Case Theory in Business and Management: Reinventing Case Study Research

Books

Evert Gummesson

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Acknowledgements

    To our granddaughters Sophie and Louise, born during the writing of this book and who added a perspective on how human beings learn and thus indirectly helped me write this book.

    Praise for Case Theory in Business and Management

    ‘I trust ... brilliant practitioners of market and management research who have based their cumulative theories as much on proprietary data as on published data ... I trust the management theories of Peter Drucker ... and the market theories of Evert Gummesson ... which are based on both kinds of data.’

    Hans L. Zetterberg, Professor Emeritus in Sociology; former owner of Sifo AB, Sweden’s leading institute for political polls and market and social research; past President of the World Association for Public Opinion Research. (Source: Zetterberg, 2013, p. 77).

    ‘This meticulous book submits research and the research process to deep scrutiny. It debunks the unhelpful dichotomy between quantitative and qualitative research and highlights the great value of multi-method and interactive research, approaches that have greatly deepened our thinking. Evert Gummesson combines many decades of experience in research as both a renowned scholar and a reflective practitioner effectively bridging the divide of theory and practice. This is the best book on case theory and case study research in decades.’

    Professor Adrian Payne, University of New South Wales, Australia and Professor Pennie Frow, University of Sydney, Australia.

    ‘As theory informs practice, so can methodology advance both. More than ever, practitioners and researchers alike need better methodology for data-driven decision making. Gummesson’s new book provides the roadmap and the springboard to reinvigorate our methodologies for the 21st century.’

    Jim Spohrer, PhD (computer science and artificial intelligence), Director, Understanding Cognitive Systems, IBM, and one of the 100 Innovation Champions of IBM.

    Lists of Boxes, Figures and Tables

    Boxes

    About the Author

    Evert Gummesson is Emeritus Professor of the Stockholm Business School at Stockholm University, Sweden. He graduated from the Stockholm School of Economics and received his PhD from Stockholm University. In Finland he is Honorary Doctor of Hanken School of Economics and a fellow of the University of Tampere. He has written or contributed to over 50 books and published numerous articles and reports – altogether around 400 publications. His earlier book by Sage, Qualitative Methods in Management Research, passed 4,500 citations in 2017. His articles have appeared in the European Journal of Marketing, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Journal of Service Research, Journal of Marketing Management, Service Industry Management and many others. He is a present or former member of some 25 editorial boards for journals and publishers. His research embraces service management, relationship marketing and networks and he takes particular interest in the theory of science and how research methodology is practised by academic researchers and consultants. He is a co-founder of the Service Research Center (CTF), Karlstad University, Sweden, and its first professor; the QUIS (Service Excellence Symposium) conference series; the International Colloquium of Relationship Marketing (ICRM); and the Naples Forum on Service. He is an elected fellow of the World Academy of Productivity Science and a former member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Swedish Institute for Quality (SIQ). Dr Gummesson has received awards from the American Marketing Association, and The Chartered Institute of Marketing, in the UK, has listed him as one of the 50 most important contributors to the development of marketing. He became the first recipient of the S-D Logic Award (established by Professors Robert Lusch and Stephen Vargo) for ‘Pioneering and Continuing Achievement’ and of the Grönroos Service Research Award, established by Hanken for ‘excellent achievements in service research challenging common understanding and demonstrating significant originality’. He is a frequent speaker around the world and has over 20 years of experience in business as a marketing manager and a senior consultant and director in one of the largest consultancies in Europe. His former clients include Ericsson, Mastercard, IBM, the Swedish Cooperative Union, Swedish Railroads, Swedish Telecom and the UN.

    Foreword

    By John Van Maanen, Erwin Schell Professor of Organization Studies, MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA, USA

    It is a distinct pleasure to write the Foreword for Evert Gummesson’s timely new book spelling out and indeed celebrating the importance, charm, eloquence, beauty and learning potential of the well-done case study. It is a form of social research that is again on the upswing partly as a response to the turbulence and change that mark the 21st century. Yet, case studies, and their affinity for narrative, particularity, context and, yes, uncertainty and ambiguity that the writers of the best of them display, may make some readers nervous for their embrace of anti-foundational precepts and suspicion for all types of essentialism. This is a misunderstanding that Case Theory in Business and Management is out to correct.

    Understanding cases first means being clear as to what we take them to be. As Professor Gummesson suggests, this can be a troublesome matter because definitions of case studies differ and sometimes differ spectacularly. What they represent and how such representations contribute to our learning is of central interest here. One generic but abbreviated definition holds that cases are simply investigations of some particular social setting with a focus on the events that occur in and over that time setting. The more strictly bounded yet broadly and comparatively located the setting, the closer the writer to the events that occur in that domain, the more detailed and linked the elements of the descriptive work, the higher the quality of the case.

    Creating the high-quality case is however no easy matter. Most cases are not well done. A typical business school case, for instance, falls at the low end of the scale since it often rests on a flying visit of short duration by a case-writing team to a self-selected organization to interview a small smattering of managers as to their handling of a particular problematic matter. Most cases in business school libraries – and perhaps most cases of all sorts – are quickly forgotten and shelved as superficial if not fictive versions of events chronicled for no apparent reason. It is their ad hoc and careless character, their lack of analytic bite or interest, their want of an identifiable perspective, their failure to properly situate the case – by similarity or difference – in broader matters, their disguised character, their formulaic language and format that make them so intellectually vapid, dispensable and easy to satirize (e.g. ‘Leaning back from his cluttered desk and rubbing his temples, Richard Preston, head of Acme’s New Product Development department, closed his eyes and wondered what he had done to get himself in this mess’).

