This timely text draws on interdisciplinary theory and research to examine the multidimensional risk and protective factors for eight challenges of living frequently encountered by social workers. The authors provide a working model for social workers to integrate the most up-to-date evidence about challenges of living they face in their daily practice. Using a multidimensional biopsychosocial-spiritual perspective, the book examines etiology, course, and intervention strategies related to these eight challenges of living.


Elizabeth D.Hutchison, Virginia Commonwealth University

Themes across the Challenges of Living

In Chapter 1, we proposed a working model for thinking about relevant sources of knowledge to help us understand the challenges of living addressed by social workers. We suggested that this working model gives structure to the task of mining for available scientific knowledge to help us see and understand the complexity in the situations we encounter in our work. The working model is based on a set of seven questions:

  • Who is affected by the challenge of living (what is the pattern of occurrence)?
  • What are the current theories of causation, or association, related to the challenge of living?
  • What are the multidimensional (biological, psychological, social, and spiritual) developmental risk and protective factors?
  • What ...
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