Carl Gustav Jung


Ann Casement

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  • Key Figures in Counselling and Psychotherapy

    Series editor: Windy Dryden

    The Key Figures in Counselling and Psychotherapy series of books provides a concise, accessible introduction to the lives, contributions and influence of the leading innovators whose theoretical and practical work has had a profound impact on counselling and psychotherapy. The series includes comprehensive overviews of:

    Sigmund Freud

    by Michael Jacobs

    Eric Berne

    by Ian Stewart

    Carl Rogers

    by Brian Thorne

    Melanie Klein

    by Julia Segal

    Fritz Perls

    by Petrūska Clarkson and Jennifer Mackewn

    Aaron T. Beck

    by Marjorie E. Weishaar

    Albert Ellis

    by Joseph Yankura and Windy Dryden

    Joseph Wolpe

    by Roger Poppen

    George Kelly

    by Fay Fransella

    D. W. Winnicott

    by Michael Jacobs

    J. L. Moreno

    by A. Paul Hare and June Rabson Hare

    Milton H. Erickson

    by Jeffrey K. Zeig and W. Michael Munion

    Carl Gustav Jung

    by Ann Casement


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    The past is terribly real and present. (Jung, 1963: 108)

    Jung's contribution to psychology and to the history of ideas has stood at the centre of my life since 1964 when I started my first Jungian analysis in London. This led many years later to my training as a Jungian analyst. I have often heard people referring to Jung's writings as ‘mystical’ and ‘impenetrable’, and am only too aware of the challenge of trying to make them accessible without over-simplifying the essential complexity of his approach. Related to this, it is vital not to do damage to these ideas by too hasty a summary and, while writing this, I have tried to keep before me what Jung wrote in Latin in one of my supervisors, Gerhard Adler's, copy of the first book of the English Collected Works, Psychology and Alchemy: ‘All haste is of the devil’. This was an expression of his dissatisfaction with the finished product which had been years in the making.

    It is also important to note here that although this account is written with respect for a remarkable man, it is not a hagiography but contains aspects of Jung's shadow. I have increasingly come to realize how important his own work in the area of shadow is for humankind's present and future. My own growing fascination with shadow aspects of psyche has resulted in my writing and lecturing about them. To quote Jung himself: ‘It fares with us all as with Brother Medardus in Hoffmann's tale The Devil's Elixir: somewhere we have a sinister and frightful brother, our own flesh-and-blood counterpart, who holds and maliciously hoards everything that we would so willingly hide under the table’ (Jung, 1966: 39). And elsewhere: ‘Wholeness is not so much perfection as completeness … Recognition of the shadow is reason enough for humility, for genuine fear of the abysmal depths in man’ (Jung, 1966: 239).

    On the other hand, this book is not an exercise in desecrating Jung along the lines of the kind of tabloid sensationalism that has been written about him in recent times. Although it touches on the subject of the women in his life, it has to be said that there is no clear-cut evidence to support allegations that Jung had affairs with women patients and it is important to bear in mind that he was above all a moralist. Another highly controversial area surrounding Jung is the charge of Nazism combined with anti-Semitism and a selective coverage of the responsible literature on the subject is explored in the course of the book.

    The Jungian community is a large, heterogeneous mix composed of countless numbers of people. The specialized practitioners make up a small proportion of this and, at the moment of writing, 2,300 analytical psychologists are gathered together under the umbrella of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP) which has its headquarters in Zurich, whilst many other practitioners are not members of the IAAP. These all use different titles to describe themselves, for example, ‘analytical psychologist’ ‘Jungian analyst’, ‘Jungian psychoanalyst’, ‘Jungian psychotherapist’, and ‘therapist’. These practitioners mostly use the term ‘patient’ or ‘analysand’ for the individuals they work with therapeutically, so I will be using these terms where necessary throughout the book.

    I have made extensive use of the 20 volumes of the English Collected Works of Jung published by Routledge. In some instances, I have instead used the Princeton University Press edition. These 20 volumes were edited by Sir Herbert Read, Michael Fordham and Gerhard Adler, and translated into English by R.F.C. Hull. They encapsulate the evolution of Jung's interest as it transferred itself from psychiatry through psychoanalysis and typology to the theory of archetypes held together by his abiding interest in the psychology of religious motifs.

    I would like to thank Princeton University Press, Random House Group and Taylor & Francis – incorporating Routledge – for their kind permission in allowing me to use lengthy extracts from the Freud/Jung Letters edited by William McGuire.

    A word of caution is in order here with regard to all the published writings of Jung, including the Collected Works. All of these differ from the unpublished original manuscripts according to the Jung scholar, Sonu Shamdasani, and, in some cases the difference is marked. Another point worth noting is that there are in existence more than 20,000 unpublished letters by Jung.

