Bridging Differences: Effective Intergroup Communication is based on the assumption that the processes operating when we communicate with people from other groups are the same processes operating when we communicate with people from our own groups. Author William B. Gudykunst has written this book from the perspective of "communicating with strangers" and addresses how factors related to our group memberships (e.g., inaccurate and unfavorable stereotypes of members of other cultures and ethnic groups) can cause us to misinterpret the messages we receive from members of those groups. Designed for students taking courses in Intercultural Communication or Intergroup Communication, Bridging Differences is also useful for many courses in Cultural Studies, Anthropology, Sociology, and Management.
Chapter 4: Having Expectations for Strangers
Having Expectations for Strangers
In the previous chapters, I indicated that we have expectations about how strangers are going to communicate. Sometimes we are highly aware of our expectations for strangers' behavior and sometimes we are not. In this chapter, I discuss expectations in detail. I begin by examining the nature of expectations. I then look at specific sources of our expectations for strangers' behavior focusing on those sources that contribute to misinterpretations and misunderstandings when we communicate with strangers.
The Nature of Expectations
Expectations involve our anticipations and predictions about how strangers will communicate with us. Our expectations are derived from social norms and communication rules. Expectations also emerge from our stereotypes of strangers' groups and our intergroup attitudes toward strangers.
Expectations Are Culturally ...