Challenging the Injustice of Poverty: Agendas for Inclusive Development in South Asia

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Rehman Sobhan

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    Professor Rehman Sobhan is a great analyst and thinker. He looks at society from a very close range before he theorises about it. I have experienced his total commitment for the poor when he was the Chairman of the board of Grameen Bank from 1996 to 2002. In this book, he presents his insights about the problems that South Asian society faces. He has highlighted many experiences in this region including many that Grameen has initiated. He strongly believes that poor people themselves can dramatically change their own lives for better, if institutional opportunities are created to do so. This is a must-read book from a scholar who has spent his life-time in finding solutions to the development problems of South Asia.

    MuhammadYunus Nobel Laureate, Managing Director, Grameen Bank, Bangladesh

    By arguing that poverty in South Asia is rooted in the inequitable and unjust social order in the region, this volume gives a fresh insight into the problem of poverty and on that basis suggests a comprehensive and inter-related set of measures to remove the root causes. Such an inclusive approach alone will mitigate the suffering of the millions, ensure their human rights, consolidate democracy, sustain the recent trend of high growth and enable the region to cope with global economic crisis of the kind we experienced recently.

    MuchkundDubey, President, Council for Social Development, New Delhi, Co-Chairman, South Asia Centre for Policy Studies (SACEPS)

    South Asia contains the largest number and the highest percentage of the poor people in the world: it has been the home of extensive analysis of the various dimensions of poverty since the 1950s as well as of novel and manifold approaches towards its reduction. Rehman Sobhan's book, Challenging the Injustice of Poverty, starts from a different and fresh perspective with emphasis on the structural sources of poverty as well as policy and institutional reforms required to remove them. It is a highly stimulating and challenging approach and puts together piecemeal analyses and policy approaches of the past in a comprehensive and holistic framework. It is highly recommended as a must read not only for the analysts but also for the policy makers in the region.

    NurulIslam, Emeritus Professor, International Food Policy Research Institute, Former Assistant Director General, FAO, Former Deputy Chairman, Bangladesh Planning Commission

    This book, authored by a scholar who has dedicated his life to understanding and exposing the social injustices that exist in our region, is a timely contribution to articulating concrete action by all concerned. It deals with the root causes of structural injustices and puts forward a way out to correcting prevailing injustices.

    MohanManSainju, Chair of the Poverty Alleviation Fund, Nepal, Chair of the Institute of Integrated Development Studies

    Rehman Sobhan as a champion of the downtrodden and the impoverished articulates a most powerful case for empowering the excluded. I wish the Political and Administrative Leadership of the developing countries would read this book and act upon it.

    ShoaibSultanKhan, Chair of the Pakistan National Rural Support Programme, (Architect of the Agha Khan Rural Support Project)

    Measurement and study of poverty became a huge global and money making industry for economists largely under the patronage of the World Bank. Professor Rehman Sobhan was one of the few economists who did not join the mainstream, but tried systematically over many years to understand the economic and political processes that lead to massive poverty in South Asia, using his intimate knowledge of Bangladesh. We have here a most valuable book that distills his thought and experience on the subject. No one genuinely concerned with this problem should miss this thought provoking book.

    AmitBhaduri, Professor Emeritus, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

    South Asia has experimented with a number of poverty reduction strategies as advocated by the World Bank, donor agencies, and regional institutions over the last few decades. Yet poverty reduction has been slow and South Asia has the largest number of people under poverty than any other region in the world. Professor Sobhan shows that persistent poverty in the region derives from the unjust nature of social order which effectively exclude the poor from equitable opportunities for participating in the development process. He argues that unless the structural injustices which underlie poverty are removed, poverty will persist in South Asia despite existing poverty reduction strategies been in place. This is a pioneering study that has intruded into unchartered policy areas. It is an essential reading for all those interested in development and poverty reduction.

    SamanKelegama, Executive Director, Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka, Editor, South Asia Economic Journal

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    To my dear friend Amartya Sen

    whose enduring commitment to end poverty and challenge injustice has been an inspiration to all of us.

