Children's Adjustment to Adoption: Developmental and Clinical Issues
Publication Year: 1998
Focusing on developmental and clinical issues in children's adjustment to adoption, the authors introduce this volume with an overview of historical and contemporary perspectives, then explore various theories that have addressed the issue of psychological risk associated with adoption. Following a review of empirical research on factors that influence the adjustment process, the authors discuss different types of adoption, analyze methodological problems, and discuss clinical and assessment issues that commonly arise in work with adoptees and their families.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Adoption
- Chapter 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Adoption Adjustment
- Chapter 3: Adoptive Family Life Cycle
- Chapter 4: Infant-Placed Adopted Children
- Chapter 5: Special Needs Adopted Children
- Chapter 6: Transracial and Intercountry Adoption
- Chapter 7: Open Adoption
- Chapter 8: Clinical Issues and Treatment Strategies
- Chapter 9: Conclusions and Future Directions
Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Series[Page ii]
Series Editor: Alan E. Kazdin, Yale University
Recent volumes in this series …
- LIFE EVENTS AS STRESSORS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
by James H. Johnson
- CONDUCT DISORDERS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE SECOND EDITION
by Alan E. Kazdin
- CHILD ABUSE
by David A. Wolfe
- PREVENTING MALADJUSTMENT FROM INFANCY THROUGH ADOLESCENCE
by Annette U. Rickel and LaRue Allen
- TEMPERAMENT AND CHILD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
by William T. Garrison and Felton J. Earls
- EMPIRICALLY BASED ASSESSMENT OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SECOND EDITION
by Thomas M. Achenbach and Stephanie H. McConaughy
- MARRIAGE, DIVORCE, AND CHILDREN's ADJUSTMENT
by Robert E. Emery
by Laura Schreibman
- DELINQUENCY IN ADOLESCENCE
by Scott W. Henggeler
- CHRONIC ILLNESS DURING CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
by William T. Garrison and Susan McQuiston
- ANXIETY DISORDERS IN CHILDREN
by Rachel G. Klein and Cynthia G. Last
- CHILDREN OF BATTERED WOMEN
by Peter G. Jaffe, David A. Wolfe, and Susan Kaye Wilson
- SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
by Steven P. Schinke, Gilbert J. Botvin, and Mario A. Orlandi
- CHILD PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY
by Frank C. Verhulst and Hans M. Koot
- EATING AND GROWTH DISORDERS IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN
by Joseph L. Woolston
- NEUROLOGICAL BASIS OF CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
by George W. Hynd and Stephen R. Hooper
- ADOLESCENT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND CHILDBEARING
by Laurie Schwab Zabin and Sarah C. Hayward
- EFFECTS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
by John R. Weisz and Bahr Weiss
- BEHAVIOR AND DEVELOPMENT IN FRAGILE X SYNDROME
by Elisabeth M. Dykens, Robert M. Hodapp, and James F. Leckman
- ATTENTION DEFICITS AND HYPERACTIVITY IN CHILDREN
by Stephen P. Hinshaw
- LEARNING DISABILITIES
by Byron P. Rourke and Jerel E. Del Dotto
- PEDIATRIC TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
by Jeffrey H. Snow and Stephen R. Hooper
- FAMILIES, CHILDREN, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF DYSFUNCTION
by Mark R. Dadds
- ADOLESCENTS AND THE MEDIA
by Victor C. Strasburger
- SCHOOL-BASED PREVENTION PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
by Joseph A. Durlak
- CHILDHOOD OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER
by Greta Francis and Rod A. Gragg
- TREATING CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN RESIDENTIAL AND INPATIENT SETTINGS
by Robert D. Lyman and Nancy R. Campbell
- THE IMPACT OF FAMILY VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
by Javad H. Kashani and Wesley D. Allan
- CHILDREN's ADJUSTMENT TO ADOPTION
by David M. Brodzinsky, Daniel W. Smith, and Anne B. Brodzinsky
- MOTOR COORDINATION DISORDERS IN CHILDREN
by David A. Sugden and Helen Wright
Copyright © 1998 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Children's adjustment to adoption: Developmental and clinical issues / by David M. Brodzinsky, Daniel W. Smith, Anne B. Brodzinsky.
p. cm. -- (Developmental clinical psychology and psychiatry; v. 38)
Includes bibliographical references (p.) and index.
ISBN 0-7619-0515-4 (cloth: acid-free paper). -- ISBN 0-7619-0516-2 (pbk.: acid-free paper)
1. Adoption--Psychological aspects. 2. Adopted children--Psychology. 3. Adjustment (Psychology) in children. 4. Child development. I. Smith, Daniel W. (Daniel William), 1965- II. Brodzinsky, Anne Braff, 1940- III. Title. IV. Series.
98 99 00 01 02 03 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Jim Nageotte
Editorial Assistant: Fiona Lyon
Production Editor: Diana E. Axelsen
Editorial Assistant: Denise Santoyo
Typesetter/Designer: Rose Tylak
Introduction to the Series[Page vii]
Interest in child development and adjustment is by no means new. Yet, only recently has the study of children benefited from advances in both clinical and scientific research. Advances in the social and biological sciences, the emergence of disciplines and subdisciplines that focus exclusively on childhood and adolescence, and greater appreciation of the impact of such influences as the family, peers, and school have helped accelerate research on developmental psychopathology. Apart from interest in the study of child development and adjustment for its own sake, the need to address clinical problems of adulthood naturally draws one to investigate precursors in childhood and adolescence.