    Moving up in quality are the various sorts of case studies produced by business and management researchers – and some journalists as well – where the authors, by intention, seek to extend a reader’s acquaintance with the particular setting the activities take place in. The aim and function of such work is basic: to familiarize readers with the complex cases of the world. This writing is rarely comparative or theoretical but it is precise, explicitly located, and takes readers where they have not been before. Such cases constitute travel over a field of study, and students of business and management who have never been in a military unit, a biological research lab, a police department, a Japanese assembly or a Swedish civil service agency have presumably missed something, such that whatever generalizations they are apt to make of organizational life will be based on too restricted a field. Cases that provide readers with a broader view of their respective areas of interest help prompt reflection and curb conceits.

    But of most interest in this text are those case studies that are rich in detail, history, member perspectives, scholarly musings and set on solid temporal and spatial groundings. The writing displays apt analogies and comparative moorings with conclusions of a narrative sort not easily detachable or decontextualized from the story told. Whether it is the strange being made familiar or the familiar being made strange, new ways of seeing the world are put forth. These are cases that lead long lives and thus anchor the high end of the case study trade. And how such work is imagined and produced in the business and management milieu – along with the epistemic and methodological assumptions on which such work rests – is Professor Gummesson’s overriding concern.

    Just why case studies seem to have recaptured our attention these days requires commentary. I have 3 intertwined accounts in mind, all of which are fleshed out in far greater depth in the pages to follow. First, consider the sorry state of unifying theories. Across the social sciences, from psychology to economics, the very idea of discovering and validating highly general covering laws – akin to the laws of physics or chemistry – is slip-sliding away (and fast). Postmodernism (and all the post-toasty variants such as post-structuralism, post-positivism, post-Marxism, post-colonialism and so forth) has put grand narratives on the run. Modernism stresses coherence and order, postmodernism emphasizes competing perspectives, contests of meaning, contextual modifiers, and the always uncertain processes of signification. Increasingly, narrow paradigms are out and variation and difference are in. Thus, it will do us well to make sure the cases we do have are good ones, composed with patience and skill. Case studies of a careful and trustworthy sort in the business and management sphere must today treat theory with gentle hands and make few (and usually tentative) claims to generality. Conceptual imperialism is (justifiably) out of fashion these days, making Professor Gummesson’s restraint and modesty quite appealing.

    Second, fragmentation and disorder are more than a characterization of our scholarly worlds. They attach to contemporary life. We live everywhere in unsettled times. To wit, communication and transportation technologies cut into the social and cultural singularity of societies. Human migrations change the character of villages, cities, regions and nations. Multinational organizations cross borders with impunity, seeking new markets and remaking, sometimes obliterating, old ones. Global contrasts are omnipresent as people become increasingly aware of how things are done elsewhere. In changing times, previously unquestioned cultural understandings and traditions unravel. Stories conveyed by cases are therefore vital – perhaps all we have in an uncharted world.

    Third, the promise of case studies probably rests in part on some old-fashioned pragmatism and a little preaching or beseeching. There are many good things to say for the practicality of case studies. The ease, comfort, relatively low cost and timeliness in which such studies can be conducted have much to recommend them in these times of rapid change, scarce resources and pinched research budgets. Case studies are typically small, flexible and nimble endeavours. To my mind, they are rather attractive counterparts to the elaborately designed, big budget, statistically governed and over-controlled studies where the findings are sometimes obsolete before they reach print. Equally important is that the case study remains something of a solo act and thus the work and results are filtered through 1 head rather than many and hired-hand problems are not a concern. A consistent point of view, a sense of moral and ethical responsibility that comes from personal identification and interest, and a set of craft-like norms are more likely to be in place and respected when a study is conducted by a single scholar.

    All this is to say that I believe case studies are important, and perhaps more important than ever. The goals of this work are to expand our horizons, to reflect seriously and intimately on the events that surround us here, there and everywhere, and to increase the range of human possibilities for both thought and action. By learning how and sometimes why real people, in real places, at real time act as they do, these aims can be advanced. In short, the case for case theory – as argued, presented and illustrated by Evert Gummesson – is a compelling and formidable one.

    Preface and Acknowledgements

    A privilege when writing about the methodology and philosophy of scientific research is that I can hobnob with the greatest of the past and of today. I have a daily dialogue with Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Aristotle and Leonardo da Vinci, just to mention a few, and of course with colleagues in my international network. I have been to conferences, universities and business firms all over the world and learnt good things and bad things. Meeting the people in person and making friends is a seminal part of my development as a scholar. When the Internet was introduced, the hype said that online contact would take over and physical meetings would be redundant. It was dead wrong. There have never been so many conferences as there are today! Networking is both high-touch physical interaction and high-tech computer-mediated contact. High tech or high touch, these meetings with you have all taught me something. I am not listing you here but many of you will find your publications in the references and citations. I thank you all!

    Very early on, I was puzzled by science and research methodology. Sometimes it felt far beyond my comprehension but sometimes it felt shallow and in conflict with my experience and judgement. Working both in industry and academia, I soon lost my faith in surveys, except as a technique to be used in very special instances. Since then surveys have grown enormously in quantity and technical sophistication. They fit academic career plans. But my conclusion is that they contribute very little to scientific development. I lost interest in quantitative techniques and case study research especially became a priority. Glaser and Strauss, Patton, Van Maanen, Yin and many others put me on a new track. I wanted to expand on these sources and let my own experience from business, academic research and as a consumer and citizen come out. I did so in Qualitative Methods in Management Research, first written in 1983, then published in Swedish in 1985 and in English in 1990 by Sage. It has been revised and reprinted several times. After 30 years it is more cited than ever. When asked by Sage to make yet another revision, I found there was nothing I wanted to change.

    John Van Maanen of MIT who had come out as an early supporter asked me to write a book on case study research. This inspired me and I started working on it in the 1990s. The book was postponed and postponed and postponed. I wasn’t ready and the time was not ripe. I now feel ready and consider the time ripe. But it has been a hard struggle. How I survived the hardships of those years travelling in Methodologyland I don’t know. It is ever so impenetrable and wild as a jungle. The writing became a passion. It was felt in my whole body; it was more than an intellectual adventure and led to the discovery of case theory.

