Focusing on universal public health issues, this book explores what can be done and what the future holds. It introduces students and practitioners to behavior -change theories and applications. It details experiences of successful programs for the prevention and control of the world's biggest killers: malnutrition; respiratory infections; diarrhea; HIV//AIDS; and health problems arising from tobacco consumption and lack of access to family planning. The book explores health communication and social marketing strategies, learning theory, media advocacy, and community development. These behavior-change strategies are presented in terms of how the theory relates specifically to a particular health or disease issue.
Chapter 1: Health Behavior in the Developing World
Health Behavior in the Developing World
The now-maturing disciplines of health psychology and behavioral medicine have historically emphasized behavior change for chronic disease prevention. Thus, smoking cessation, dietary cholesterol and fat reduction, weight loss, physical activity, and stress management comrised the initial subject matter of this emerging field, as the links between human behavior and mortality due to heart disease and cancer became clear. In the mid-1980s, the outbreak of the AIDS epidemic compelled us to broaden our horizons to include infectious diseases. Nevertheless, our primary targets have not changed substantially since the launching of the North Karelia and Stanford Five City Projects nearly three decades ago. As a discipline, health psychology, like other behavioral sciences, largely emphasizes diseases more ...