Within a relatively brief period, the study of psychopathology among children and adolescents has proliferated considerably. Several different professional journals, annual book series, and handbooks devoted entirely to the study of children and adolescents and their adjustment document the proliferation of work in the field. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of resource material that presents information in an authoritative, systematic, and disseminable fashion. There is a need within the field to convey the latest developments and to represent different disciplines, approaches, and conceptual views to the topics of childhood and adolescent adjustment and maladjustment.
The Sage series Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry is designed to serve uniquely several needs of the field. The Series encompasses individual monographs prepared by experts in the fields of clinical child psychology, child psychiatry, child development, and related disciplines. The primary focus is on developmental psychopathology, which refers broadly here to the diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and prevention of problems that arise in the period from infancy through adolescence. A [Page viii]working assumption of the Series is that understanding, identifying, and treating problems of youth must draw on multiple disciplines and diverse views within a given discipline.
The task for individual contributors is to present the latest theory and research on various topics, including specific types of dysfunction, diagnostic and treatment approaches, and special problem areas that affect adjustment. Core topics within clinical work are addressed by the Series. Authors are asked to bridge potential theory, research, and clinical practice, and to outline the current status and future directions. The goals of the Series and the tasks presented to individual contributors are demanding. We have been extremely fortunate in recruiting leaders in the fields, who have been able to translate their recognized scholarship and expertise into highly readable works on contemporary topics.
In this book, David M. Brodzinsky, Daniel W. Smith, and Anne B. Brodzinsky examine Children's Adjustment to Adoption: Developmental and Clinical Issues. The authors place adoption in historical context to address issues that affect both the process and outcome of adoption for children and their parents. Theoretical perspectives on the adoption process, along with supportive research, are carefully delineated. Extensive coverage is given to the research on both the adjustment of children and parents to adoption itself and the psychological development, including adjustment and maladjustment, over the course of childhood and adolescence. Children whose adoption emerges from such circumstances as child abuse, parental drug abuse, and parent HIV are also discussed. Adoption across racial and cultural lines and the circumstances such adoptions raise are also examined. The book is excellent in its coverage of theory and research on children and families and the contextual issues pertinent to the adoption process. Clinical vignettes punctuate key points. Assessment and intervention with children and families are also covered. The authors have made major research contributions over the years in understanding the effects of adoption. This book stands as yet another significant contribution.Ph.D.
Every book has a history. Ours began with a question posed by one of us (A. B.) to another (D. B.) some 20 years ago: “What does a young child understand about being adopted, and how does that understanding change over time?” This simple question became a catalyst for an initial research project that in turn led to a series of studies altering the course of our careers. Since the late 1970s, we have been exploring the psychology of adoption, both from research and clinical perspectives. Although most of our work has focused on the development and adjustment of adopted children, we have also studied and worked clinically with adult adoptees, adoptive parents, and birth parents. Overall, we have nearly 50 years of combined experience in this area.
As psychologists, we have often experienced a certain isolation from our colleagues in our study of adoption. In fact, with the exception of behavior geneticists, who are interested in adoptive families primarily in relation to questions concerning the heritability of behavior and psychological traits, only a handful of psychologists in this country are actively pursuing programmatic research on developmental and clinical issues in adoption. Perhaps this is because adoptees represent such a small percentage of the population of children. Perhaps it is because adoption is too closely tied to the field of social work and social service practice. Maybe it is because adoption is seen as a solution to a set of problems and not a potential problem itself. Whatever the reason, relatively few research or clinical articles on adoption appear in psychological journals each year, and until recently, issues related to adoptive family life were seldom represented in edited volumes or textbooks on the psychology of the family.
One of the primary reasons we decided to write this book was to stimulate interest among developmental and clinical psychologists with regard to the study of adoption. Although a considerable amount of interesting and very relevant research has been generated by investigators in other disciplines, [Page x]especially in the fields of social welfare and psychiatry, it is our belief that the unique perspectives and methodologies associated with psychological research have much to contribute to efforts at understanding patterns of adjustment in adoptees, adoptive parents, and birth parents. Given that adoption is now seen as influencing members of the adoption triad across the entire course of their lives, it seems obvious that developmental psychologists, in particular, would have much to offer to the study and understanding of adoption. Unfortunately, developmentalists have yet to discover this fact. We hope that by raising interesting theoretical, empirical, and clinical questions in this book and by bringing together what is currently known about developmental and adjustment issues in adoption, we will spark greater curiosity among our research and clinical colleagues.
Finally, over the course of our work in this field we have had the support of a number of organizations that we would like to acknowledge. First, we wish to express our appreciation to the National Institute of Mental Health, the Charles and Joanna Busch Memorial Fund of Rutgers University, the Research Council of Rutgers University, and the Division of Youth and Family Services of New Jersey for funding our research and clinical projects. We also wish to thank the many adoption agencies, adoptive parent support groups, and adoption attorneys around the country that have worked with us in the course of research. Finally, we are most appreciative of the time given to us by the thousands of adopted children, adult adoptees, adoptive parents, and birth parents whom we have met and worked with over the years. It is through their generosity in sharing with us their own unique adoption experiences that we have gained our insight into the psychology of adoption.