    Special thanks to my editor Delia Alfonso. Without her kind and patient enthusiasm, this book would never have become reality. Many thanks also to Lyndsay Aitken, Alison Borg and Sarah Cooke.

    Evert GummessonDjursholm, Sweden
  • References

    Adler, Nancy J. & Harzing, Anne-Wil (2009). When knowledge wins: Transcending the sense and nonsense of academic rankings. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8 (1), 7295.
    Åge, Lars-Johan (2009). Business Manoeuvering. Stockholm: Stockholm School of Economics.
    Aiden, Erez & Michel, Jean-Baptiste (2013). Unchartered: Big data as a lens on human culture. New York: Riverhead.
    Alvesson, Mats & Sköldberg, Kaj (2009). Reflexive methodology. London: Sage (
    2nd
    edn).
    Anderson, Robert (2010). The idea of a university today. History and Policy, Policy Papers, March.
    Anderson, Chris (2013). How to give a killer presentation. Harvard Business Review, June.
    Argyris, Chris & Schon, Donald (1974). Theory in Practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Argyris, Chris, Putnam, Robert & McLain Smith, Diana (1985). Action Science. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Armstrong, J. Scott (2004). Does an academic paper contain useful knowledge? Australasian Marketing Journal, 12 (2), 6263.
    Armstrong, J. Scott (2011). Evidence-based advertising: An application to persuasion. International Journal of Advertising, 30 (5), 743767.
    Badinelli, Ralph, Barile, Sergio, Ng, Irene, Polese, Francesco, Saviano, Mariluisa & DiNauta, Primiano (2012). Viable service systems and decision making in service management. Journal of Service Management, 23 (4), 498526.
    Bagelius, Nils & Gummesson, Evert (2013). Criminal marketing: The inhuman side of business. In Richard Varey & Michael Pirson (eds), Humanistic Marketing. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Baker, Michael J. (2012). Editorial. Social Business, 2 (1), 110.
    Baker, Michael J. (2015). Editorial. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 14 (4), 271273.
    Baker, Michael J. & Foy, Anne (2012). Business and Management Research. Argyll, UK: Westburn Publishers (
    3rd
    edn).
    Bakir, A. & Bakir, V. (2006). Unpacking complexity: Pinning down the ‘elusiveness’ of strategy. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management, 1 (3), 152172.
    Ballantyne, David & Varey, Richard J. (2006). Introducing dialogical orientation to the service-dominant logic of marketing. In Robert L. Lusch & Stephen L. Vargo (eds), The Service-dominant Logic of Marketing: Dialog, debate, and directions. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
    Barabási, Albert-László (2002). Linked: The new science of networks. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
    Barabási, Albert-László (2012). Network Science. Available at http://barabasi.com/networksciencebook/
    Barile, Sergio & Polese, Francesco (2011). The viable systems approach and its potential contribution to marketing theory. In Barile, Sergio et al. (eds), Contributions to Theoretical and Practical Advances in Management: A viable systems approach (VSA). Avellino, Italy: Interational Printing Srl, EDITORE.
    Baron, Steve & Russell-Bennett, Rebekah (2016). Editorial: Beyond publish or perish – the importance of citations and how to get them. Journal of Services Marketing, 30 (3), 257260.
    Barrow, John D. (1992). Theories of Everything. London: Vintage.
    Bazeley, Pat (2013). Qualitative Data Analysis: Practical strategies. London: Sage.
    Bazeley, Pat & Jackson, Kristi (2013). Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo. London: Sage (
    2nd
    edn).
    Bejou, David (2011). Compassion as the new philosophy of business. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 10 (1), 16.
    Berger, Peter L. & Luckmann, Thomas (1966) The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Anchor Books.
    Bernard, André (ed.) (1991). Rotten Rejections. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
    Billig, Michael (2013). Learn to Write Badly: How to succeed in the social sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bitner, M. J., Booms, H.B. & Tetreault, M.S. (1990). The service encounter: Diagnosing favorable and unfavorable incidents. Journal of Marketing, 54 (1), 7184.
    Blumberg, Paul (1989). The Predatory Society. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bohlin, Ingemar & Sager, Morten (eds) (2011). Evidensens många ansikten (The many faces of evidence). Lund, Sweden: Arkiv förlag.
    Bonoma, Thomas V. (1985). The Marketing Edge. New York: Free Press.
    Brodie, Roderick J., Coviello, Nicole E. & Winklhofer, Heidi (2008). Investigating contemporary marketing practices: A review of the first decade of the CMP Research Program. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 23 (2), 8494.
    Brodie, Roderick J., Saren, Michael & Pels, Jaqueline (2011). Theorizing about service dominant logic: The bridging role of middle range theory. Marketing Theory, 11 (1), 7591.
    Brown, Ellen Hodgson (2007). Web of Debt. Baton Rouge, LA: Third Millenium Press.
    Brown, Ellen Hodgson (2013). The Public Bank Solution. Baton Rouge, LA: Third Millenium Press.
    Brown, Stephen (1993). Postmodern marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 27 (4), 1934.
    Bryman, Alan & Burgess, Robert E. (eds) (1994). Analyzing Qualitative Data. London: Routledge.
    Buchanan, M. (2003). Small World. London: Phoenix.
    Bunge, Mario (1996). In praise of intolerance to charlatanism in academia. In Paul Gross, Norman Levitt & Martin W. Lewis (eds), The Flight from Science and Reason, 98115. New York/Baltimore, MD: New York Academy of Sciences/The John Hopkins University Press.
    Burell, Gibson & Morgan, Gareth (1985). Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis. Aldershot: Gower.
    Capra, Fritjof (1997). The Web of Life. London: Flamingo/HarperCollins.
    Carson, David, Gilmore, Audrey, Perry, Chad & Gronhaug, Kjell (2001). Qualitative Marketing Research. London: Sage.
    Cassell, Catherine, Symon, Gillian, Buering, Anna & Johnson, Phil (2006). The role and status of qualitative methods in management research: An empirical account. Management Decision, 44 (2), 290303.
    Cave, Tamasin & Rowell, Andy (2014). The truth about lobbying: 10 ways big business control government. The Guardian, 12 March.
