• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

In this volume, Gudykunst applies his world-renowned approach to intercultural communication to the specifics of Japanese//North American communication. After laying out the basic theories of intercultural communication, the authors explain the similarities and differences in patterns of communication in Japan and the United States. They then demonstrate how an understanding of these contrasting patterns can help Japanese and North Americans communicate more effectively. By examining issues such as attitudes and stereotypes, ways to deepen the understanding of Japanese behaviour are suggested. Also discussed are the factors that influence motivation, knowledge and skills to increase communication effectiveness.

Expectations for Japanese/North American Communication
Expectations for Japanese/North American communication

In the previous chapters, we indicated that we have expectations about how others are going to communicate. Sometimes we are highly aware of our expectations and sometimes we are not. In this chapter, we discuss expectations in more detail. We begin by examining the nature of expectations. We then look at specific sources of expectations for others' behavior, focusing on those sources that contribute to misinterpretations and misunderstandings when Japanese and North Americans communicate. We conclude this chapter by discussing the processes Japanese and North Americans use to explain each other's behavior.

The Nature of Expectations

Expectations involve anticipations and predictions about how others will communicate. Expectations are derived from social norms, communication rules, and the characteristics (including ...

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