References[Page 117]1978). Patterns of attachment: Psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum., , & (1988). Ethnic identity of transethnically adopted Hispanic adolescents. Social Work, 33, 531–535.(Association of Black Social Workers and Allied Professions (1983). Black children in care: Evidence to the House of Commons Social Services Committee. London: Author.1986). Adoption plans, adopted children, and adoptive mothers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 243–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352391(1992). Relinquishment of premarital births: Evidence from national survey data. Family Planning Perspectives, 24, 27–32, 48. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2135722, & (1984). Life books: Tool for working with children in placement. Social Work, 25, 551–554.(1993). Chinese adoptees in Britain: A twenty-year follow-up of adjustment and social identity. International Social Work, 36, 143–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002087289303600205(1982). Self-efficacy mechanisms in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.37.2.122(1993). Perspectives on open adoption. The Future of Children, 11, 119–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602406& (1974). Adoptive parents and the sealed records controversy. Social Casework, 55, 521–536., & (1987). Adolescent mothers' beliefs about open adoption. Social Casework, 68, 323–331.(1988). Disruption in older child adoptions. Public Welfare, 46, 23–29.(1993). Revisiting the issues: Adoption of drug-exposed children. The Future of Children, 3, 167–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602411(1988). Adoption and disruption: Rates, risks, and responses. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.& (1997). A longitudinal study of family structure and size and adoption outcomes. Adoption Quarterly, 1, 29–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J145v01n01_03& (1994). From child abuse to permanency planning: Pathways of children through child welfare services. New York: Aldine de Gruyter., , & (1996). Outcomes for drug-exposed children four years post-adoption. Children and Youth Services Review, 18, 37–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2895%2900053-4& ([Page 118]1993a). Family bonds: Adoption and the politics of parenting. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.(1993b). International adoption: Current status and future prospects. The Future of Children, 3, 89–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602404(1997). Negative outcomes of interethnic adoption of Mexican American children. Social Work, 42, 136–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/42.2.136& (1988). The contribution of mother-infant mutual influences to the origins of self- and object representations. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 5, 305–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0736-9722.214.171.1245& (1987). Staying in touch: Empathy in open adoptions. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 57, 184–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00377318709516629(1976). The politics of adoption. New York: Free Press.(1994). Growing up adopted: A portrait of adolescents and their families. Minneapolis: Search Institute., & (1989–1990). Stress and coping among older child adoptive families. Social Work and Social Sciences Review, 1, 71–93.(1991). The practice of open adoption: Findings from a study of 1,396 families. Children and Youth Services Review, 13, 379–395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2891%2990027-F(1993). Risks and benefits of open adoption. The Future of Children, 11, 125–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602407(1994, November). Privacy, secrecy, and confidentiality in adoption. Paper presented at the Ethics in Adoption Conference, Minneapolis, MN.& (1990). Parents' fear for future of infants born on drugs. New York Times, 1, 8–9.(1983). Adoptive parents: Generative conflict and generational continuity. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 38, 141–163.(1970). Adopted children and their families: A follow-up study of adopted children, their background environment, and adjustment. Stockholm: Proprius.(1990). Outcome in adoption: Lessons from longitudinal studies. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 93–106). New York: Oxford University Press.(1978). An 18-year prospective, longitudinal study of adopted boys. In E. J.Anthony, C.Koupernik, & C.Chiland (Eds.), The child in his family: Vol 4. Vulnerable children. New York: Wiley.& (1979). Long-term effects of early institutional care: A prospective longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 20, 111–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1979.tb00491.x& (1980). A prospective, longitudinal study of children registered for adoption: A 15-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 61, 339–355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1980.tb00586.x& (1979). Disruptions in adoptive placements: A research study. Boston: Massachusetts Department of Public Welfare.(1992). Effects of changes in nutritional conditions on timing of puberty: Clinical evidence from adopted children and experimental studies in the male rat. Hormone Research, 38, Supplement 1, 97–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000182579, , , & (1969). Attachment and loss. Vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.(1973). Attachment and loss. Vol. 2: Separation. New York: Basic Books.(1980). Attachment and loss. Vol. 3: Loss. New York: Basic Books.(1995). Genetic mediation of longitudinal associations between family environment and childhood behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 233–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400006477, , , & ([Page 119]1987). New perspectives on attachment relations: Security, communication, and internal working models. In J.Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development ((2nd ed.) (pp. 1061–1100). New York: Wiley.1990). Adoption from the inside out: A psychoanalytic perspective. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 42–61). New York: Oxford University Press.(1982). Adoption and adaptation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 489–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198208000-00008& (1990). Surrendering an infant for adoption: The birth mother experience. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 295–315). New York: Oxford University Press.(1992). The relation of learned helplessness, social support and avoidance to grief and depression in women who have placed an infant for adoption. Unpublished dissertation. New York University.(1997). Clinical assessment issues in the treatment of adopted children. New Jersey Psychologist, 47, 16–19.& (1983). Adjustment factors in adoption (Rep. No. MH34549). Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health.(1984). New perspectives on adoption revelation. Adoption and Fostering, 8, 27–32.(1987). Adjustment to adoption: A psychosocial perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 7, 25–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2887%2990003-1(1990). A stress and coping model of adoption adjustment. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 3–24). New York: Oxford University Press.(1993). Long-term outcome in adoption. The Future of Children, 11, 153–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602410(1997). Infertility and adoption adjustment: Considerations and clinical issues. In S.Lieblum (Ed.), Infertility: Psychological issues and counseling strategies (pp. 246–262). New York: Wiley.