    In this book, I am not attempting to cover Jung's vast opus or the myriad formative encounters he had with other disciplines. I have made my own selection in both these areas and hope the end result might stimulate the reader's interest in analytical psychology.

    Although many of the terms that Jung used in his approach to the psyche are now in everyday usage, for example, extravert and introvert, these are used by him in a specific way. In order to elucidate what Jung was writing about, the book includes definitions of his main concepts.

    Finally, a brief word on the writing style adopted in the book: in trying to avoid clumsy devices like ‘his/her’ or ‘he/she’, I have used ‘their’ or ‘they’ where necessary. Jargon terms are set in italics except for those that are in everyday usage like ‘ego’.

    Although I have been steeped in Jungian thinking and practice for many years, writing this account of Jung's life and work has inevitably become a kind of journey of my own. I am grateful to my friend and colleague, Windy Dryden, the editor of this series, for affording me the opportunity of re-discovering and re-affirming what drew me – albeit unwittingly, in the first instance – to Jung and to the world of analytical psychology. Jung's writing is the leitmotif that runs throughout this book but I am also indebted to the many other writers whose ideas have contributed to it. I would particularly like to thank John Beebe, Robert Hinshaw, Thomas Kirsch, Robert Segal and Sonu Shamdasani, who have been an invaluable resource whilst this book has been taking shape. The responsibility for the final product lies entirely with myself.

  • A Select Bibliography of Jung's Major Writing

    The following is a selection of some of Jung's key essays and books which are deliberately not grouped under any specific headings. This is in keeping with Jung's own approach to writing which was to do with expressing ideas rather than propounding theory or technique. These are followed by a few books on Jung by other authors. Both sections number 25 titles in all.

    To start with, I have selected papers from the 20 volumes of Jung's Collected Works published by Routledge & Kegan Paul, Limited (London). The first few papers will appeal to those readers who are interested in parapsychology and in psychiatry at the Burghölzli at the beginning of the 20th-century with its incorporation of psychoanalysis early on in its inception.

    Jung, C.G. (1902) On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena. Volume 1.
    Jung, C.G. and RiklinF. (1904) The Associations of Normal Subjects. Volume 2.
    Jung, C.G. (1906) Psychoanalysis and Association Experiments. Volume 2.
    Jung, C.G. (1914) The Content of the Psychoses and On Psychological Understanding. Volume 3.
    Jung, C.G. (1912) The Theory of Psychoanalysis. Volume 4.

    The next group of papers show the development of Jung's own ideas that ran concurrent with and followed on from the break with Freud.

    Jung, C.G. (1912 and 1956) Two Kinds of Thinking; Symbols of the Mother and of Rebirth; The Battle for Deliverance from the Mother; The Dual Mother; The Sacrifice. Volume 5.
    Jung, C.G. (1921) General Description of the Types. Volume 6.
    Jung, C.G. (1928) The Relations between the Ego and the Unconscious. Volume 7.

    The next few papers show the maturing and consolidating of Jung's ideas.

    Jung, C.G. (1928) On Psychic Energy. Volume 8.
    Jung, C.G. (1934) A Review of the Complex Theory. Volume 8.
    Jung, C.G. (1927/31) The Structure of the Psyche. Volume 8.
    Jung, C.G. (1947/54) On the Nature of the Psyche. Volume 8.
    Jung, C.G. (1934/54) Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious. Volume 9, Part 1.
    Jung, C.G. (1936) The Concept of the Collective Unconscious. Volume 9, Part 1.
    Jung, C.G. (1938/54) Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype. Volume 9, Part 1.
    Jung, C.G. (1951) The Ego, The Shadow, The Syzygy: Anima and Animus, The Self, Christ, a Symbol of the Self. Volume 9, Part II.
    Jung, C.G. (1952) Answer to Job. Volume 11.

    The following two papers are on psychology and alchemy.

    Jung, C.G. (1929) Commentary on ‘The Secret of the Golden Flower’. Volume 12.
    Jung, C.G. (1946) The Psychology of the Transference. Volume 16.

    These books by Jung are not part of the Collected Works.

    Jung, C.G. (ed.) (1964) Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell Publishing.
    Jung, C.G. (1968) Analytical Psychology: Its Theory and Practice. New York: Random House.
    Jung, C.G. (1933) Modern Man in Search of a Soul. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    The last three books are by other analytical psychologists. The first is a scholarly but accessible work on Jung's psychology centred in mythology, history and western culture. I gave it a glowing review in The Economist, when it first appeared.