    List of Tables and Boxes

    List of Annexures

    • Major Agencies, Crops/Commodities, Locations and Types of Contract Farming in India 408
    • The Grameen Family of Companies 416
    • CPD/SACEPS Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor 418
    • Core Research Team 418
    • List of Background Research Publications 419
    • Dialogues and Focus Group Discussions 421
    • CPD-SACEPS Seminar on Rethinking Poverty Eradication in South Asia: An Agenda for Inclusive Development (Detailed Agenda) 422
    • CPD-SACEPS-UNDP Conference (Detailed Agenda) 428
    • Published Books and Monographs by Prof. Rehman Sobhan 431

    List of Acronyms

    100-DEGP100-Day Employment Generation Programme
    ABDAgri Business Division
    ADBAsian Development Bank
    ADPAnnual Development Plan
    AKRSPAga Khan Rural Support Programme
    AMULAnand Milk Union Ltd
    APAndhra Pradesh
    APCAarong Production Centres
    APMCAgricultural Produce Marketing Committee
    APPLAmalgamated Plantations Private Ltd
    ASKAin-O-Shalish Kendra
    BANBEISBangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics
    BATCBritish American Tobacco Company
    BBSBangladesh Bureau of Statistics
    BMVSSBharat Mahaweer Viklang Sahayata Samiti
    BRACBangladesh Rural Advance Committee
    BRDBBangladesh Rural Development Board
    BWIBretton Woods Institutions
    CBOCommunity Based Organisation
    CBSCentral Bureau of Statistics
    CCCommunity Coordinator
    CCBCitizens Community Boards
    CEOChief Executive Officer
    CFCCommon Facility Centres
    CIIConfederation of Indian Industry
    CIRDAPCentre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific
    COCommunity Organizations
    CPDCentre for Policy Dialogue
    CPI-MCommunist Party of India (Marxist)
    CRPCommunity Resource Person
    CSCivil Society
    CSOCivil Society Organisation
    CSRCorporate Social Responsibility
    DCDeveloping Country
    DDCDairy Development Cooperative
    DFIDevelopment Finance Institutions
    DPDevelopment Partner
    DPCDistrict Programme Coordinator
    DWCRADevelopment of Women and Children in Rural Areas
    EBSATAEast Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act
    ECCEconomic Consultation Committee
    EABEconomic Advisory Board
    EFPAEquity Fund for Poverty Alleviation
    EPFEmployee Provident Fund
    ESOPEmployee Stock Option Plans
    EWSEconomically Weaker Sections
    FAOFood and Agriculture Organisation
    FDIForeign Direct Investment
    FECOFUNFederation of Community Forestry Users', Nepal
    FEPFood for Education Programme
    FFWFood for Work
    FICCIFederation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry
    FMFinance Minister
    FPFor Profit
    FYPFive Year Plan
    FYFinancial Year
    GBGrameen Bank
    GBMFGrameen Bank Mutual Fund
    GCMMFGujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation
    GDPGross Domestic Product
    GFGrameen Fund
    GKGrameen Kallyan
    GLHSGovernment Laboratory High School
    GOBGovernment of Bangladesh
    GOIGovernment of India
    GOPGovernment of Pakistan
    GPGrameen Phone
    GRGratuitous Relief
    GTGrameen Telecom
    HAFEDHaryana State Cooperative Supply & Marketing Federation Ltd
    HDIHuman Development Index
    HDRHuman Development Report
    HIESHousehold Income and Expenditure Survey
    HLCLEPHigh Level Commission on the Legal Empowerment of the Poor
    HPCLEPHigh Powered Commission on the Legal Empowerment of the Poor
    HULHindustan Unilever Ltd
    HYVHigh-yielding Variety
    IBPInternational Budget Partnership
    ICTInformation and Communication Technology
    IDCInternational Development Community
    IDPsInfrastructure Development Programmes
    IFADInternational Fund for Agriculture Development
    IFFCOIndian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited
    IFIInternational Financial Institutions
    IGPIncome Generation Programmes
    IMInstitute of Microfinance
    IMFInternational Monetary Fund
    IPOInitial Public Offering
    IPSInstitute of Policy Studies
    IRDAInsurance Regulatory Development Authority
    ISACPAIndependent South Asian Commission for Poverty Alleviation