    Charan, Ashok (2015). Marketing analytics: A practitioner’s guide to marketing analytics and research methods. Singapore: World Scientific.
    Christiansen, Ólavur (2006). Opportunizing: A classic grounded theory study on business and management. Grounded Theory Review, 6 (1), 123.
    Christopher, Martin, Payne, Adrian & Ballantyne, David (2002). Relationship Marketing. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann (
    2nd
    edn).
    Cicero, Marcus Tullius (1971). On the Good Life. London: Penguin Classics.
    Clark, Peter (1972). Action Research and Organizational Change. London: Harper & Row.
    Coase, Ronald (1937). The nature of the firm. Economica, 4 (16), 386405.
    Coase, Ronald (1960). The problem of social cost. Journal of Law and Economics, 3 (1), 144.
    Coase, Ronald H. & Wang, Ning (2011). The industrial structure of production: A research agenda for innovation in an entrepreneurial economy. Entrepreurship Research Journal, 1 (2), 111.
    Coffey, Amanda & Atkinson, Paul (1996). Making Sense of Qualitative Data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Coghlan, David & Brannick, Teresa (2010). Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization. London: Sage (
    3rd
    edn).
    Cohen, Don (1998). Toward a knowledge context: Report on the first annual UC Berkeley forum on knowledge and the firm. California Management Review, 41 (3), 2239.
    Convergence (1988). Special issue with focus on participatory research, XXI, 23.
    Corbin, Juliet & Strauss, Anselm (2015). Basics of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (
    4th
    edn).
    Coviello, Nicole, E. (2005). Integrating qualitative and quantitative techniques in network analysis. Qualitative Market Research, 8 (1), 3960.
    Coviello, Nicole E., Brodie, Roderick. J. & Munro, Hugh J. (1997). Understanding contemporary marketing: Development of a classification scheme. Journal of Marketing Management, 13 (6), 501522.
    Crossen, Cynthia (1994). Tainted truth: The manipulation of fact in America. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Czarniawska, Barbara (2004). Narratives in Social Science Research. London: Sage.
    Czarniawska, Barbara (2008). A Theory of Organizing. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    Dahlström, Karin (2002). Värdeskapande produktuveckling i tjänsteintensiva företag (Value-creating product development in service incentive businesses). With summary in English. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Dawkins, Richard (2011). The Magic of Reality: How we know what’s really true. New York: Free Press.
    Dawkins, Richard (2015). Is it a theory? Is it a law? No, it’s a fact. Available at https://richarddawkins.net/2015/11/is-it-a-theory-is-it-a-law-no-its-a-fact/
    Dennett, Daniel C. (1995) Darwin’s Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the meanings of life. London: Penguin.
    Denzin, Norman K. (1989). Interpretive Biography. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Díaz-Méndez, Montserrat & Gummesson, Evert (2012). Value co-creation and university teaching quality: Consequences for the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Journal of Service Management, 23 (4), 571592.
    Dichter, Ernest (1979). Getting Motivated. New York: Pergamon Press.
    Easterby-Smith, Mark, Thorpe, Richard & Jackson, Paul R. (2015). Management and Business Research. London: Sage (
    5th
    edn).
    ECCH (1997). What makes a good case? The Newsletter of the European Case Clearing House, autumn/fall, ref. no. 397-119-6. Available at www2.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ362/hallam/CaseStudies/WhatMakesAGoodCase.pdf
    Eckstein, Harry H. (1975). Case study and theory in political science. In Fred J. Greenstein & Nelson W. Polsby (eds), Handbook of Political Science, 7, 79137. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Edberg, Birgitta (2013). Social affärsutveckling i nätverksekonomin: sociala medier, ny affärslogik (Social business development in the network economy: Social media, new business logic). Solna, Sweden: Liber.
    EdChoice (2009) Milton Friedman on Donahue – 1979. [Online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1EwaLys3Zak (Accessed 13 December 2016).
    Edvardsson, Bo, Enquist, Bo & Hay, Michael (2006). Value-based service brands: Narratives from IKEA. Managing Service Quality, 16 (3), 230246.
    Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14 (4), 532550.
    Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. & Graebner, Melissa E. (2007). Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges. Academy of Management Journal, 50 (1), 2532.
    Fendt, Jacqueline, Kaminska-Labbé, Renata & Sachs, Wladimir M. (2008). Producing and socializing relevant management knowledge: Return to pragmatism. European Business Review, 20 (6), 471491.
    Feyerabend, Paul (1975). Against Method. London: Verso.
    Firat, A. Fuat (ed.) (2010). Commentaries on the state of journals in marketing. Marketing Theory, 10 (4), 437455.
    Flanegan, John C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 4, 327358.
    Flyvbjerg, Bent (2001). Making Social Science Matter: Why social inquiry fails and how it can succeed again. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Flyvbjerg, Bent (2006). Five misunderstandings about case-study research. Qualitative Inquiry, 12 (2), 219245.
    Flyvbjerg, Bent (2011). Case study. In Norman K. Denzin & Yvonna Lincoln (eds), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (
    4th
    edn).
    Ford, Henry (1922/2008). My Life and Work. at CruGuru.com.
    Foroohar, Rana (2016a). Makers and Takers: The rise of finance and the fall of American business. New York: Crown Business.
    Foroohar, Rana (2016b). American capitalism’s great crisis. Time, 23 May.
    Friedman, Milton & Friedman, Rose (1980). Free to Choose: A personal statement. San Diego, CA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
    Fukuyama, Francis (1995). Trust. New York: Free Press.
    Game, Ann & Metcalf, Andrew (1996). Passionate Sociology. London: Sage.
    Garvin, David (1988). Managing Quality. New York: Free Press.
    Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.
