Challenge and Strategy: Rethinking India's Foreign Policy examines India's foreign policy options in order to ensure that the country retains its space for manoeuvre, to follow an independent foreign policy in the 21st century global scenario.

Economic Diplomacy

Economic diplomacy

Evolution of India's Economic Diplomacy

In dealings with most countries beyond India's immediate and strategic neighbourhood, India's foreign policy goals are primarily economic. India's strategy for developing partner ships with the rest of the world has evolved in response to the transformations in the global environment and India's own changing developmental needs.

Before 1991, India's interaction with the outside world was marked by a defensive and protectionist mindset, which arose out of domestic economic policies that restricted imports and foreign investment, a very modest level of foreign trade—of which a fairly large share was rupee trade with the Soviet Union and countries of East Europe—and an undiversified export basket consisting of mostly raw materials and semi-finished products. The focus of India's economic diplomacy was ...

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