Case Theory in Business and Management: Reinventing Case Study Research


Evert Gummesson

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    To our granddaughters Sophie and Louise, born during the writing of this book and who added a perspective on how human beings learn and thus indirectly helped me write this book.

    Praise for Case Theory in Business and Management

    ‘I trust ... brilliant practitioners of market and management research who have based their cumulative theories as much on proprietary data as on published data ... I trust the management theories of Peter Drucker ... and the market theories of Evert Gummesson ... which are based on both kinds of data.’

    Hans L. Zetterberg, Professor Emeritus in Sociology; former owner of Sifo AB, Sweden’s leading institute for political polls and market and social research; past President of the World Association for Public Opinion Research. (Source: Zetterberg, 2013, p. 77).

    ‘This meticulous book submits research and the research process to deep scrutiny. It debunks the unhelpful dichotomy between quantitative and qualitative research and highlights the great value of multi-method and interactive research, approaches that have greatly deepened our thinking. Evert Gummesson combines many decades of experience in research as both a renowned scholar and a reflective practitioner effectively bridging the divide of theory and practice. This is the best book on case theory and case study research in decades.’

    Professor Adrian Payne, University of New South Wales, Australia and Professor Pennie Frow, University of Sydney, Australia.

    ‘As theory informs practice, so can methodology advance both. More than ever, practitioners and researchers alike need better methodology for data-driven decision making. Gummesson’s new book provides the roadmap and the springboard to reinvigorate our methodologies for the 21st century.’

    Jim Spohrer, PhD (computer science and artificial intelligence), Director, Understanding Cognitive Systems, IBM, and one of the 100 Innovation Champions of IBM.

    Lists of Boxes, Figures and Tables


    About the Author

    Evert Gummesson is Emeritus Professor of the Stockholm Business School at Stockholm University, Sweden. He graduated from the Stockholm School of Economics and received his PhD from Stockholm University. In Finland he is Honorary Doctor of Hanken School of Economics and a fellow of the University of Tampere. He has written or contributed to over 50 books and published numerous articles and reports – altogether around 400 publications. His earlier book by Sage, Qualitative Methods in Management Research, passed 4,500 citations in 2017. His articles have appeared in the European Journal of Marketing, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Journal of Service Research, Journal of Marketing Management, Service Industry Management and many others. He is a present or former member of some 25 editorial boards for journals and publishers. His research embraces service management, relationship marketing and networks and he takes particular interest in the theory of science and how research methodology is practised by academic researchers and consultants. He is a co-founder of the Service Research Center (CTF), Karlstad University, Sweden, and its first professor; the QUIS (Service Excellence Symposium) conference series; the International Colloquium of Relationship Marketing (ICRM); and the Naples Forum on Service. He is an elected fellow of the World Academy of Productivity Science and a former member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Swedish Institute for Quality (SIQ). Dr Gummesson has received awards from the American Marketing Association, and The Chartered Institute of Marketing, in the UK, has listed him as one of the 50 most important contributors to the development of marketing. He became the first recipient of the S-D Logic Award (established by Professors Robert Lusch and Stephen Vargo) for ‘Pioneering and Continuing Achievement’ and of the Grönroos Service Research Award, established by Hanken for ‘excellent achievements in service research challenging common understanding and demonstrating significant originality’. He is a frequent speaker around the world and has over 20 years of experience in business as a marketing manager and a senior consultant and director in one of the largest consultancies in Europe. His former clients include Ericsson, Mastercard, IBM, the Swedish Cooperative Union, Swedish Railroads, Swedish Telecom and the UN.


    By John Van Maanen, Erwin Schell Professor of Organization Studies, MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA, USA

    It is a distinct pleasure to write the Foreword for Evert Gummesson’s timely new book spelling out and indeed celebrating the importance, charm, eloquence, beauty and learning potential of the well-done case study. It is a form of social research that is again on the upswing partly as a response to the turbulence and change that mark the 21st century. Yet, case studies, and their affinity for narrative, particularity, context and, yes, uncertainty and ambiguity that the writers of the best of them display, may make some readers nervous for their embrace of anti-foundational precepts and suspicion for all types of essentialism. This is a misunderstanding that Case Theory in Business and Management is out to correct.

