Dying to Quit: Why We Smoke and How We Stop (1998), she has studied substance abuse for more than a decade. In Baltimore, Maryland, she investigated tobacco dependence as a postdoctoral fellow at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and was a fellow at the Addiction Research Center of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. She was project director on tobacco dependence treatment studies at the University of Pittsburgh, where she also did brainwave research into substance abuse etiology. A former journalist and editor, she worked for the Associated Press and for several newspapers and magazines. She has been a consultant to the World Health Organization on tobacco dependence issues. For three years, she has been editor of the quarterly newsletter of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. Her present research interests include studying the use of multiple forms of tobacco and devising computerized testing.