    ISECInterest Subsidizing Eligibility Certification
    ISIIndian Statistical Institute
    ITInformation Technology
    ITCInternational Trade Centre
    JFMPJoint Forest Management Programme
    KBKhushhali Bank
    KDHPLKannan Devan Hills Plantation Ltd
    KKBKhuda Ki Basti
    KRIBHCOKrishak Bharati Cooperative Limited
    LCSLabour Contracting Societies
    LDCLeast Developed Country
    LIGLow Income Group
    MCCMondragon Corporation Cooperative
    MDGMillennium Development Goal
    MFMicro-finance
    MFBsMicro-financial Banks
    MFIsMicro-finance Institutions
    MHDCMahbub-ul-Huq Development Centre
    MMSMahila Mandal Samikhas
    MNCMutli-national Corporation
    MPAMilk Producer's Association
    NABARDNational Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development
    NAFEDNational Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India
    NBRNational Board of Revenue
    NCEDNational Council for Economic Development
    NCEUSNational Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector
    NDDBNational Dairy Development Board
    NEPNational Education Policy
    NEPFCNational Education Policy Formulation Committee
    NFPNot for Profit
    NFSPNationwide Female Stipend Programme
    NFUENon-farm Unorganised Enterprises
    NGONon-government Organisation
    NLSSNational Level Sample Survey
    NRBNon-resident Bangladesh
    NREGANational Rural Employment Guarantee Act
    NREGPNational Rural Employment Guarantee Programme
    NRSPNational Rural Support Project
    NSCANational Sample Census of Agriculture
    NSSNational Sample Survey
    NSSONational Sample Survey Organisation
    NTFPNon-timber Forest Products
    NWFPNorth Western Frontier Province (Pakistan)
    OAEOwn Account Enterprises
    OBIOpen Budget Index
    ODAOverseas Development Assistance
    OECDOrganisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
    OFOperation Flood
    PESPPrimary Education Stipend Programme
    PIHSPakistan Integrated Household Survey
    PILPublic Interest Litigation
    PKSFPalli Karma Sahayak Foundation
    PLSMPakistan Living Standard Measurement
    PMNPakistan Micro-finance Network
    PPAFPakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund
    PPPPublic Private Partnership
    PROBEPublic Report on Basic Education
    PRSPoverty Reduction Strategy
    PRSPPoverty Reduction Strategy Paper
    RBIReserve Bank of India
    RDBsRegional Development Banks
    REBRural Electrification Board
    REGPRural Employment Generation Programme
    RISResearch and Information Society
    RMGReadymade Garment
    RRCRegulatory Reforms Commission
    SAISupreme Audit Institution
    RSPNRural Support Programmes Network
    RTIRight to Information
    S&LSavings and Loans
    SAARCSouth Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
    SACEPSSouth Asia Center for Policy Studies
    RSPsRural Support Programmes
    SAMSocial Accounting Matrix
    SAPAPSouth Asian Programme for the Alleviation of Poverty
    SARStructural Adjustment Reforms
    SBSocial Business
    SDTSmall Depositors Trust
    SESocial Enterprise
    SEEDSSarvodaya Economic Enterprise Development Ltd.
    SERPSociety for the Elimination of Poverty
    SESIPSecondary Education Sector Improvement Project
    SEWASelf Employed Women's Association
    SHGsSelf Help Groups
    SLBFESri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment
    SMESmall and Medium Enterprises
    SMFSmall and Marginal Farmers
    SOEState Owned Enterprises
    SPSocial Protection
    SPISocial Protection Index
    SPTSingur Peoples Trust
    SSESmall Scale Enterprises
    SSISmall Scale Industry
    TATechnical Assistance
    TDPTelegu Desam Party
    TLTelephone Ladies
    TPETotal Public Expenditure
    TQISEPTeaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project
    TRTest Relief
    TTLTata Tea Limited
    UAUnited Airlines
    UNCTADUnited Nations Conference on Trade and Development
    UNDPUnited Nations Development Programme
    UNFPAUnited Nations Population Fund
    VGDVulnerable Group Development
    VGFVulnerable Group Feeding
    VOVillage Organisation
    WDRWorld Development Report
    WTOWorld Trade Organization

