This book offers a comprehensive and rounded view of research as a tool for logical problem-solving. It is built on the philosophical-pragmatic foundation that the value of knowledge and research methodologies lies in their usefulness in engaging with the real world.

Basic Research Methods: An Entry to Social Science Research synthesizes both positivist and non-positivist methodologies. It is for students who are undertaking their first social science research course or their first research project. The techniques are basic ones, but many masters and doctoral research studies use them. From an experiential base, students would be able to build a more advanced conceptual and theoretical understanding of research through further reading and practice.

The book covers both quantitative and qualitative methods. It discusses policy-applied-pure-action model of research, treatment of participatory research as an ethical rather than a methodological issue, inclusion of project evaluation as a type of case study, addition of binary measurement to the standard classification, practical use of Microsoft Excel for analysis of both words and numbers, a building block approach to writing, and the author's own thoughts on application of research.

Real-life examples from different subject areas in Asia are used in this concise textbook, which has been written in an engaging language, adopting the inductive approach.



A second data collection technique is observation. Being observant is a skill that applies in all data collection, for example, watching interviewees to see how they respond to questions or reading signs in an organisation to see if it has a library where available data might be found. Observation, as a data collection technique, goes further than this to generate primary data.

Observation is valuable for formal and informal action research. For example, if you are a teacher or are planning to become one, you might conduct action research by observing your colleagues if they will allow you to sit in their lessons. An observer role gives time to learn professional lessons from others; but be careful about how you give them feedback. Make sure ...

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