    George, Alexander L. & Bennett, Andrew (2005). Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Gilmore, Audrey, Carson, David & Perry, Chad (2006). Academic publishing. European Business Review, 18 (6), 468478.
    Gladwell, Malcolm (2000). The Tipping Point. London: Abacus.
    Glaser, Barney G. (1972). Experts Versus Laymen: A study of the patsy and the subcontractor. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
    Glaser, Barney G. (1978). Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
    Glaser, Barney G. (1992). Basics of Grounded Theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
    Glaser, Barney G. (2001) The Grounded Theory Perspective: Conceptualization contrasted with description. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
    Glaser, Barney G., with the assistance of Judith Holton (2004). Remodeling grounded theory. Forum Qulitative Socialforschhung/Forum Qualitative Research, 5(2). Available at www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/607/1315
    Glaser, Barney G. (2005). The roots of grounded theory. Keynote presentation given at the 3rd International Qualitative Research Convention, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 23 August.
    Glaser, Barney G. (2008). Doing Quantitative Grounded Theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
    Glaser, Barney G. & Strauss, Anselm L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
    Glasser, William (1965). Reality Therapy. New York: Harper & Row.
    Gobo, Giampietro & Mauceri, Sergio (2014). Constructing Survey Data. London: Sage.
    Goldacre, Ben (2009). Bad Science. London: Harper Perennial.
    Granovetter, Mark S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 330.
    Granovetter, Mark S. (1978). Threshold models of collective behavior. American Journal of Sociology, 83, 14201443.
    Granovetter, Mark S. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 481510.
    Greenwood, Davydd J. & Levin, Morten (2005). Reform of the social sciences and of universities through action research. In Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln (eds), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Grönroos, Christian (1979). Marknadsföring av tjänster (Marketing of services). With summary in English. Stockholm, Sweden and Helsinki, Finland: Akademilitteratur, Marknadstekniskt Centrum and Hanken.
    Gross, Matthias (2012). ‘Objective culture’ and the development of nonknowledge: Georg Simmel and the reverse side of knowing. Cultural Sociology, 6 (4), 422437.
    Guba, Egon G. and Lincoln, Yvonna S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In Norman K. Denzin & Yvonna S. Lincoln (eds), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Guba, Egon G. and Lincoln, Yvonna S. (2005). Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences. In Norman K. Denzin & Yvonna S. Lincoln (eds), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (
    3rd
    edn).
    Gummerus, Johanna & von Koskull, Catharina (eds) (2015). The Nordic School: Service marketing and management for the future. Helsinki, Finland: Hanken School of Economics. E-book available at www.hanken.fi/en/about-hanken/organisation/departments-and-subjects/department-marketing/cers/nordic-school-book
    Gummesson, Evert (1978). Toward a theory of professional service marketing. Industrial Marketing Management, 7, 8995.
    Gummesson, Evert (1982). Att använda företags- och marknadstrategiska beslutsmodeller (Using corporate and marketing strategy decision models). Stockholm, Sweden: Marketing Technology Center.
    Gummesson, Evert (1987). Lip service: A neglected area in services marketing. The Journal of Services Marketing, 1 (1), 1923.
    Gummesson, Evert (2000a). Qualitative Methods in Management Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (
    2nd
    edn).
    Gummesson, Evert (2000b). Sustainable service strategies: Lessons from health care. In Edvardsson, Bo, Brown, Stephen W., Johnston, Robert & Scheuing, Eberhard E. (eds), Service Quality in the New Economy: Interdisciplinary and international dimensions. Proceedings from QUIS7. New York: ISQA.
    Gummesson, Evert (2001). Are current research approaches in marketing leading us astray? Marketing Theory, 1 (1), 2748.
    Gummesson, Evert (2002a). Relationship marketing and the new economy: It’s time for deprogramming. Journal of Services Marketing, 16 (7), 585589.
    Gummesson, Evert (2002b). Practical value of adequate marketing management theory. European Journal of Marketing, 36 (3), 325349.
    Gummesson, Evert (2003). All research is interpretive! Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 18 (6/7), 482492.
    Gummesson, Evert (2004a). Return on relationships (ROR): The value of relationship marketing and CRM in business-to-business contexts. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 19 (2), 136148.
    Gummesson, Evert (2004b). Many-to-many Marketing. Malmö, Sweden: Liber.
    Gummesson. Evert (2005). Qualitative research in marketing: Road-map for a wilderness of complexity and unpredictability. European Journal of Marketing, 39 (3/4), 309327.
    Gummesson, Evert (2006). Qualitative research in management: Addressing complexity, context and persona. Management Decision, 44 (2), 167179.
    Gummesson, Evert (2007). Case study research and network theory: Birds of a feather. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management, 2 (3), 226248.
    Gummesson, Evert (2012). The three service marketing paradigms: Which one are you guided by? Mercati e Competitività, 1, 5-13.
    Gummesson, Evert (2017). Total Relationship Marketing Renewed. Abingdon: Routledge (
    4th
    edn).
    Gummesson, Evert & Grönroos, Christian (2012). The emergence of the new service marketing: Nordic School perspectives. Journal of Service Management, 23 (4), 479497.
    Gummesson, Evert & Polese, Francesco (2009). B2B is not an island! The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 24 (5–6), 337350.
    Gummesson, Evert, Kuusela, Hannu & Närvänen, Elina (2014). Reinventing marketing strategy by recasting supplier/customer roles. Journal of Service Management, 25 (2), 228240.
    Gustavsson, Bengt (2003). The nature and understanding of organization from a Samhita perspective. In Dasgupta, Aruna (ed.), Human Values of Indian Management: A journey from practice to theory. Dehli: Macmillan.