    Preface

    Poverty remains endemic across South Asia. Inspite of some progress in every country in reducing the proportion of people living below the so-called poverty line, South Asia remains home to the largest concentration of income-poor people across the globe. Income poverty has been compounded by the growth of inequality and the widening of social disparities in every country regardless of its rate of growth and poverty reduction. Poverty and inequity compromise the character of our institutions of governance, thereby aggravating social tensions, as well as threatening the sustainability of our democratic process.

    Studies on poverty in South Asia have a long and distinguished pedigree. Considerable work of both a conceptual and empirical nature has been undertaken on this subject at the academic and policy-making level. The governments of South Asia have commissioned volumes of work, some of which have been of considerable merit, to guide their policy interventions in the area of poverty reduction. The exercises underlying the preparation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), including the PRSP itself, as well as the background work to successive five year plans in India and other South Asian countries, has enriched the literature on poverty. Work by the international development agencies such as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) and other agencies, both at the global level and in work specific to particular South Asian countries, has made valuable contributions to the design of policy on poverty reduction. In recent years two reports of Independent South Asian Commission for Poverty Alleviation (ISACPA), commissioned by two South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) summits, have contributed to a regional perspective on poverty alleviation strategies.

    In the light of this enormous body of literature on poverty in South Asia, it would be superfluous to put one more study on the table unless it had something distinctive to say on the subject. The ongoing work by the Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD) on poverty in South Asia, undertaken as part of the joint work programme of the CPD and South Asia Centre for Policy Studies (SACEPS), accordingly attempts to provide a somewhat different, though not necessarily an original, interpretation of poverty in South Asia. Our study is predicated on the proposition that the persistence of poverty and the growth in inequality derives from the unjust nature of the social order which effectively excludes the resource-poor from equitable opportunities for participating in the development process. Unless the structural injustices which underlie poverty can be corrected, poverty will persist across South Asia.

    The work programme underlying this volume was designed to identify specific policy and institutional measures which may serve to challenge the injustice of poverty in our region. Our proposed interventions are thereby intended to promote a more inclusive development process. Our particular interpretation of poverty serves as our point of departure from most of the other policy interventions at the institutional level, both national and global, aspiring to reduce poverty. Some of the interventions indicated in our work may have been episodically addressed, in one or another South Asian country within some programme, but no country, to our knowledge, has attempted to deal with the structural dimensions of poverty from the holistic perspective which informs our work.

    In order to provide some understanding of the motivation underlying our work we have looked at the prevailing policy perspectives originating from international development institutions as well as from the governments of South Asia. It is our appreciation of the limitations in the policy agendas of these institutions and governments which has inspired our search for policy alternatives which can serve to induce some rethinking on poverty amongst policymakers in South Asia and within the global development community. We, however, aspire to project our ideas beyond the institutional players, to also reach out to the political and civil society within South Asia, particularly to the constituencies of the excluded, who serve as the ultimate source of authority within a functioning democratic society.

    Our work is structured under the following heads:

    • Poverty as structural injustice (The conceptual framework for the study).
    • The prevailing approach to poverty alleviation strategies:
      • The perspective of the international development community
      • Poverty alleviation strategies in South Asia
    • Promoting structural change
      • Agrarian reform
      • Enhancing the market power of the excluded
      • Democratising educational opportunities
    • Policy and institutional interventions to promote structural change
      • The role of budgetary policy
      • The role of financial policy
      • Broadening ownership of assets through collective action
      • Institutions for promoting collective action
    • The political economy of structural change

    Our work draws upon two thematic studies on development policy at the global level and in South Asia and a set of country studies on Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, which address thematic aspects of the above work programme from a country perspective (Annexure 3B). It also draws upon a review of the literature on poverty in general and more specifically on South Asia. Our work has greatly benefited from a set of dialogues that were convened to discuss the conceptual basis and operational implications of the proposed approach to structural change (Annexure 3C). The conceptual assumptions underlying the work have also been presented at a variety of international fora where the comments have served to enrich our work. The final report has been exposed to discussion at two regional conferences organised in Dhaka and New Delhi (Annexure 3D).

    Since this work covers a broad canvas and intrudes into unchartered policy areas, our work remains a work in progress, which needs to be constantly fertilised by ongoing dialogue at the professional, policymaking and political level. In order to operationalise the policy agendas suggested in this work more intensive country specific work will be needed which can serve to influence a new generation of PRSPs as well as find a place in the manifestos of political parties. Our work is not intended as an academic treatise though our ideas need to stand on their intellectual merit. Our goal is to influence policy change. Our principal target groups, therefore, remain both the policy-makers at the global and at the national level across South Asia as well as the broader constituencies of political and civil society who have the capacity to promote or influence change.