    Understanding cases first means being clear as to what we take them to be. As Professor Gummesson suggests, this can be a troublesome matter because definitions of case studies differ and sometimes differ spectacularly. What they represent and how such representations contribute to our learning is of central interest here. One generic but abbreviated definition holds that cases are simply investigations of some particular social setting with a focus on the events that occur in and over that time setting. The more strictly bounded yet broadly and comparatively located the setting, the closer the writer to the events that occur in that domain, the more detailed and linked the elements of the descriptive work, the higher the quality of the case.

    Creating the high-quality case is however no easy matter. Most cases are not well done. A typical business school case, for instance, falls at the low end of the scale since it often rests on a flying visit of short duration by a case-writing team to a self-selected organization to interview a small smattering of managers as to their handling of a particular problematic matter. Most cases in business school libraries – and perhaps most cases of all sorts – are quickly forgotten and shelved as superficial if not fictive versions of events chronicled for no apparent reason. It is their ad hoc and careless character, their lack of analytic bite or interest, their want of an identifiable perspective, their failure to properly situate the case – by similarity or difference – in broader matters, their disguised character, their formulaic language and format that make them so intellectually vapid, dispensable and easy to satirize (e.g. ‘Leaning back from his cluttered desk and rubbing his temples, Richard Preston, head of Acme’s New Product Development department, closed his eyes and wondered what he had done to get himself in this mess’).

    Moving up in quality are the various sorts of case studies produced by business and management researchers – and some journalists as well – where the authors, by intention, seek to extend a reader’s acquaintance with the particular setting the activities take place in. The aim and function of such work is basic: to familiarize readers with the complex cases of the world. This writing is rarely comparative or theoretical but it is precise, explicitly located, and takes readers where they have not been before. Such cases constitute travel over a field of study, and students of business and management who have never been in a military unit, a biological research lab, a police department, a Japanese assembly or a Swedish civil service agency have presumably missed something, such that whatever generalizations they are apt to make of organizational life will be based on too restricted a field. Cases that provide readers with a broader view of their respective areas of interest help prompt reflection and curb conceits.

    But of most interest in this text are those case studies that are rich in detail, history, member perspectives, scholarly musings and set on solid temporal and spatial groundings. The writing displays apt analogies and comparative moorings with conclusions of a narrative sort not easily detachable or decontextualized from the story told. Whether it is the strange being made familiar or the familiar being made strange, new ways of seeing the world are put forth. These are cases that lead long lives and thus anchor the high end of the case study trade. And how such work is imagined and produced in the business and management milieu – along with the epistemic and methodological assumptions on which such work rests – is Professor Gummesson’s overriding concern.

    Just why case studies seem to have recaptured our attention these days requires commentary. I have 3 intertwined accounts in mind, all of which are fleshed out in far greater depth in the pages to follow. First, consider the sorry state of unifying theories. Across the social sciences, from psychology to economics, the very idea of discovering and validating highly general covering laws – akin to the laws of physics or chemistry – is slip-sliding away (and fast). Postmodernism (and all the post-toasty variants such as post-structuralism, post-positivism, post-Marxism, post-colonialism and so forth) has put grand narratives on the run. Modernism stresses coherence and order, postmodernism emphasizes competing perspectives, contests of meaning, contextual modifiers, and the always uncertain processes of signification. Increasingly, narrow paradigms are out and variation and difference are in. Thus, it will do us well to make sure the cases we do have are good ones, composed with patience and skill. Case studies of a careful and trustworthy sort in the business and management sphere must today treat theory with gentle hands and make few (and usually tentative) claims to generality. Conceptual imperialism is (justifiably) out of fashion these days, making Professor Gummesson’s restraint and modesty quite appealing.