    Guthrie, Wendy & Lowe, Andy (2012). Getting through the PhD process using GT: A supervisor-researcher perspective. In Vivian B. Martin & Astrid Gynnild (eds), Grounded Theory: The philosophy, method, and work of Barney Glaser. Boca Raton, FL: BrownWalker Press.
    Haas Edersheim, Elizabeth (2007). The Definitive Drucker. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Hagelin, John (1998). Perfect Government. Fairfield, IO: Maharishi University of Management Press.
    Häggström, Olle (2016). Here Be Dragons: Science, technology and the future of humanity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Håkansson, Håkan, Ford, David, Gadde, Lars-Erik, Snehota, Ivan & Waluszewski, Alexandra (2009). Business in Networks. Chichester: Wiley.
    Hamilton, Carl (2000). Absolut: Biography of a bottle. New York: Texere.
    Hastings, Gerard (2013). The Marketing Matrix. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Hawking, Stephen (1996). A Brief History of Time. London: Bantam Books (
    2nd
    edn).
    Hawking, Stephen (2013). My Brief History. New York: Bantam Books.
    Hawking, Stephen & Mlodinow, Leonard (2010). The Grand Design. London: Bantam Books.
    Heller, Robert (1984). The Supermanagers: Managing for success, the movers and the doers, the reasons why. New York: E.P. Dutton.
    Henderson, Bill & Bernard, André (eds) (1998). Rotten Reviews and Rejections. Wainscott, NY: Pushcart Press.
    Heskett, James & Hallowell, Roger (2013). Shouldice Hospital Limited. Harvard Business School Supplement, 913-405 (February).
    Hindo, Brian (2007). At 3M, a struggle between efficiency and creativity. Business Week, 11 June, 812.
    Holbrook, Morris B. (2003). Adventures in complexity: An essay on dynamic open complex adaptive systems, butterfly effects, self-organizing order, coevolution, the ecological perspective, fitness landscapes, market spaces, emergent beauty at the edge of chaos, and all that jazz. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 6. Available at www.amsreview.org/articles/holbrook06-2003.pdf
    Holton, Judith H. & Walsh, Isabelle (2017). Classic Grounded Theory: Applications with qualitative and quantitative data. London: Sage.
    Hunt Shelby & Madhavaram, Streedhar (2012). Managerial action and resource-advantage theory: Conceptual frameworks emanating from positive theory of competition. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 27 (7), 582591.
    Hunt, Shelby D. & Morgan, Robert M. (1997). Resource-advantage theory: A snake swallowing its tail or a general theory of competition? Journal of Marketing, 61, 7482.
    Johnson, Phil, Buering, Anna, Cassell, Catherine & Symon, Gillian (2007). Defining qualitative management research: An empirical investigation. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management, 2 (1), 2342.
    Judge, Timothy A., Cable, Daniel M., Colbert, Amy E. & Rynes, Sara L. (2007). What causes a management article to be cited: Article, author or journal? The Academy of Management Journal, 50 (3), 491508.
    Kahneman, Daniel (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. London: Penguin Books.
    Kaldor, Nicholas (1957). A model of economic growth. The Economic Journal, 67 (268), 591624.
    Karabell, Zachary (2014). The Leading Indicators: A short history of the numbers that rule our world. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Kotler, Philip (2015). Confronting Capitalism. New York: Amacom.
    Kotler, Philip (2016). Why behavioral economics is really marketing science. Evonomics, 1-3.
    Kozintets, Robert V. (2010). Netnography: Doing ethnographic research online. London: Sage.
    Kriz, Anton, Gummesson, Evert & Quazi, Ali (2014). Methodology meets culture: Guanxi-oriented research in China. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 14 (1), 2746.
    Krueger, Richard A. (2009). Focus Groups: A practical guide for applied research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Krugman, Paul (2012). End this Depression Now! New York: W.W. Norton.
    Kuhn, Thomas (1962/1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago (
    2nd
    edn).
    Lasagna, Louis (1964). A discussion on the need for a new declaration of medical ethics. The New York Times, 28 June.
    Lawrence, Peter (2011). The heart of research is sick. Lab Times, 2, 2431.
    Lee, B. (2006). The qualitative inquiry in the business and management field: Symposium at the Second International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry. Qualitative Research in Organization and Management, 1 (2), 141145.
    Lee, Nick & Lings, Ian (2008). Doing Business Research. London: Sage.
    Lindblom, Charles E. (1959). The science of ‘muddling through’. Public Administration Review, 19 (2), 7988.
    Lindblom, Charles E. (1979). Still muddling, not yet through. Public Administration Review, 39, 517526.
    Lindstrom, Martin (2004). Branding is no longer child’s play. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21 (3), 175182.
    Lindstrom, Martin (2008). Buyology. New York: Crown Business.
    Lindstrom, Martin (2011). Brandwashed. New York: Crown Business.
    Lindstrom, Martin (2016). Small Data: The tiny clues that uncover huge trends. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
    Linestone, H.A. & Zhu, Z. (2000). Towards synergy in multiperspective management: An American-Chinese case. Human Systems Management, 19, 2537.
    Löbler, Helge (2013). Service-dominant networks: An evolution from the service-dominant logic perspective. Journal of Service Management, 24 (4), 420434.
    Lovelock, Christopher H. & Gummesson, E. (2004). Whither services marketing? Journal of Service Research, 7 (1), 2041.
    Lowe, Andy (1995). The basic social processes of entrepreneurial innovation. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 1 (2), 5476.
    Lund, Ragnar (2011). Leveraging Cooperative Strategy: Cases of sports and arts sponsorship. Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm University School of Business.
    Lusch, Robert F. & Vargo, Stephen L. (2014). Service-dominant Logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    McLuhan, Marshall (1964). Understanding Media: The extensions of man. New York: Mentor.
    McLuhan, Marshall & Fiore, Quentin (1967). The Medium Is the Massage: An inventroy of effects. London: Penguin.
    Machiavelli, Nicolo (1513/2012). The Prince. Available at www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1232
