Building Content Literacy: Strategies for the Adolescent Learner
Publication Year: 2010
“Secondary teachers will find that this superb resource informs the teaching and learning of their students and provides many research-based strategies to enhance reading comprehension and written language in every area.”
—Johneen Griffin, Director of Secondary Pupil Services
Olentangy Local Schools, Lewis Center, OH
“Sejnost and Thiese address the national literacy crisis with a practical guidebook that meets the needs of adolescent learners by focusing on the literacy skills needed for the 21st century. The strategies engage learners and create independence in content-area reading.”
—Rusti Russow, Director of Teaching and Learning
Kankakee School District, IL
Increase adolescent learners' success in all content areas!
Responding to the challenges associated with teaching middle and high school students, this resource offers specific strategies teachers may use to incorporate reading, writing, and critical thinking throughout content ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: The Challenge of Adolescent Literacy
- What Is the Challenge?
- How Can We Meet the Challenge?
- Content Area Literacy
- Meeting the Standards
- Adhering to the Standards
- The Challenge of Reading Diverse Texts
- Reading Narrative Text
- Scaffolding Strategies for Narrative Text
- Focus Strategy
- Reading Expository Text
- Scaffolding Strategies for Expository Text
- Text Structure Strategy
- Text Previews
- Variations of Text Previews
- Name That Feature
- Textbook Sales Pitch/Commercials
- What's Old? What's New?
- Scaffolding Instruction for Special Needs Students
- Chapter Summary
- Chapter 2: Teaching Specialized and Technical Vocabulary
- The Implication of Teaching Vocabulary
- Teaching Vocabulary in Content Area Disciplines
- Scaffolding Vocabulary Development
- Word Categorization Activities
- Making Word Associations
- Word Sorts
- Graphic Representations
- Concept of Definition
- A Variation of the Concept of Definition
- The Writing Connection
- Word Mysteries
- Possible Sentences
- Story Impressions
- Chapter Summary
- Chapter 3: Reading to Learn in Content Area Disciplines
- Reading in Specific Content Area Disciplines
- Scaffolding Reading in Specific Content Areas
- Questioning Strategies
- Question-Answer Relationship Strategy (QARS)
- Questioning the Author
- Bloom's Taxonomy and the Discussion Cube
- Note-Taking and Summarizing Strategies
- Framed Outlines
- Power Notes
- Magnet Summary
- Summary Graph
- Pyramid Diagram
- Study Guide Strategies
- Three-Level Guide
- Expository Text Structure Guide
- Point of View Study Guide
- Critical Response Strategies
- Critical Thinking Map
- Reader Response
- Point, Counterpoint Strategy
- Chapter Summary
- Chapter 4: Writing to Learn in Content Area Disciplines
- A Rationale for Writing to Learn
- Writing-to-Learn Strategies
- Learning Logs and Journals
- Learning Logs
- Double-Entry Journals
- Extended Writing-to-Learn Strategies
- Probable Passages
- Guided Writing Procedure
- The Multigenre Report
- Chapter Summary
- Chapter 5: Speaking to Learn in Content Area Disciplines
- A Rationale for Speaking to Learn
- Speaking-to-Learn Strategies
- Jigsaw Strategy
- Focused Jigsaw
- Focus Cards
- First Thoughts Strategy
- Content-Focused Drama
- Literature Circles
- The Literary Tea Party
- A Variation: The Victorian Tea Party and Research
- Circle of Knowledge
- Questions in Styles
- Discussion Web
- Save the Last Word for Me
- Chapter Summary
- Chapter 6: Fostering Real World Literacy
- The Literacies of the Real World
- The Internet
- Evaluating Web Sources
- Guidelines for Creating Effective Internet Activities
- Informational Literacy
- Inquiry-Based Learning
- Information-Gathering and Analysis Activities
- Collaborative Projects
- Electronic Publishing
- Virtual Field Trips
- Problem-Based Project Learning
- A Process for Using Problem-Based Project Learning
- Social Action Projects
- I-Search Project
- Project-Based Learning
- Historical Inquiry
- Digital Storytelling
- Media Literacy
- Newspapers and Magazines
- News Broadcasts
- Visual Literacy
- Gathering Data from Visual Representations
- Photo Essays
- You Ought to Be in Pictures
- Using Television and Videos
- Chapter Summary
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Building content literacy: strategies for the adolescent learner/Roberta L. Sejnost and Sharon M. Thiese.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-5715-1 (pbk.)