(1992). The impact of family structure on the adjustment of adopted children. Child Welfare, 71, 69–75.& (1993). Impact of parental separation and divorce on adopted and nonadopted children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 451–461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079447, & (1988). Transition to adoptive parenthood. Marriage and Family Review, 12, 267–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J002v12n03_13& (1995). Parenting adopted children. In M.Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting. Vol. 3: Status and social conditions of parenting (pp. 209–232). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1987). Prevalence of clinically significant symptomatology in a nonclinical sample of adopted and nonadopted children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 16, 350–356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp1604_9, , & (1984). Psychological and academic adjustment in adopted children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 582–590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.4.582, , & (1986). Children's knowledge of adoption: Developmental changes and implications for adjustment. In R.Ashmore & D.Brodzinsky (Eds.), Thinking about the family: Views of parents and children. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & ([Page 120]Brodzinsky, D. M. & Schechter, M. D. (Eds.). (1990). The psychology of adoption. New York: Oxford University Press.1992). Being adopted: The lifelong search for self. New York: Doubleday., & (1984). Children's understanding of adoption. Child Development, 55, 869–878. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130138, & (1991). Prevalence of adoptees among special education populations. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 484–489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221949102400807& (1989). Adopted children, adoptive families: Recognizing differences. In L.Combrinck-Graham (Ed.), Children in family contexts (pp 161–186). New York: Guilford Press.(1988). The case for confidential adoption. Public Welfare, 46, 20–23.(1990). Biologic perspectives of adoptee adjustment. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 25–41). New York: Oxford University Press.(1980). Biological correlates of hyperactivity: Evidence for a genetic factor. In S.Sells, R.Crandall, M.Roff, et al. (Eds.), Human functioning in longitudinal perspective, Baltimore: William & Wilkins.& (1985). Genetic and environmental factors in major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 9, 155–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-0327%2885%2990095-3, , et al. (1986). An adoption study of genetic and environmental factors in drug abuse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 1131–1136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1986.01800120017004, , et al. (1974). Temperament in adopted and foster babies. Child Welfare, 53, 352–359., & (Carter, E. A. & McGoldrick, M. (Eds.). (1980). The family life cycle. New York: Gardner Press.1986). Meeting the needs of the adoption triangle through open adoption: The birthmother. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 3, 203–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00758252, , & (1987a). Meeting the needs of the adoption triangle through open adoption: The adoptive parent. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 4, 3–12., , & (1987b). Meeting the needs of the adoption triangle through open adoption: The adoptee. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 4, 78–91., , & (1992). The placement of black children with permanent new families. Adoption and Fostering, 16, 13–19., & (1972). The dilemma of bi-racial adoption. Social Work, 17, 100–105.(1975). Transracial adoption of black children. Social Work, 20, 296–301.(1995). Attachment security and indiscriminately friendly behavior in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 283–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400006507, , & (Grief resolution of birthmothers in confidential, time-limited mediated, ongoing mediated, and fully disclosed adoptions. Adoption Quarterly., , & (In press).1995). Bowlby's dream comes full circle: The application of attachment theory to risk and psychopathology. In T.Ollendick & R.Prinz (Eds.), Advances in Clinical Child Psychology: Vol. 17 (pp. 1–75). New York: Plenum., & (1989). Predicting the decision of biological mothers to retain or relinquish their babies for adoption: Implication for open placement. Child Welfare, 68, 33–44.([Page 121]1995). A comparison of self-esteem, school achievement, and friends between intercountry adoptees and their siblings. Early Child Development and Care, 106205–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0300443951060116& (1985). Adoption: History, policy, and program. In J.Laird & A.Hartman (Eds.), A handbook of child welfare. New York: Free Press.(1990). History, values, and placement policy issues in adoption. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 273–294). New York: Oxford University Press.& (1992). Identifying children in the Colorado Adoption Project at risk for conduct disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 503–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199205000-00018, , & (1993). Influences of school environment on the academic achievement scores of adopted and nonadopted children. Intelligence, 17, 70–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896%2893%2990040-C, , & (1988). Relationships at risk. In J.Belsky & T.Nezworski (Eds.), Clinical implications of attachment theory (pp. 136–174). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1987). Intercountry adopted children in Norway: Socio-cultural factors, identity, and adjustment. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of Special Education.& (1988). Reshaped parenthood identity: The transition to adoptive parenthood. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 17, 40–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891241688171002(1989, October). Infertility resolution and adoption readiness. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 71, 483–492.(1996). Family racial socialization and ecological competence: Longitudinal assessments of African-American transracial adoptees. Child Development, 67, 2375–2399. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131629, & (1982). Overrepresentation of adoptees in childen with the attention deficit disorder. Behavior Genetics, 12, 231–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01065768, , , , & (1945). The psychology of women: A psychoanalytic interpretation (Vol. 2). New York: Grune and Stratton.(1992). Chronic active hepatitis B infection in Romanian adoptees. Journal of Pediatric and Gastroenterological Nutrition, 19, 431–436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005176-199411000-00012, , & (1990). Children from disrupted and adoptive homes on an inpatient unit. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 60, 594–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079211, & (1986). From caregiving to parenting: Family formation with adopted older children. Child Welfare, 31, 366–370.(1997). He does, she doesn't; she does, he doesn't: Couple conflicts about infertility. In S.Lieblum (Ed.), Infertility: Psychological issues and counseling strategies (pp. 129–148). New York: Wiley.& (1993). Levels of cooperation and satisfaction in 56 open adoptions. Child Welfare, 72, 257–267.