Careers Education: Contesting Policy and Practice
Publication Year: 1999
Careers Education takes a critical look at policy and practice in the context of the new role of the privatized Careers, Education and Guidance Service. Suzy Harris places the present situation within the context of subordination to market principles; delineates the changing and uncertain relationship between schools and the Careers Service; shows how the politics of curriculum relevance marginalizes careers teaching; describes the downward path to complete exclusion from The National Curriculum and points the way for policymakers to eschew rhetoric and rebuild the Careers Service. This book will be an essential resource to help careers and guidance practitioners make sense of their situation.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Contested Careers
- Chapter 2: A View from the Inside
- Chapter 3: Schooling Careers Education
- Chapter 4: Becoming Relevant
- Chapter 5: Whose Role, What Role?
- Chapter 6: Reconstructing Education, Deconstructing Careers
- Chapter 7: Competing Careers?
- Chapter 8: Reconstructing Marginal Careers
© Copyright 1999 Suzy Harris
First published 1999
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the Publishers.
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I am indebted to the careers teachers and careers advisers who have, over the years, given so much of their time and shared with me their professional and life experiences, and whose accounts were central to this book's conception. I would never have completed this work, however, without the encouragement and moral support of a number of very special colleagues and friends who helped me through what was a difficult, prolonged and at times lonely task of writing. A huge thanks is reserved for Len Barton and Peter Gilroy who read through draft manuscripts and, in their own inimitable way which I have come to know and respect greatly, presented me with a range of challenging questions and issues. I hope I have done justice to their thoughts. A particular thanks to Peter for reading more than one draft, as well as introducing me to philosophical approaches to educational issues, which as a sociologist, I found quite interesting! Thanks also to Peter Clough and Cathy Nutbrown who read the first draft of Chapter l. I'm indebted to Tina Cartwright who has been so important throughout my research career and has transcribed endless tapes, got to grips with qualitative software packages, and proofread this book. I'm also grateful to Inge Bates who shared her detailed knowledge and understanding of the curriculum politics involved in the Schools Council Careers Education and Guidance Project. As always Felicity Armstrong, with her enthusiasm and interest in the creation of this book, helped me throughout, interspersed along the way with lots of laughter. And finally, thanks to Pat, my sister, for our long telephone calls, which left me smiling and, most importantly, kept this work in perspective.
I am grateful to the International Studies in Sociology of Education, and to the editors, Gill Helsby and Gary McCulloch, Teachers and the National Curriculum, Cassell, London (1997) for allowing some material from these published papers to be reworked and presented in this book.
Pseudonyms have been used for all individuals and schools mentioned in the book.[Page viii]
Glossary of Terms Used[Page ix]
ACO Area Careers Officer CBI Confederation of British Industry CCCS Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies COIC Careers and Occupational Information Centre CRAC Careers Research Advisory Council DE Department of Employment DES Department of Education and Science DFE Department for Education DfEE Department for Education and Employment ERA Education Reform Act 1988 GCSE General Certificate of Secondary Education GCE General Certificate of Education CEG Careers Education and Guidance GEST Grants for Education Support and Training GNVQ General National Vocational Qualification ICG Institute of Careers Guidance ICO Institute of Careers Officers INSET In-service Training LEA Local Education Authority LEC Local Enterprise Council MSC Manpower Services Commission NACT National Association of Careers Teachers NACGT National Association of Careers and Guidance Teachers NCC National Curriculum Council NICEC National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling NVQ National Vocational Qualification NUT National Union of Teachers OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OFSTED Office for Standards in Education PCO Principal Careers Officer PSE Personal and Social Education QAA Quality Assurance Agency QADU Quality Assurance and Development Unit ROSLA Raising of the School Leaving Age SCAA School Curriculum and Assessment Authority SCIP Schools Council Industry Project [Page x] SCO Senior Careers Officer SEAC Schools Examinations and Assessment Council SENCO Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator TEC Training and Enterprise Council TES Times Educational Supplement ITA Teacher Training Agency TUC Trades Union Congress TVEI Technical and Vocational Education Initiative UBI Understanding British Industry WEA Workers' Educational Association YES Youth Employment Service YOP Youth Opportunities Programme YTS Youth Training Scheme
Key Dates in Careers Education and Guidance[Page 138]
1909 Labour Exchanges Act (sets up Juvenile Employment Bureaux) 1910 Choices of Employment Act 1945 The Ince Report 1948 Employment and Training Act (Youth Employment Service established) 1950 Diploma in Vocational Guidance (but not obligatory) 1961 Institute of Youth Employment Officers (IYEO) 1969 National Association of Careers Teachers (NACT) Youth Employment Officers renamed Careers Officers IYEO becomes Institute of Careers Officers (ICO) 1971–7 Schools Council Careers Education and Guidance Project 1972 Schools Council, Working Paper 40, Careers Education in the 1970s 1973 Employment & Training Act (statutory obligation on LEAs to provide a Careers Service) National Institute for Careers Education and Guidance (NICEC) NACT renamed National Association of Careers and Guidance Teachers (NACGT) 1974 Careers and Occupational Information Centre (COIC) established Diploma in Vocational Guidance becomes obligatory Prime Minister James Callaghan's Ruskin Speech Manpower Services Commission set up 1979 Conservatives win general election under Margaret Thatcher 1982 TVEI launched 1986 Working Together – Education and Training. (DES) 1987 Working Together for a Better Future. (DES/DE) The National Curriculum 5–16: a Consultative Document (DES) Survey of Careers Education and Guidance in British Schools by the NACGT 1988 Education Reform Act 1989 The National Curriculum: From Policy to Practice. (DES) 1991 Education and Training for the Twenty-First Century (DES) [Page 139] 1992 Conservatives win general election under John Major 1993 Trade Union Reform and Employments Right Act (Careers Service taken out of LEA control) 1994 White Paper, Competitiveness: Helping Business to Win (DTI). CEG Initiative for Years 9 and 10 (£87 million over 3 years) Better Choices (update of Working Together documents) 16 to 19 Guidance, FEFC/OFSTED National Advisory Council for Careers and Educational Guidance (NACCEG) set up Pathfinder Careers Services (13) following a process of competitive tendering 1995 White Paper, Competitiveness: Forging Ahead (DfEE). Grant for Education and Support and Training (GEST) for CEG Looking Forward: Careers Education and Guidance in the Curriculum (SCAA) OFSTED Survey of Career Education and Guidance in Schools CEG, Proposed Legislation: A Consultation Document (DfE/DE) 1997 Election of a Labour government under Tony Blair Education Act – CEG becomes mandatory for Years 9–11 DfEE circular, 5/97, Careers Education and Guidance in Schools: Effective Partnerships with Careers Services 1998 DfEE circular, 5/98, Careers Education in Schools: Provision for Years 9–11 OFSTED Survey of Careers Education and Guidance NACGT Survey of Careers Education and Guidance
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