    Second, fragmentation and disorder are more than a characterization of our scholarly worlds. They attach to contemporary life. We live everywhere in unsettled times. To wit, communication and transportation technologies cut into the social and cultural singularity of societies. Human migrations change the character of villages, cities, regions and nations. Multinational organizations cross borders with impunity, seeking new markets and remaking, sometimes obliterating, old ones. Global contrasts are omnipresent as people become increasingly aware of how things are done elsewhere. In changing times, previously unquestioned cultural understandings and traditions unravel. Stories conveyed by cases are therefore vital – perhaps all we have in an uncharted world.

    Third, the promise of case studies probably rests in part on some old-fashioned pragmatism and a little preaching or beseeching. There are many good things to say for the practicality of case studies. The ease, comfort, relatively low cost and timeliness in which such studies can be conducted have much to recommend them in these times of rapid change, scarce resources and pinched research budgets. Case studies are typically small, flexible and nimble endeavours. To my mind, they are rather attractive counterparts to the elaborately designed, big budget, statistically governed and over-controlled studies where the findings are sometimes obsolete before they reach print. Equally important is that the case study remains something of a solo act and thus the work and results are filtered through 1 head rather than many and hired-hand problems are not a concern. A consistent point of view, a sense of moral and ethical responsibility that comes from personal identification and interest, and a set of craft-like norms are more likely to be in place and respected when a study is conducted by a single scholar.

    All this is to say that I believe case studies are important, and perhaps more important than ever. The goals of this work are to expand our horizons, to reflect seriously and intimately on the events that surround us here, there and everywhere, and to increase the range of human possibilities for both thought and action. By learning how and sometimes why real people, in real places, at real time act as they do, these aims can be advanced. In short, the case for case theory – as argued, presented and illustrated by Evert Gummesson – is a compelling and formidable one.

    Preface and Acknowledgements

    A privilege when writing about the methodology and philosophy of scientific research is that I can hobnob with the greatest of the past and of today. I have a daily dialogue with Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Aristotle and Leonardo da Vinci, just to mention a few, and of course with colleagues in my international network. I have been to conferences, universities and business firms all over the world and learnt good things and bad things. Meeting the people in person and making friends is a seminal part of my development as a scholar. When the Internet was introduced, the hype said that online contact would take over and physical meetings would be redundant. It was dead wrong. There have never been so many conferences as there are today! Networking is both high-touch physical interaction and high-tech computer-mediated contact. High tech or high touch, these meetings with you have all taught me something. I am not listing you here but many of you will find your publications in the references and citations. I thank you all!

    Very early on, I was puzzled by science and research methodology. Sometimes it felt far beyond my comprehension but sometimes it felt shallow and in conflict with my experience and judgement. Working both in industry and academia, I soon lost my faith in surveys, except as a technique to be used in very special instances. Since then surveys have grown enormously in quantity and technical sophistication. They fit academic career plans. But my conclusion is that they contribute very little to scientific development. I lost interest in quantitative techniques and case study research especially became a priority. Glaser and Strauss, Patton, Van Maanen, Yin and many others put me on a new track. I wanted to expand on these sources and let my own experience from business, academic research and as a consumer and citizen come out. I did so in Qualitative Methods in Management Research, first written in 1983, then published in Swedish in 1985 and in English in 1990 by Sage. It has been revised and reprinted several times. After 30 years it is more cited than ever. When asked by Sage to make yet another revision, I found there was nothing I wanted to change.

    John Van Maanen of MIT who had come out as an early supporter asked me to write a book on case study research. This inspired me and I started working on it in the 1990s. The book was postponed and postponed and postponed. I wasn’t ready and the time was not ripe. I now feel ready and consider the time ripe. But it has been a hard struggle. How I survived the hardships of those years travelling in Methodologyland I don’t know. It is ever so impenetrable and wild as a jungle. The writing became a passion. It was felt in my whole body; it was more than an intellectual adventure and led to the discovery of case theory.

    Special thanks to my editor Delia Alfonso. Without her kind and patient enthusiasm, this book would never have become reality. Many thanks also to Lyndsay Aitken, Alison Borg and Sarah Cooke.

    Evert GummessonDjursholm, Sweden
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