(1971). A comparative study of prenatal anxiety in the unwed mother. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 2, 84–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01434641& (1979). Attachment and separation. Michigan Department of Social Services.(1972). Far from the reservation. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.(1978). Children in foster care. New York: Columbia University Press.& ([Page 122]1983). Chosen children: New patterns of adoptive relationships. New York: Praeger.& (1995). The adolescent outcomes of adoption: A 16-year longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychiatry, 36, 597–615., & (1986). Necessary risk: A study of adoptions and disrupted adoptive placements. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.(1990). Adoption disruption: Rates and correlates. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 201–220). New York: Oxford University Press.(1997). Problems reported by parents of Romanian orphans adopted to British Columbia. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 20, 67–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/016502597385441, , & (1986). Adoption predicts psychiatric treatment resistances in hospitalized adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 542–551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-7138%2810%2960015-5, & (1984). The twenty-year trend of federally assisted foster care. Child Welfare Research Notes #8. Washington, DC: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families: Department of Health and Human Services.(1991). Adopted children with developmental disabilities. Post-adoptive family functioning. Children and Youth Services Review, 13, 363–378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2891%2990026-E(1991). The effects of gestational age and gender on grief after pregnancy loss. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 461–467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079261, , & (1992). Patterns of psychiatric disorder in adopted girls: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 935–940. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1992.tb01967.x& (1945). Psychological privation in infancy and psychological adjustment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 15, 247–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1945.tb04938.x(1994). Three-year outcome of children exposed prenatally to drugs. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 20–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199401000-00004, & (1993). Open adoption: A research-based literature review and new data. Child Welfare, 77, 269–284.(1997). Coming to terms with adoption: The construction of identity from adolescence into adulthood. Adoption Quarterly, 1, 3–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J145v01n01_02(1998). Openness in adoption: Exploring family connections. New York: Sage.& (1994). Adoptive family system dynamics: Variations by level of openness in adoption. Family Process, 33, 125–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1994.00125.x, , & (1977). Patterns of interest similarity in adoptive and biological families. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 667–676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1997, & (1974). Black children—white parents. New York: Child Welfare League of America.& (1986). Special-needs adoptions. Children and Youth Services Review, 8, 363–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2886%2990005-8(1996). Successful adoptive families: A longitudinal study of special needs adoption. Westport, CT: Praeger.(1996). A follow-up study of adopted children from Romania. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 13, 541–565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01874306& (1992). Medical evaluation of children adopted from abroad. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 410.& ([Page 123]1991). The family life cycle in adoptive families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 78–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079224& (1990). Family treatment after adoption: Common themes. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds), The psychology of adoption (pp. 221–239). New York: Oxford University Press.& (Is adoption a risk factor for the development of adjustment problems? Clinical Psychology Review.(In press).1993). Transracial adoption: Politics and ideology. Child Welfare, 52, 301–310.(1991). Adoption and eating disorders. A high-risk group?British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 829–833. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.158.6.829(1982). Prediction in child development: A longitudinal study of adoptive and nonadoptive families. New York: Child Welfare League of America.(1990). Adoption and identity formation. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 144–166). New York: Oxford University Press.(1983). The Texas adoption project: Adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents. Child Development, 54, 268–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129690(1975). Bias against genetic hypotheses in adoption studies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 1365–1367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1975.01760290033003, , & (1991). Medical evaluation of internationally adopted children. New England Journal of Medicine, 325, 479–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199108153250706, , , , & (1997). Predictors of adjustment in preschool adopted children. Unpublished manuscript.& (1997). Facilitating developmental attachment. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.(1988). Ritual themes in families and family therapy. In E.Imber-Black, J.Roberts, & R.Whiting (Eds.), Rituals in families and family therapy (pp. 47–83). New York: Norton.(Imber-Black, E., Roberts, J. & Whiting, R. (Eds.). (1988). Rituals in families and family therapy. New York: Norton.1993). The orphaned and institutionalized children of Romania. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 2, 49–52.& (1992). The health of children adopted from Romania. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 3446–3451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03490240054036, , , , , , , & (1991). The concept of attachment: Applications to adoption. Child and Youth Services Review, 13, 397–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2891%2990028-G& (1980). Child welfare services ((3rd edition). New York: Macmillan.1988). Child welfare services (& (4th ed.). New York: Macmillan.1986). Critical factors in the adoption of emotionally disturbed youth. Child Welfare, 65, 63–74.& (1986). Parental stress factors for success in older child adoption. Child Welfare, 65, 569–578.(1990). Acknowledgment or rejection of differences? In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 121–143). New York: Oxford University Press.(1995). International adoption: A case review of Korean children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 25, 141–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02251299([Page 124]1988). Psychiatric disorder and juvenile delinquency in adopted children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 111–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198801000-00017, , , & (1964). Shared fate. New York: Free Press.(1981). Adoptive kinship—A modern institution in need of reform. Toronto: Butterworth.(1990). Psychologists' attitudes toward adopted children. Unpublished dissertation, The Fielding Institute, Santa Barbara, CA.