Bridging the Social Gap: Perspectives on Dalit Empowerment addresses four interrelated issues. It conceptualises exclusion-linked deprivation of excluded and indigenous groups in Indian society and elaborates the concept and meaning of social exclusion in general, and of caste-, untouchability- and ethnicity-based exclusion in particular. It then presents the status of disadvantaged groups of Dalit and Adivasi and captures inter-social group inequalities in the attainment of human development. It then goes on to analyse factors associated with high deprivation of these disadvantaged groups in terms of low access to resources, employment, education and social needs. Finally, it highlights the role of caste discrimination in economic, civil and political spheres in the persistence of group inequalities.

All these issues have been explained using simple language; relevant and recent data; case studies; news highlights related to civil, social, economic and political rights violation for easy and better understanding of readers.

Levels and Patterns of Consumption Expenditure of Social Groups

Levels and patterns of consumption expenditure of social groups

This chapter examines the various levels and patterns of income by using consumption expenditure as a proxy indicator for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs). The consumption expenditure is used as a proxy variable to assess the material standards of living in the absence of reliable data on income. There is a great deal of correspondence between income and consumption expenditure, particularly at low levels of income when savings are negligible. Thus, an analysis of the consumption patterns of different social groups provides a good insight into their material standard of living. Besides, consumption expenditure is the basis of poverty measurement in India.


The analysis is based on ...

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