    Zoja, L. (1995) Growth and Guilt: Psychology and the Limits of Development. London: Routledge.

    The next book is a beautifully written ‘in-depth’ but highly accessible account of some of Jung's most complex ideas.

    Stein, M. (1998) Jung's Map of the Soul. Peru, Illinois: Open Court.

    The last book is a very readable narrative history of the Jungian community worldwide.

    Kirsch, T. (2000) The Jungians: A Comparative and Historical Perspective. London: Routledge.
    Hinshaw, R. (2000) Essays on Jung's Psychology. Einsielden, Switzerland: Daimon.
    Shamdasani, S.Prisms of Psychology: Jung and History. Work in progress.


    Adler, G. (ed.) (1976) C.G. Jung Letters. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Adler, G. (1978) Reflections on ‘Chance’, ‘Fate’, and ‘Synchronicity’. Unpublished.
    Astor, J. (1995) Michael Fordham: Innovations in Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge.
    Beebe, J. (1992) ‘Jung on the Masculine: An Introduction’, in R.Papadopoulos (ed.), Carl Gustav Jung: Critical Assessments. London: Routledge. pp. 367–75.
    Bennet, E.A. (1961) C.G. Jung. London: Barrie Books.
    Cambray, J. (2000) Enactments and Amplification. In press with the Journal of Analytical Psychology.
    Carotenuto, A. (1982) A Secret Symmetry: Sabina Speilrein. New York: Dell Publishing.
    Casement, A. (1995) ‘A Brief History of Jungian Splits in the U.K.’, Journal of Analytical Psychology, 40: 327–42.
    Casement, A. (ed.) (1998) Post-Jungians Today: Key Papers in Contemporary Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge.
    Clarke, J.J. (1992) In Search of Jung: Historical and Philosophical Enquiries. London: Routledge.
    Cocks, G. (1997) Psychotherapy in the Third Reich: The Goring Institute. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
    Edinger, E.F. (1986) Encounter with the Self. Toronto: Inner City Books.
    Ellenberger, H.F. (1970) The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
    Fordham, M. (1993) The Making of an Analyst: A Memoir. London: Free Association Books.
    Freud, S. (1966) On the History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement. London and New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
    Friedman, M.S. (1986) Martin Buber and the Eternal. New York: Human Sciences Press.
    Friedman, M.S. (1991) Martin Buber's Encounter on the Narrow Ridge: A Life. New York: Paragon House.
    Gottlieb, F. (1994) ‘The Kabbala, Jung and the feminine’, in J.Ryce-Menuhin (ed.), Jung and the Monotheisms: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. London: Routledge.
    Guggenbühl-Craig, A. (1977) Marriage – Dead or Alive. Zurich: Spring.
    Hanegraaf, W.J. (1998) New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought. Albany, NY; SUNY Press.
    Hauke, C. (2000) Jung and the Postmodern: The Interpretation of Realities. London: Routledge.
    Humbert, E.G. (1984) C.G. Jung: The Fundamentals of Theory and Practice. Wilmette, Illinois: Chiron Publications.
    JafféA. (1989) From the Life and Works of C.G. Jung. Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon.
    Jarrett, J. (ed.) (1988) Nietzsche's Zazrathustra: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1934–1939 by C.G.Jung. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Jarrett, J. (1992) ‘Dialectic as “Tao” in Plato and Jung’, in P.Papadopoulos (ed.), Carl Gustav Jung: Critical Assessments. London: Routledge. pp. 11–26.
    Jones, E. (1953) Sigmund Freud: Life and Work. Volume I. London: The Hogarth Press.
    Jones, E. (1955) Sigmund Freud: Life and Work. Volume II. London: The Hogarth Press.
    Jones, E. (1957) Sigmund Freud: Life and Work. Volume III. London: The Hogarth Press.
    Jones, E. (1959) Free Associations. London: The Hogarth Press.
    Jung's Collected Works
    Jung, C.G. (1957) Psychiatric Studies. Volume 1. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1973) Experimental Researches. Volume 2. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1960a) The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease. Volume 3. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1961) Freud and Psychoanalysis. Volume 4. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1971) Psychological Types. Volume 6. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1960b) The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche. Volume 8. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1959a) The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Volume 9. Part I. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1953a) Psychology and Alchemy. Volume 12. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1967) Alchemical Studies. Volume 13. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1963a) Mysterium Coniunctionis. Volume 14. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1954) The Practice of Psychotherapy. Volume 16. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1977) The Symbolic Life. Volume 18. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Other Works by Jung