    MacNeil, Karen (2001). The Wine Bible. New York: Workman Publishing.
    Maglio, Paul P. (2011). Modeling complex service systems. Service Science, 3, 4, iii.
    Maglio, Paul P. & Spohrer, James C. (2008). Fundamentals of Service Science. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36 (1), 820.
    Marcus, Gary & Davis, Ernest (2014). Eight (No, nine!) problems with big data. The New York Times, 7 April, p. 23.
    Martin, Vivian B. & Gynnild, Astrid (eds) (2012). Grounded Theory: The philosophy, method, and work of Barney Glaser. Boca Raton, FL: BrownWalker Press.
    Mason, Jennifer (1994). Linking qualitative and quantitative data analysis. In Alan Bryman and Robert G. Burgess (eds), Analyzing Qualitative Data. London: Routledge.
    Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor & Cukier, Kenneth (2013). Big Data: A revolution that will transform how we live, work and think. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
    Meehl, Paul (1986). Causes and effects of my disturbing little book. Journal of Personality Assessment, 50, 370375.
    Mele, Cristina & Polese, Francesco (2011). Key dimensions of service systems in value-creating networks. In Haluk Demirkan, James C. Spohrer & Vikas Krishna (eds), The Science of Service Systems. New York: Springer.
    Merton, Robert Sr. (1979). The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and empirical investigations. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Miles, Matthew B., Huberman, Michael A. & Saldana, Johnny M. (2013). Qualitative Data Analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Mintzberg, Henry (1979). The Structuring of Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Mintzberg, Henry (1983). Structures in Five. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Mintzberg, Henry (2007). Tracking Strategies … toward a General Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Moss Kanter, Rosabeth (1983). The Change Masters. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Moutinho, Luiz & Hutcheson, Graeme (eds) (2011). The Sage Dictionary of Quantitative Management Research. London: Sage.
    Muñiz Martínez, Norberto (2012). City marketing and place branding: A critical review of practice and academic research. Journal of Town & City Management, 2 (4), 369394.
    Naisbitt, John (1982). Megatrends. New York: Warner Books.
    Naisbitt, John (1999). High Tech/High Touch. London: Nicholas Brealey.
    Närvänen, Elina, Gummesson, Evert & Kuusela, Hannu (2014). The collective consumption network. Managing Service Quality, 24 (6), 545564.
    Nonaka, Ikujiro & Takeuchi, Hirotaka (1995). The Knowledge Creating Company. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Ödman, Per-Johan (1985). Hermeneutics in research practice. In Torsten Husén and Neville T. Postlethwaite (eds), The International Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford: Pergamon.
    Ödman, Per-Johan (2007). Hermeneutics. In Bengt Gustavsson (ed.), The Principles of Knowledge Creation Methods. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    Olsen, Morten (1992). Kvalitet i banktjänster (Quality of bank services). With summary in English. Stockholm/Karlstad: Stockholm University and the Service Research Center (CTF).
    Ortmark, Åke (1985). Maktens människor (The people of power). Malmö, Sweden: Wahlström & Widstrand.
    Pacanowsky, Michael (1978). Salt Passage research: The state of the art. Change, 10, 8, 4143; reprinted under the pseudonym M. Pencil (2006) in the Journal of Communication, 26, 4, 3136.
    Packer, Martin (2011). The Science of Qualitative Research. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Parkinson, C. Northcote (1958). Parkinson’s Law: The pursuit of progress. London: John Murray.
    Patton, Michael Quinn (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage (
    2nd
    edn).
    Payne, Adrian & Frow, Pennie (2013). Strategic Customer Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Payne, Adrian & Frow, Pennie (2014). Deconstructing the value proposition of an innovation exemplar. European Journal of Marketing, 48 (1–2), 237270.
    Pendlebury, David A. (2015). White Paper: Using bibliometrics in evaluating research. Philadelphia, PA: Thomson Reuters.
    Perkins, John (2004). Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Perry, Chad (ed.) (2004). Action research in marketing. Special issue of the European Journal of Marketing, 38 (3/4).
    Peters, Tom & Waterman, Robert J., Jr. (1982). In Search of Excellence. New York: HarperBusiness.
    Pfeffer, Jeffrey & Sutton, Robert I. (2006). Hard Facts, Dangerous Half-truths and Total Non-sense. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.
    Polanyi, Michael (1966). The Tacit Dimension. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Pritchard, Alan (1969). Statistical bibliography or bibliometrics? Journal of Documentation, 25 (4), 348349.
    Reindhart, Andy (1998). Steve Jobs on Apple’s Resurgence: Not a one-man show. Bloomberg Businessweek, 12 May.
    Remenyi, Dan, Williams, Brian, Money, Arthur & Swartz, Ethné (1998). Doing Research in Business and Management. London: Sage.
    Richards, Lyn & Richards, Tom (1994). From filing cabinet to computer. In Alan Bryman & Robert G. Burgess (eds), Analyzing Qualitative Data. London: Routledge, pp. 146172.
    Russell, Bertrand (1914/1993). Our knowledge of the External World. New York: Routledge.
    Saren, Michael & Pels, Jacqueline (2008). A comment on paradox and middle-range theory: Universality, synthesis and supplement. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 23 (2), 105107.
    Särndal, Carl-Erik (2012). Tore Dalenius insatser och inflytande i surveyvetenskap och praktik (The contributions and influence of Tore Dalenius in survey science and practice). 2012 års Dalenius-föredrag, Surveyföreningens årsmöte (in Swedish).
    Saunders, Mark (1999). Quantitative methods in marketing. In Baker, Michael J. (ed.), The IEBM Encyclopedia of Marketing. London: Thomson.
    Saunders, Mark, Lewis, Philip & Thornhill, Adrian (2012). Research Methods for Business Students. Harlow: Pearson (
    6th
    edn).
    Saviano, Roberto (2006). Gomorrah. New York: Picador.
    Saviano, Roberto (2015). ZeroZeroZero. New York: Penguin Random House.