    RehmanSobhanChairman, Centre for Policy Dialogue

    Acknowledgements

    The work programme, has involved a broad group of partners. The work was carried out under my direction at Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), Dhaka as part of the work programme of the South Asia Centre for Policy Studies (SACEPS), Kathmandu. The principal source of support for the work programme, from the outset, was provided to CPD by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Ottawa. IDRC's farsightedness and forbearance in generously supporting this programme, which extended over 4 years, is greatly appreciated. The support of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), extended to SACEPS in Kathmandu, for the preparation of the country study on Nepal and their contribution for the country study on Sri Lanka, is also much appreciated. A special word of appreciation is also due to Dr Syed Akmal Hussain, Distinguished Professor, Beaconhouse University, Lahore, who not only directed the very substantive and innovative country study on Pakistan but also mobilised the resources for their study.

    The project required the active collaboration of the five partner institutions of SACEPS. The Centre for Policy Dialogue, Dhaka, which also served as the secretariat of the project, remained the heart of this programme. A special word of appreciation needs to be registered for its successive Executive Directors, Dr Debapriya Bhattacharya and Professor Mustafizur Rahman for extending the full support from CPD for the project. Ms Anisatul Fatema Yousuf, Director, Dialogue and Communication, CPD, Mr Shafiqul Islam, Additional Director, Finance and Administration, CPD, Mr Iqbal Hussain, Deputy Director (CPD),

    Mr M.A. Quddus, Senior Administrative Associate may be singled out for their contribution to the project.

    Among the other partner institutions of SACEPS the support of the Institute for Integrated Development Studies (IIDS), Kathmandu which sponsored the country study on Nepal and its chair, Dr Mohanman Sainju, as well its Executive Director, Mr Dwarika Nath Dhungel are specially acknowledged. The support of the Institute of Policy Studies (IPS), Colombo, and particularly its Executive Director, Dr Saman Kelegama, who not only fielded an excellent research team from IPS to undertake the country study on Sri Lanka, but also contributed part of the resources for the extensive field work, is specially appreciated. Finally the support of RIS, New Delhi, who organised the country study on India, as well as hosted a number of workshops on the project at its premises, and particularly its Executive Director, Dr Nagesh Kumar, is specially appreciated. Finally the support of the current Executive Director of SACEPS, Professor Sridhar Khatri, who mobilised resources for the country studies in Nepal and Sri Lanka, as well as organised three seminars in Kathmandu where presentations from the project were discussed, is specially recognised.

    This work remains a collective endeavour, involving a multi-regional research community whose professionalism as well as commitment to the goals of the project were central to its mission (Annexure 3A). The mainstay of the work programme has been Professor M.M. Akash, who was not only closely associated with me in the core study but also the coordinator of the Bangladesh country studies. The core programme was ably backed up by a dedicated team of researchers, Ms Sanjida Shamsher Elora, Senior Research Associate, Mr Kazi Mahmudur Rahman, Senior Research Associate, Ms Khaleda Akhter, Senior Research Associate and Mr Hasanuzzaman, Senior Research Associate, who worked heroically in different components of the research as well as in supporting the coordination of the project. Khaleda Akhter and Hasanuzzaman, in particular, have provided invaluable research support to me in the final stages of the project, during the preparation of the overview study. Hasanuzzaman has been especially supportive in the updating, editing and preparation of the final manuscript.

    The work for the country studies is specially appreciated. The massive work on Pakistan, led by Dr Syed Akmal Hussain, which is going to be independently published, the impressive country paper on Nepal, prepared by Dr Mahesh Banskota and his team, the highly informative work on India prepared by Dr Beena Pandey and finally the extensive work on Sri Lanka, involving considerable field work, led by Dr Ganga Tilakaratna, Head, Poverty and Social Welfare Unit, IPS, Colombo is specially recognised. The authors of the thematic papers on Bangladesh, Professor M.M. Akash, Professor Atiur Rahman, Professor Nasreen Khundker, Professor Tajul Islam, Dr Bimal Kumar Saha, Dr Selim Raihan and their respective research teams deserve particular commendation. The full research team for the project is separately listed.