(1983). Risk factors in development. In P.Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol 2. Infancy and developmental psychology. New York: Wiley.(1988). Psychiatric disorders in adopted children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 58, 608–612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1988.tb01625.x, , , , , & (1993). A psychiatric follow-up study of adoptees. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 391–396., , , & (1985a). Some theoretical considerations on confidential adoptions. Part 1: The birth mother. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 2, 13–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00757531, , , & (1985b). Some theoretical considerations on confidential adoptions. Part 2: The adoptive parent. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 2, 69–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00757473, , , & (1985). Some theoretical considerations on confidential adoptions. Part 3: The adopted child. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 2, 139–153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00758065, , , & (1978). Family structure as a factor in the adjustment of adopted children. British Journal of Social Work, 8, 327–337.(Lamb, M. (Ed.). (1982). Nontraditional families: Parenting and child development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.1980). Children in changing families: A study of adoption and illegitimacy. London: MacMillan.& (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.(1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.& (1994). Orphans of the HIV epidemic: Unmet need in six U.S. cities. New York: The Orphan Project.& (1995). Malnutrition and the brain: Changing concepts, changing concerns. Journal of Nutrition, 125, 2212–2220.& (1990). Psychological adjustment of adoptive parents-to-be. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 60, 258–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079165, & (1997). The course of infertility: Immediate and long-term reactions. In S.Lieblum (Ed.), Infertility: Psychological issues and counseling strategies (pp. 83–102). New York: Wiley.& (1979). Lost and found: The adoption experience. New York: Dial Press.(1994). Journey of the adopted self: A quest for wholeness. New York: Basic Books.(1980). Psychological adjustment of adopted and nonadopted children. Psychological Reports, 46, 307–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19188.8.131.527& (1992). Psychiatric disorders in adopted children: A profile from the Ontario Child Health Study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 37, 627–633., , & ([Page 125]1985). Personality resemblances in adoptive families when the children are late-adolescent or adult. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 376–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2066, and (1984). Predicting rejecting of her infant from mother's representation of her own experience: Implications for the abused-abusing intergenerational cycle. Child Abuse and Neglect, 8, 203–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2884%2990009-7& (1985). Security in infancy, childhood and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, (1–2. Serial No. 209), 66–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3333827, & (1995). Romanian adoption: Parents' dreams, nightmares, and realities. Child Welfare, 74, 993–1017., , & (1994). Characteristics of abstinent substance abusers who first sought treatment in adolescence. Journal of Drug Education, 24, 151–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/38JX-HLTP-DWM4-4GJH, & (1990). Adopted and illegitimate children growing up. In L.Robins & M.Rutter (Eds.), Straight and devious pathways from childhood to adulthood (pp. 36–61). New York: Cambridge University Press.& (1983). Characteristics of children free for adoption. Child Welfare Research Notes #2. Washington, DC: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families: Department of Health and Human Services.(1993). The case of independent adoption. The Future of Children, 11, 146–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602409(1987). Adjustment to infertility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 108–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.96.2.108, & (1988). Open adoptions: Practice and policy issues. Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality, 6, 119–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J291v06n01_09& (1988). The development of emotional disturbance in adopted adolescents. New York: Praeger., & (1997). Achieving same-race adoptive placements for African American children: Culturally sensitive practice approaches. Child Welfare, 76, 85–104., & (1983). Transracial and inracial adoptees. Springfield, IL: Thomas.& (1982). Self esteem and racial identity in transracial and inracial adoptees. Social Work, 27, 522–526., , & (1985). Care and commitment: Foster parent adoption decisions. New York: State University of New York Press.& (1993). The open adoption experience. New York: HarperCollins.& (1996). Adoptive couples: Communication and changes made in openness levels. Family Relations, 45, 223–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585294, & (1965). Aggressive symptoms in emotionally disturbed adopted children. Child Development, 36, 519–532. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1126474(1987). The stigma of adoptive parent status: Perceptions of community attitudes toward adoption and the experience of informal social sanctioning. Journal of Applied Family and Child Studies, 36, 34–39.(1968). Psychological characteristics of adopted children. Psychiatry Quarterly Supplement, 42, 274–281.& ([Page 126]1995). Developmental and nutritional status of internationally adopted children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 149, 40–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1995.02170130042009, , & (1993). Drug-exposed children: Fresh reasons for concern. Leake and Watts Newsletter, 4, 1–4.& (1995). The development of children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 41, 411–430., & (1991). Fecundity and infertility in the United States: Incidence and trend. Fertility and Sterility, 56, 192–193.& (1997). Assessment and treatment of attachment-impaired adopted children. New Jersey Psychologist, 47, 27–29.(National Committee for Adoption. (1989). Adoption Factbook. Washington, DC: National Committee for Adoption.1985). On the frontier of adoption: A study of special needs adoptive families. New York: Child Welfare League of America.(1993). Concepts of family among children and adolescents: Effects of cognitive level, gender, and family structure. Developmental Psychology, 29, 951–962. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.111, & (1985). Losses in adoption: The need for dialogue. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 40, 365–398.(1977). A comparison of self-concept in adopted and nonadopted adolescents. Adolescence, 12, 443–448.& (1996). Understanding diverse families: What practitioners need to know. New York: Guilford.(1984). Open adoption as standard practice. Child Welfare, 63, 245–250.& (1974). Opening the sealed record in adoption: The human need for continuity. Journal of Jewish Communal Service, 51, 188–196., & (1986). Legacies of loss—visions of gain: An inside look at adoption disruption. Portland, ME: University of Southern Maine Press., & (1987). Adopted children and inpatient psychiatric treatment: A retrospective study. The Psychiatric Hospital, 18, 153–158.