1. Language arts (Secondary) 2. Language arts—Correlation with content subjects. I. Thiese, Sharon. II. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
10 11 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Cathy Hernandez
Editorial Assistant: Sarah Bartlett
Production Editor: Cassandra Margaret Seibel
Copy Editor: Cate Huisman
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Susan Schon
Indexer: Wendy Allex
Cover Designer: Michael Dubowe
Research tells us the most effective teachers of content area literacy are the content area teachers themselves because, as content area specialists, they know what knowledge and skills are needed to effectively read and write in their disciplines. In effect, they think like scientists, artists, social scientists, mathematicians, or practitioners of whatever subject they teach. Yet, most middle school and high school teachers will readily admit that the majority of their training in college was in their content area discipline rather than in how to teach literacy in that discipline.
This book presents a snapshot of adolescent learners and how they learn, and it offers research-based best practices and content area strategies for teaching grounded in the theory of multiple intelligences and brain-based research. These enable teachers to increase student learning in all content area disciplines by more effectively integrating reading, writing, and critical thinking into their daily classroom instruction. Examples and reproducible masters for implementing the strategies are included in this book to assure immediate transfer to all content area classrooms.
Chapter 1 (The Challenge of Adolescent Literacy) highlights the challenge that teaching adolescents often presents; then it details ways in which teachers in today's classrooms can meet this challenge by presenting students with effective approaches to reading both narrative and expository texts.
Chapter 2 (Teaching Specialized and Technical Vocabulary) stresses the critical importance of helping students acquire, learn, and retain vocabulary by noting that the end product of both recreational and informational reading is comprehension and that vocabulary knowledge makes up as much as 70% to 80% of comprehension. To help facilitate the learning of vocabulary, this chapter provides a myriad of strategies to foster vocabulary acquisition and knowledge in all content areas.
Chapter 3 (Reading to Learn in Content Area Disciplines) discusses specific processes and skills that students must be able to complete in order to successfully comprehend both the narrative and expository texts they are required to read in the various content area disciplines they study. This chapter provides four types of learning strategies that can be used in all content area disciplines: (1) questioning strategies, (2) note-taking and summary strategies, (3) study guide strategies, and (4) critical response strategies.
[Page ix]Chapter 4 (Writing to Learn in Content Area Disciplines) examines the connection between reading and writing, noting that one must have access to written material for reading to occur. Furthermore, the act of writing enables students to process the ideas and concepts they have read about. In order to help students use writing to effectively learn what has been read, this chapter provides a variety of writing-to-learn strategies for use in all content area disciplines.
Chapter 5 (Speaking to Learn in Content Area Disciplines) examines the connection between reading and speaking, noting that during speaking, students not only process the ideas and concepts of their learning but also give concrete shape to their thoughts. In order to help students use speaking to effectively learn what has been read, this chapter provides a variety of speaking-to-learn strategies for use in all content area disciplines.
Chapter 6 (Fostering Real World Literacy) considers the challenges that face students in the age of technology and discusses the new literacies that engage students, such as the Internet, informational literacy, media literacy, and visual literacy. In order to help students learn using these new technological opportunities, this chapter provides learning strategies that can be used in all content areas for information-gathering and analysis activities, such as the following: (1) collaborative projects; (2) problem-based project learning; (3) media literacy, with activities for learning from newspapers, magazines, and news broadcasts; and finally (4) visual literacy, with activities that use storyboards, photographs, television, and videos.
We wish to thank Sheryl Sejnost and Sheila Ruh for their help and advice on digital literacy.
Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:
Wendy Caszatt-Allen, Eighth Grade Language Arts Teacher
Mid-Prairie Middle School
Susan Chase-Foster, Seventh Grade Language Arts Teacher
Fairhaven Middle School
Director of Secondary Pupil Services
Olentangy Local Schools
Lewis Center, OH
Janice Hall, Associate Professor of Secondary Education—Retired
Utah State University
Timothy U. Kaufman
University of Wisconsin, Green Bay
Green Bay, WI
Roxanne Farwick Owens
Chair, Teacher Education, DePaul University
Director of Teaching and Learning
Kankakee School District
Nancy W. Sindelar
Nancy V. Workman
Professor of English
About the Authors
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