    Since the work programme is dedicated to influencing the policy agenda on eradicating poverty in South Asia the work has benefited greatly from consultations through dialogues, workshops, presentation at seminars, both within Bangladesh, across the region and at international fora. As a project coordinator, I have had the benefit of making presentations on the core ideas of the project as also particular aspects of the policy agenda, across the international development community, in programmes in Rome (IFAD), Berlin (GTZ), Oslo (NORAD), Copenhagen (Centre for Policy Research), Brussels (EU), UK (Wilton Park), Ottawa (CIDA), United Nations (DESA), World Bank, Washington, DC, ILO, Geneva and at global conferences in Seoul, Brisbane and Vienna, as well as within South Asia, in conferences at Kathmandu, New Delhi, Islamabad, Colombo, Malé and Dhaka.

    In the final analysis the end product, manifested in the overview study, remains my responsibility as its principal author and the Project Coordinator. But each of the country studies and their thematic components even though they were designed as inputs to the overview study, can stand alone and are being published as independent monographs or books. Four monographs, covering the two thematic studies along with the two country studies on Nepal and Sri Lanka, have already been published.

    The final product under this project, has been publicly discussed at a regional workshop, organised by CPD in Dhaka (12–13 October 2008), which reviewed the first draft of the work, for which a broad community of policymakers, development practitioners and experts have been assembled. The final product was presented at an international seminar organised by CPD in partnership with Poverty Practice, UNDP, New York, in New Delhi on 17–18 December 2008, which was attended by a distinguished body of participants which included Nobel laureates Amartya Sen and Mohammed Yunus, amongst others. The present volume has taken into account the highly valuable discussions on our work in both these meetings. A copy of the programme and list of participants at the Dhaka and New Delhi meetings is presented as Annexure 3.

    RehmanSobhanChairman, Centre for Policy Dialogue
  • Annexure 1: Major Agencies, Crops/Commodities, Locations and Types of Contract Farming in India

    Annexure 2: The Grameen Family of Companies

    Annexure 3: CPD/SACEPS Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor

    A. Core Research Team
    Core Research Group

    Professor Rehman Sobhan (Project Coordinator)

    Professor M.M. Akash

    Mr Hasanuzzaman

    Ms Khaleda Akhter

    Mr Kazi Mahmudur Rahman

    Ms Sanjida Shamsher Elora

    Mr A.H.M Asharafuzzaman

    Mr Avra Bhattacharjee

    Bangladesh Researchers

    Professor M.M. Akash Department of Economics, Dhaka University Coordinator of the Bangladesh group

    Professor Nasreen Khundker and colleagues Research Director CIRDAP

    Professor Atiur Rahman and colleagues Department of Development Studies, Dhaka University and Chairman, Unnayan Shamannya. Currently Governor, Bangladesh Bank

    Professor Tajul Islam Department of Economics, Jahangirnagar University

    Dr Bimal Kumar Saha and colleagues Senior Research Fellow, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS)

    Dr Selim Raihan and colleagues Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Dhaka University

    Sri Lanka, Institute of Policy Studies

    Dr Ganga Tilakaratna Head, Poverty and Social Welfare Unit, IPS

    Ayodya Galappattige

    Ruwan Jayatilaka

    Dilhani Marawila

    Ramali Perera

    Parakrama A. Samaratunga

    Pakistan

    Dr Syed Akmal Hussain and colleagues Distinguished Professor, Beaconhouse University, Lahore

    Nepal, IIDS

    Dr Mahesh Banskota Senior Research Fellow, IIDS

    India, RIS

    Dr Beena Pandey Research Associate, RIS

    B. List of Background Research Publications
    • Akash, M.M. and R. Sobhan. 2005. Poverty Reduction Strategies of the International Development Community: The Scope for Structural Change (Research Monograph 1). SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    • Sobhan, R. and M.M. Akash. 2006. Poverty Reduction Strategies in South Asia: A Comparative Study (Research Monograph 2). SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    • Tilakaratna, G. et al. 2007. Economic and Political Empowerment of the Poor—Sri Lanka (Research Monograph 3). SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    • Banskota, M. 2007. Structural Dimensions of Poverty in Nepal. (Research Monograph 4). SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    • Pandey, B. 2007. Eradicating Poverty in India: Lessons from Experiments in Empowerment (Research Monograph 5). SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    • Islam, M.T. 2006. The Role of the International Development Community. (Research Monograph 6). SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    • Rahman, A. and Kabir, M. 2006. Redesigning Budgetary Policy to Reach Public Resources to the Poor. (Research Monograph 7). SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    • Khundker, N. 2006. Strengthening the Capacity of the Poor to Compete in the Market Place. (Research Monograph 8). SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor, Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    • Saha, B.K. 2007. Land Reform and Peasant Movements in Bangladesh. (Research Monograph 9). SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    • Raihan, S., R. Khatoon and M.Z. Islam. 2007. Poverty and Access to Education in Bangladesh. (Research Monograph 10). SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    • Akhash, M.M. 2008. Opportunities for Ownership of Corporate Wealth by the Poor (Research Monograph 11). SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    • Hussain, A. 2008. Pakistan—Poverty, Power and Economic Growth. SACEPS/CPD Project on Eradication of Poverty in South Asia through the Empowerment of the Poor. Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue.
    C. Dialogues and Focus Group Discussions