(1996). Toward understanding family readjustment following older child adoptions: The interplay between theory generation and empirical research. Children and Youth Services Review, 18, 115–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2895%2900057-7(1995, April). Family readjustment following older child adoptions: The role of cognitions. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Indianapolis, IN., , & (1985). Origins of individual differences in infancy: The Colorado Adoption Project. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.& (1992). Adoption and the family system. New York: Guilford.& (1988). Psychopathology in hospitalized adopted children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 628–631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198809000-00019, , , & (1991). Birth parent romances and identity formation in adopted children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 70–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079220& (1993). Outcomes of adoption of children with special needs. The Future of Children, 3, 77–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602403([Page 127]1992). Special needs adoption: A study of intact families. New York: Praeger.& (1988). Predictors of special needs adoption disruption: An exploratory study. Children and Youth Services Review, 10, 101–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2888%2990031-X, & (1997). Transracial family placements. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 147–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01850.x& (1982). Abuse and deprivation in failing adoptions. Child Abuse and Neglect, 6, 443–451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2882%2990088-6& (1976). IQ test performance of black children adopted by white families. American Psychologist, 31, 726–739. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.31.10.726& (1983). The Minnesota Adoption Studies: Genetic differences and malleability. Child Development, 54, 260–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129689& (1990). Brief solution-focused therapy with adoptive families. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 240–252). New York: Oxford University Press.& (1960). Observations on adopted children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 3, 21–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1960.01710010023005(1970). About adoptive parents. In E. J.Anthony, & T.Benedek (Eds.), Parenthood: Its psychology and psychopathology. Boston: Little, Brown.(1990). The meaning of the search. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 62–92). New York: Oxford University Press.& (1964). Emotional problems in the adoptee. Archives of General Psychiatry, 10, 37–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1964.01720200005002, , & (1988). Parents' view of adoption disruption. Children and Youth Services Review, 10, 119–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2888%2990032-1, & (1972). Growing up adopted. Windsor, U.K.: National Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales., & (1956). A study of adoption practice: Vol 1. Adoption agencies and the children they serve. New York: Child Welfare League of America.(1996a). The emotional and behavioral adjustment of United States adopted adolescents: Part 1: An overview. Children and Youth Services Review, 18, 83–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2895%2900055-0, & (1996b). The emotional and behavioral adjustment of United States adopted adolescents. Part 2: Age at placement. Children and Youth Services Review, 18, 101–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0190-7409%2895%2900056-9, & (1986). A longitudinal study of black adoptions: Single parent, transracial, and traditional. Social Work, 31, 172–176.& (1993). Open adoption of infants: Adoptive parents' perceptions of advantages and disadvantages. Social Work, 38, 15–23.(1990). Children of open adoption. San Antonio, TX: Corona.& (1970). Frequency of adoption in children with neurological learning disability syndrome. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 3, 10–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221947000300602(1989). Frequency of adoption in children and adolescents with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 325–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221948902200514(1993). Outcomes of transracial adoption. The Future of Children, 3, 104–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602405([Page 128]1990). Adjustment in interracial adoptees: An overview. In D.Brodzinsky & M.Schechter (Eds.), The psychology of adoption (pp. 187–200). New York: Oxford University Press.& (1986). Non-relative adoption in the United States. In R. A. C.Hoksbergen (Ed.), Adoption in world wide perspective: A review of programs, policies, and legislation in 14 countries. Royesford, PA: Swets & Zeitlinger.& (1994). Toward and organizational-relational model of open model. Family Process, 33, 111–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1994.00111.x& (1966). Adoption and psychiatric illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 858–867.& (1977). Transracial adoption. New York: Wiley.& (1987). Transracial adoptees and their families: A study of identity and commitment. New York: Praeger.& (1982). Children's beliefs about adoption: A developmental study. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3, 285–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0193-3973%2882%2990001-6, & (1985). Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families. Child Development, 56, 1543–1551. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130473, , , & (1994). Stress and coping in adoption: A developmental study. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 91–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2301_11& (1997). Coping with birthparent loss in adopted children. Manuscript submitted for publication.& (1989). The health of children adopted from India. Journal of Community Health, 14, 227–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01338874& (1993). Antecedents of American adoption. The Future of Children, 3, 17–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602399(1975). Identity conflicts in adoptees. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 45, 18–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1975.tb01162.x, & (1978). The adoption triangle. New York: Doubleday., & (1945). Hospitalism: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1, 53–74.(1977). Attachment as an organizational construct. Child Development, 48, 1184–1199. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128475& (1985). Identity formation in the adopted adolescent. New York: Child Welfare League of America.& (1983). Issues of attachment and separation: Foster care and adoption. In P.Steinhauer & Q.Rae-Grant (Eds.), Psychological problems of the child in the family ((2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.1985). The interpersonal world of the infant: A view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. New York: Basic Books.(1993). Statistics on adoption in the United States. The Future of Children, 11, 26–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602400(1984). A structural and developmental analysis of symptomatic adopted children and their families. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 10, 381–391.