The proposed volume attempts to understand how forms of bio-innovation might be linked to the problem of poverty and its reduction through an inquiry into a number of empirical cases of present-day bio-innovations in Asia. Conditions and circumstances in countries like Cambodia, China, India, Korea, Nepal, Philippines, and Thailand are quite different and provide a mosaic of varied experiences in bio-innovation that include shrimp farming, GMO cotton, bio gas, organic farming, and vaccines.
Offering important insights into various forms of bio-innovation efforts and their effects on poverty alleviation, this volume is divided into three major themes that organize the main sections of the book—benefits for the poor: actual, direct, and prospective benefits for the poor; absence of positive impacts and institutional constraints; pro-poor drivers and embedding in anti-poverty alleviation.
The central questions addressed here are: Ways and circumstances in which certain forms of bio-innovations affect the poor and enable poverty alleviation.; Critical factors and conditions for improving the positive impact of bio-innovations on poverty alleviation.; Poverty alleviation goals should be the point of departure in rationalizing, identifying and designing appropriate and relevant bio-innovation programs.
Chapter 5: ‘Lazy Garden’ Innovation as a Resilience-Building Strategy
‘Lazy Garden’ Innovation as a Resilience-Building Strategy
Since at least the 1960s, the uplands of northern Thailand have been the target of numerous government and nongovernment technical assistance projects and programs on ‘upland development’ to replace cultivation of opium poppy, counter sympathy for communist movements, and poverty alleviation (McCaskill and Kampe, 1997; Renard, 2001). New or alternative crop varieties and associated agricultural [Page 97]techniques have been the primary focus of research, development, and extension activities (Santasombat, 2003; Thomas et al., 2008).
At the same time as agricultural practices intensified, state policies expanded protected area networks and strengthened land-use restrictions in the uplands (Ganjanapan, 1998; Roth, 2004; Vandergeest and Peluso, 1995). Poor land tenure security, ...