    Jung, C.G. (1953b) Two Essays on Analytical Psychology. New York. Bollingen Foundation Inc.
    Jung, C.G. (1956) Symbols of Transformation. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    Jung, C.G. (1958) Answer to Job. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    Jung, C.G. (1959b) Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    Jung, C.G. (1963b) Memories, Dreams, Reflections. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jung, C.G. (1966) Two Essays on Analytical Psychology. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    Jung, C.G. (ed.) (1968) Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell Publishing.
    Jung, C.G. (1991) Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido. London: Routledge.
    Kerr, J. (1994) A Most Dangerous Method: The Story of Jung, Freud and Sabina Spielrein. London: Sinclair-Stevenson.
    King, P. and SteinerR. (eds) (1991) The Freud-Klein Controversies 1941–45. London: Routledge.
    Kirsch, J. (1982) ‘Carl Gustav Jung and the Jews: The Real Story’, Journal of Psychology and Judaism, 6 (2): 113–43.
    Kirsch, T. (2000) The Jungians: A Comparative and Historical Perspective. London: Routledge.
    Lothane, Z. (1999) ‘Tender Love and Transference: Unpublished Letters of C.G. Jung and Sabina Spielrein’, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 80: 1189–1204.
    Maguire, W. (ed.) (1974) The Freud/Jung Letters. London: The Hogarth Press.
    Maidenbaum, A. and MartinA. (1991) Lingering Shadows: Jungians, Freudians, and Anti-Semitism. Boston: Shambala Publications.
    Nagy, M. (1991) Philosophical Issues in the Psychology of C.G. Jung. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Papadopoulos, R. (1992) Carl Gustav Jung: Critical Assessments. London: Routledge.
    Ryce-Menuhin, J. (1994) Jung and the Monotheisms: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. London: Routledge.
    Samuels, A. (1993) The Political Psyche. London: Routledge.
    Samuels, A., Shorter, B., Plaut, A. (1986) A Critical Dictionary of Jungian Analysis. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Schaeder, G. (1973) The Hebrew Humanism of Martin Buber. Detroit: Wayne State University.
    Schlamm, L.James Hillman's School of Archetypal Psychology and Polytheistic Theology, Psychology and Religion. Unpublished.
    Schopenhauer, A. (1883) The World as Will and Idea. Volume III. Translated by R.B.Haldane and J.Kemp. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Schwartz-Salant, N. (1989) The Borderline Personality: Vision and Healing. Wilmette, Illinois: Chiron Publications.
    Segal, R. (1992) The Gnostic Jung. London: Routledge.
    Shamdasani, S. (1990) ‘A Woman Called Frank’, A Journal of Archetype and Culture, 50: 26–56.
    Shamdasani, S. (1993) ‘Automatic Writing and the Discovery of the Unconscious’, A Journal of Archetype and Culture, 54: 100–31.
    Shamdasani, S. (1995) ‘Memories, Dreams, Omissions’, A Journal of Archetype and Culture, 57: 115–37.
    Shamdasani, S. (1998a) ‘From Geneva to Zurich: Jung and French Switzerland’, The Journal of Analytical Psychology, 43: 115–26.
    Shamdasani, S. (1998b) Cult Fictions: C.G. Jung and the Founding of Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge.
    Singer Harris, A. (1996) Living with Paradox: An Introduction to Jungian Psychology. Stanford, CA: Wadsworth.
    Stein, M. (1985) Jung's Treatment of Christianity: The Psychotherapy of a Religious Tradition. Wilmette, Illinois: Chiron Publications.
    Stein, M. (1998) Jung's Map of the Soul. Peru, Illinois: Open Court Publishing.
    Stepansky, P.E. (1992) ‘The Empiricist as Rebel: Jung, Freud and the Burdens of Discipleship’, in R.Papadopoulos (ed.), Carl Gustav Jung: Critical Assessments. London: Routledge. pp. 169–99.
    Tacey, D. (1998) ‘Twisting and turning with James Hillman’, in A.Casement (ed.), Post-Jungians Today. London: Routledge. pp. 215–34.
    Taylor, E. (1998) ‘Jung before Freud, not Freud before Jung’, Journal of Analytical Psychology, 43 (1): 97–114.
    Taylor, E. (1999) Shadow Culture: Psychology and Spirituality in America. Washington, DC: Counterpoint.
    White, V. (1961) God and the Unconscious. London: Meridian Books.
    Winnicott, D. (1964) ‘Review of Memories, Dreams Reflections’, The Journal of Psychoanalysis, 45: 450–5.
    Wittels, F. (1934) Sigmund Freud. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Zabriskie, B.D. (1992) ‘The Feminine: Pre and Post-Jungian’, in R.Papadopoulos (ed.), Carl Gustav Jung: Critical Assessments. London: Routledge. pp. 376–90.

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