& (1997). Acknowledging difference in adoptive families: Helpful or harmful for adoptive family functioning? Manuscript submitted for publication., , , & (1988). The sequenced inventory of communication development: An adoption study of two- and three-year-olds. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 11, 219–231.& ([Page 129]1977). Adoption: A second chance. New York: Free Press.(1978). The effect of early institutional rearing on the development of eight-year-old children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 99–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1978.tb00453.x& (1975). The effect of early institutional rearing on the behavior problems and affectional relationships of four-year-old children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 16, 61–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1975.tb01872.x& (1962). Thoughts regarding the etiology of psychological difficulties in adopted children. Child Welfare, 41, 59–65.(1990). Problem behavior in international adoptees: II. Age at placement. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 104–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199001000-00016, & (1992). Damaging backgrounds: Later adjustment of international adoptees. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 518–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199205000-00020, & (1995). Developmental course of problem behaviors in adolescent adoptees. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 151–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199502000-00010& (1993). Cognitive abilities of children at 7 and 12 years of age in the Colorado Adoption Project. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 611–615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221949302600911, & (1991). Prenatal stress and childhood psychopathology. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 22, 97–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00707788(1992). Lower threshold for referral for psychiatric treatment for adopted adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 512–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199205000-00019(1984). International adoption: The quiet immigration. International Migration Review, 18, 280–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2545951(1985). Symptomatology of adopted and nonadopted adolescents in a psychiatric hospital. Adolescence, 19, 77–88.(1987). Reactions of mental health professionals to hypothetical clients: A comparison based on clients' adoptive status. Psychotherapy, 24, 414–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085733(1990). Preventing disruption of special needs adoptions. Child Welfare, 69, 141–156.& (1988). Therapeutic rituals with families with adopted members. In E.Imber-Black, J.Roberts, & R.Whiting (Eds.), Rituals in families and family therapy. (pp. 211–229). New York: Norton.(1977). On being told of adoption. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 46, 1–22.(1993). Psychological adjustment of adoptees: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 447–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2204_5(1988). Clinical practice in adoption. New York: Pergamon., , & (1971). Studies in adoption: Requests for psychiatric treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 948–950.& (1996). Openness in adoption and the level of child participation. Child Development, 67, 2358–2374. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131628, , , & ([Page 130]1994). Drug-affected children in foster care in New York City. In R.Barth, J.Berrick, & N.Gilbert (Eds.), Child welfare research review (pp. 146–184). New York: Columbia University Press.(1973). The immediate impact of separation: Reactions of infants to a change in mother figure. In L.Stone, H.Smith, & L.Murphy (Eds.), The competent infant. New York: Basic Books.& (1973). Infancy experiences and cognitive and personality development at 10 years. In L.Stone, H.Smith, & L.Murphy (Eds.), The competent infant. New York: Basic Books., , & (1985, April). Behavior and learning problems among adopted children: Findings from a U.S. national survey of child health. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Toronto.(
About the Authors[Page 141]
David M. Brodzinsky is Associate Professor of Developmental and Clinical Psychology at Rutgers University, where he also serves as Director of the Foster Care Counseling Project. Since receiving his doctorate in Developmental Psychology from the State University of New York at Buffalo, he has published widely in areas of child development and clinical psychology, with particular emphasis in the past 18 years on the adjustment of adopted children and their families. He has a private practice in South Orange, New Jersey, where he works primarily with members of the adoption triangle. He also is frequently called upon to serve as a forensic psychologist and expert witness in family law cases involving contested adoptions, child custody, and child abuse.
Dr. Brodzinsky has served as a consultant to numerous public and private adoption agencies and has conducted workshops on psychological issues in adoption and foster care for mental health and child welfare professionals throughout the United States, Canada, and Great Britain. He also currently serves on the Board of Directors of the Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute in New York City. His publications include The Psychology of Adoption (1990), edited with M. Schechter; Being Adopted: The Lifelong Search for Self (1992), with M. Schechter and R. Henig; and Lifespan Human Development (1993), with A. Gormly.
Daniel W. Smith is Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of Arkansas. His current research and clinical interests focus on the assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse victims, as well as children's adaptation to adoption. He earned his doctorate in clinical psychology at Rutgers University, where he specialized in the adjustment of adopted and foster children. His experiences in working with the foster care system sparked his interest in the effects of child maltreatment, which he pursued during his internship and NIMH-funded post-doctoral training at the Medical [Page 142]University of South Carolina's National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center. He serves on the Editorial Board of Child Maltreatment, and is a frequent journal reviewer in the area of traumatic stress. He also co-founded the Children's Safety Center, the first multi-disciplinary child advocacy center in Northwest Arkansas.
Anne B. Brodzinsky is on the faculty of the Training Institute in Infant Mental Health in Newark, New Jersey and is a psychoanalytic candidate in the Child and Adolescent Program at the National Institute for the Psychotherapies in New York City. She has been involved in research and clinical work in adoption and foster care for the past 18 years. She has published widely on issues related to children's understanding of and adjustment to adoption, and recently has been pursuing research on the adjustment of birthmothers. She received her doctorate in counseling psychology from New York University.
Dr. Brodzinsky has served as a consultant to numerous public and private adoption agencies and has conducted workshops on the psychology of adoption for mental health and child welfare professionals, as well as for adoptive parents, throughout the United States and Great Britain. She has a private practice in South Orange, New Jersey, which is focused on members of the adoption triangle and is the author of The Mulberry Bird (1996), a well-known children's book on adoption.