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Sidney J Levy is an internationally recognized writer whose ideas began to influence marketing executives in the late 1940s. They continue to impact today on: how we think about marketing's role in management; how managers develop product and brands; how they understand their consumers; and how corporate and academic researchers investigate marketplace concerns. Brands, Consumers, Symbols and Research is a comprehensive collection of Sidney J Levy's essays and studies of marketing.

Cultural Harmonies and Variations
Cultural harmonies and variations
Sidney J.Levy

We can look at development and marketing from many perspectives. At the Third International Conference on Marketing and Development 2 years ago, I suggested a longitudinal view, relating development to the various stages that societies go through as they change the character of their marketing activity.

Seven Marketing Stages
  • A traditional peasant economy
  • A mercantile resource
  • A source of cheap labor and shoddy goods
  • A cheap source of goods to be labeled abroad
  • An exporter of native brand labels of questionable quality
  • A source of good quality labels and good price value
  • A source of labels of quality, imagination, and creativity

I reminded the audience of these seven stages of movement from traditional subsistence peasant economies to the sophisticated ...

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