    D. CPD-SACEPS Seminar on Rethinking Poverty Eradication in South Asia: An Agenda for Inclusive Development (Detailed Agenda) BRAC Centre Inn Auditorium, Dhaka, 12–13 October 2008

    E. CPD-SACEPS-UNDP Conference (Detailed Agenda)

    New Delhi, 17–18 December 2008

    Annexure 4 Published Books and Monographs by Prof. Rehman Sobhan

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    About the Author

    Professor Rehman Sobhan was born in Calcutta on 12 March 1935. He was educated at St. Paul's School, Darjeeling (1942–50), Aitichison College, Lahore (1951–52) and Cambridge University (1953–56) where he was awarded an MA in Economics. He began his working career as the faculty of Economics, Dhaka University in 1957 and retired as Professor of Economics in 1977. He served as Member, Bangladesh Planning Commission (with the rank of a State Minister), in charge of the Divisions of Industry, Power and Natural Resources, and of Physical Infrastructure (1972–74), as Chairman, Research Director, Director General and Emeritus Fellow, BIDS from (1974–93) and as a Visiting Fellow, Queen Elizabeth House, Oxford (1976–79). He was a Member of the Advisory Council of the President of Bangladesh (with the rank of a Cabinet Minister) in charge of the Ministry of Planning and the Economic Relations Division (1991). He was the Executive Director, South Asia Centre for Policy Studies (SACEPS) (2001–05), Visiting Scholar, Initiative for Policy Dialogue, Columbia University (2005–06), Senior Research Fellow, Ash Institute of Democratic Governance, Harvard Univesity (2006–08). He was the founder and Executive Chairman of Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD) from 1994–99. Currently, he is the Chairman of CPD.

    Professor Sobhan has held a number of important professional positions. He was a Member of the Panel of Economists to review the 3rd (1965) and 4th (1970) FYPs of Pakistan; Editor, Pakistan Economic Journal (1963–66) and Editor, Forum, a weekly, (1969–71). He served as Envoy Extraordinary with special responsibility for Economic Affairs, Government of Bangladesh during 1971, as President, Bangladesh Economic Association (1983–85), as a Member, Bangladesh National Commission on Money, Banking and Finance (1987), as a Member, U.N. Committee for Development Planning (1982–86), as a Member, Governing Council of the U.N. University, Tokyo (1986–91), as a Member of the Commission for a New Asia, Kuala Lumpur (1994), as a Member of the Board of the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva (1991–97), as Member of the Executive Committee of the International Economic Association (1994–99), as Member of the Group of Eminent Persons appointed by the SAARC Heads of State to review the future of SAARC (1991), as Chairman, South Asia Centre for Policy Studies (1997–2000), as Chairman of the Board of Grameen Bank (1996–2002), as a Member of the BIDS Board of Trustees (2000–03) and a Member of the International Advisory Committee of the Ash Institute, Harvard University. He is currently a Member of the Board of Trustees of the Freedom Foundation, Bangladesh, Member of the Board of the South Asia Centre for Policy Studies, Kathmandu, and Chairman of the Pratichi Trust (Bangladesh) set up by Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen. Prof. Sobhan has also received a number of awards which include the Bangladesh Bank Purushkar (2000) awarded to professionals in the field of economics in Bangladesh and the Bangladesh Shadinata Purushkar (2008), which is the highest civil award in Bangladesh. To indicate the range of his professional interests a full list of books published by him (1968–2008) is attached as Annexure-4. He has also published around 140 articles in professional journals.


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