    Schildt, Göran (1995). Lånade vingar (Borrowed wings). Helsinki, Finland: Söderström.
    Schön, Donald (1984). The Reflective Practitioner. New York: Basic Books.
    Schumacher, E.F. (1973). Small Is Beautiful: A study of economics as if people mattered. London: Blond & Briggs.
    Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1950). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper & Row (
    4th
    edn).
    Scott, John & Carrington, Peter J. (2011). The Sage Handbook of Social Network Analysis. London: Sage.
    Seale, Clive (1999). Quality in qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 5 (4), 465478.
    Senge, Peter M. (1990). The Fifth Discipline. New York: Doubleday Currency.
    Shah, Shvetank, Horne, Andrew & Capellá, Jaime (2012). Good data won’t guarantee good decisions. Harvard Business Review, 90 (4), 2325.
    Simmons, Odis (1993). The milkman and his customer: A cultivated relationship. In Barney G. Glaser (ed.), Examples of Grounded Theory: A reader. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
    Simon, Herbert (1957). A behavioral model of rational choice. In Models of Man, Social and Rational: Mathematical essays on rational human behavior in a social setting. New York: Wiley.
    Sokal, Alan (1996). Transgressing the boundaries: Towards a transformative hermeneutics of quantum gravity. Social Text, ‘Science Wars’ issue, 46/47, 217252.
    Sörman-Nilsson, Anders (2013). Digilogue. Milton, Qld, Australia: Wiley.
    Staal, P.C. & Ligtenberg, G. (2007). Assessment of established medical science and medical practice. College voor Zorgversekering, Diemen, the Netherlands (www.cvz.nl).
    Stacey, Ralph D. (2009). Complexity and Organizational Reality. Abingdon: Routledge (
    2nd
    edn).
    Stacey, Ralph D. (2010). Strategic Management and Organisational Dynamics: The challenge of complexity. London: Financial Times/Prentice Hall (
    5th
    edn).
    Stacey, Ralph D., Griffin, Douglas & Shaw, Patricia (2002). Complexity and management. Journal of Macromarketing, 22 (December), 198201.
    Stebbing, L. Susan (1939/1961). Thinking to Some Purpose. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
    Sternberg, Robert J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Stewart, Matthew (2009). The management Myth: Debunking modern business philosophy. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Strauss, Anselm & Corbin, Juliet (1991). Basics of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Tadajewski, Mark (2016). Academic labour, journal ranking lists and the politics of knowledge production in marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 32 (1–2), 118.
    Taleb, Nassim Nicholas (2007). The Black Swan. London: Penguin Books.
    Tapp, Alan (2005). Why practitioners don’t read our articles and what we should do about it. The Marketing Review, 5 (1), 312.
    Tarkovsky, Andrey (1986). Sculpting in Time: Reflections of the cinema. London: The Bodley Head.
    Taylor, Frederick W. (1911). The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: Harper & Brothers.
    Tegmark, Max (2014). Our Mathematical Universe: My quest for the ultimate nature of reality. London: Allen Lane/Penguin Books.
    Thomas, Eileen & Magilvy, Joan K. (2011). Qualitative rigor or research validity in qualitative research. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 16 (2), 151-155.
    Timmermans, Stefan & Berg, Marc (2003). The Gold Standard: The challenge of evidence-based medicine and standardization in health care. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Van Fleet, D.D., McWilliams, A. & Siegel, D.S. (2000). A theoretical and empirical analysis of journal ratings: The case of formal lists. Journal of Management, 26, 839861.
    Van Maanen, John (2000). Foreword, in Gummesson, Evert, Qualitative Methods in Management Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (
    2nd
    edn).
    Van Maanen, John (2011). Tales of the Field: On writing ethnography. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press (
    2nd
    edn).
    Vargo, Stephen L. & Lusch, Robert F. (2008a). Service-dominant logic: Continuing the evolution. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36 (1), 110.
    Vargo, Stephen L. & Lusch, Robert F. (2008b). Why service? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36 (1), 2538.
    Vásquez, Consuelo, Brummans, Boris H.J.M. & Groleau, Carole (2012). Notes from the field on organizational shadowing as framing. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management, 7 (2), 144165.
    Vigen, Tyler (2014). Spurious Correlations. New York: Hachette Books.
    von Wright, Georg Henrik (1971). Explanation and Understanding. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Waddock, S.A. & Spangler, E. (2000). Action learning in leadership for change. In Sherman, F. & Torbert, W. (eds), Transforming Social Inquiry, Transforming Social Action: New paradigms for crossing the theory/practice divide in universities and communities. Boston, MA: Kluwer.
    Wallraff, Günter (1985). Ganz unten (At the very bottom). Cologne, Germany: Verlag Kiepenheuer & Witsch.
    Walton, John (1992). What is a case? In Ragin, Charles C. & Becker, Howard S. (eds), Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Weiner-Levy, Naomi & Popper-Giveon, Ariela (2013). The absent, the hidden and the obscured: Reflections on ‘dark matter’ in qualitative research. Quality & Quantity, 47 (4), 21772190.
    Wolcott, Harry F. (1994). Transforming Qualitative Data: Description, analysis and interpretation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Womack, James P., Jones, Daniel T. & Roos, Daniel (1990). The Machine that Changed the World. New York: Rawson.
    Woodside, Arch G. (2010). Case Study Research: Theory, methods and practice. Bingley, UK: Emerald.
    Yin, Robert K. (2014). Case Study Research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (
    5th
    edn).
    Zetterberg, Hans L. (2013). The Pursuit of Knowledge: The many-splendoured society, 4. Charleston, SC: CreateSpace.
    Zuckerman, Myron, Silberman, Jordan & Hall, Judith A. (2013). The relation between intelligence and religiosity: A meta-analysis and some proposed explanations. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 17 (4), 325354.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website