Asian Healing Traditions in Counseling and Psychotherapy


Edited by: Roy Moodley, Ted Lo & Na Zhu

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    About four decades ago, three of my close American Indian friends and I spent a few days in a traditional lodge in a remote area of South Dakota. Two Native healers, holy men, accompanied us. The healers extended us the invitation to be with them because they wanted us to hear their stories. We were there to learn about their ways of healing, along with the traditions, ceremonies, customs, and ways of their world. Through one story after another, the healers thoroughly engaged us in the deep mysteries of traditional practices we had heard about over the years, but we knew little about their deeper historical meaning. During the day, we would walk around the area by ourselves or in groups talking, reflecting, and probing deeply into the wisdom unfolding in the stories we were hearing. We prepared and cooked meals together, with family members often joining us in the chilly evenings, a small fire always burning in the center of the lodge.

    On the morning of our last day with the healers, they asked us to explain how we psychologists provided “healing” for those in need. The clinical psychologist in our group, with considerable experience working in mental health settings focused on providing services for different multicultural clients, described how the client would sign up for a session, what took place in the first and subsequent sessions, how the “counseling” unfolded, and generally what would happen in each session. Another friend added a few features of the relationships between the mental health helper and the client. The healers listened intently, though often with puzzled expressions.

    Following our detailed descriptions, the healers began asking the following questions: Do you personally know the clients? Why do they have an appointment with you for an hour each week? Do they always show up? Why do you talk and talk with them and them with you? How do you know you helped or healed them? Do you ever see them again? Do you ask the spirits to help you as you talk with them? Do spirits sometimes come in the room where you’re sitting? Why do you sit when the two of you talk? Why aren’t others present when you talk with one another? Do you ask their ancestors to join you? Is the room where you’re sitting clean and clear of evil and bad spirits? Are both of you clean and clear of anything bad that may interfere with the talking and healing? Do the clients prepare for each meeting by sweating, praying, meditating, and fasting? Do counselors prepare this way also for each meeting with the client? Why do you take notes? Does the talking occur in a sacred place? What happens to the two of them after the client is healed?

    We attempted to answer each of their surprising questions. With each response, we focused more on what we were saying to them and the possibility that their questions were more profoundly meaningful and appropriate than we realized. We also knew on that day that conventional counseling and psychotherapy were a long way from including the spiritual, the sacred, or the meaning of place in the healing process and from considering the real possibility that centuries-old traditional healing practices were as powerful, if not more so, than contemporary approaches to mental health.

    Recognition and acknowledgment of what was at the heart of the healers’ probing questions and concerns that day wouldn’t come to the evolving mental health fields until much later. In 2003, the American Psychological Association (APA) published a set of multicultural guidelines that gave attention to changes in society at large and to the emerging data about “the different needs of unique individuals and groups historically marginalized or disenfranchised within and by psychology based on their ethnic/racial heritage and social group identity or membership” (p. 377).1 The overarching goal of the guidelines was to provide psychologists with a rationale for the urgency to address multiculturalism and diversity in education, training, research, practice, and organizational change.

    Additionally, in 2009, the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling endorsed a set of carefully crafted guidelines for spiritual competencies in counseling. They maintained in their report that culturally competent counselors actively give attention to the spiritual dimension of the client’s life and consider the profound influence of religious, spiritual, and transpersonal beliefs, practices, and development over the life span. To this end, the practitioner is encouraged to use a client’s spiritual beliefs in the pursuit of the client’s therapeutic goals. Counselors are asked to carefully and thoughtfully focus on connections, similarities, and differences among religion, spirituality, and the transpersonal and to describe beliefs and practices in a cultural context. They are encouraged to articulate a client’s self-exploration of personal beliefs and to explain various models of spiritual development across a client’s life span. Counselors also are encouraged to demonstrate sensitivity to and acceptance of a variety of spiritual expressions from the client. And, importantly, the guidelines recommend counselors acknowledge the limits of their understanding of a client’s spiritual and deeply cultural expression and demonstrate appropriate referral skills.

    Fortunately, psychotherapy and counseling practices and approaches are being reshaped within the profession. There is a strong sense among practitioners and in research findings that inclusion of spirituality and collaboration with traditional healers and elders in the counseling process and intervention programs create better outcomes. Therapy offered in a manner congruent with the traditional values and spirituality of the clientele can reverse the historical trend of many immigrant populations to assimilate dominant cultural ways and worldviews exclusively to get better and healthier. With counseling and psychotherapy aligning with culture, there is now the possibility of receiving treatment supportive of one’s own culture, beliefs, and spirituality. While these are exciting and promising trends, pitfalls and dangers also are associated with these endeavors. Caution is encouraged, because the development of keen sensitivity and respect is required when attempting to move into these sensitive areas. Not every client will be receptive to openly sharing his or her beliefs.

    In this book, the reader will discover that Asian healers know a great deal about what works best for those who seek guidance, assistance, and healing. The relational styles of Asian healers are comparable with what we know works effectively in building and sustaining positive counseling and psychotherapeutic relationships. Effective counselors and therapists possess personal characteristics that promote positive relationships with clients, regardless of cultural background. Indeed, this is the foundation of any healing or helping process. Characteristics such as empathy, genuineness, warmth, respect, and availability are likely to be effective in any setting or ethnocultural community.

    These same characteristics often exemplify the spiritual healers in numerous indigenous communities. The Inupiat Alaska Native counseling psychologist Reimer, for example, collected information from Inupiat members in an Alaska Native village concerning the characteristics they found desirable in a healer. Her respondents indicated that a healer is (a) one who is virtuous, kind, respectful, trustworthy, friendly, gentle, loving, clean, giving, and helpful; (b) one who is thoroughly strong; (c) one who works well with others by becoming familiar with people in communities; (d) one who has good communication skills; (e) one who is respected because of his or her knowledge; (f) one who is substance-free; (g) one who knows and follows the culture; and (h) one who has faith and a strong relationship with the Creator (p. 60).2

    Asian Healing Traditions in Counseling and Psychotherapy is a seminal contribution to the evolving mental health field. The editors, Roy Moodley, Ted Lo, and Na Zhu, and their impressive array of chapter authors are to be congratulated. They are bold in addressing the legacies of Asian healing traditions and their influence on counseling and psychotherapy. The 18 chapters in the book are packed with useful material—some based on empirical findings and others based on firsthand experiences. The chapter authors invite the reader to reflect on the similarities of many Asian healing traditions with the core principles and approaches of conventional counseling and psychotherapy. The blend of their many voices, personal writing styles, and points of view add to the breadth and depth of a book that will influence the scholarly expression of Asian approaches and perspectives and help shape the direction of counseling and psychotherapy research for many years to come.

    Loaded with useful tools for treatment professionals, this beautifully crafted book is especially excellent for introducing practitioners to the deeply philosophical and practical Asian approaches to healing. Anyone interested in the depth and scope of providing counseling services to culturally distinct populations should keep this book close by, as it will prove a valuable resource for assistance and inspiration for years to come. We can be optimistic that its contributions will help move the fields of counseling and psychotherapy from a Eurocentric level of understanding to one closer to eliminating cultural biases and the disregard those biases so often engender.

    The challenge is clear. Science and psychology must examine their Eurocentric views, recognize its limitations, and seek to expand and transcend its assumptions, thereby restoring balance to its own original purpose, the pursuit of truth for the common good. Advances in multicultural psychology are accumulating like pieces of a multicolored quilt, giving us a much broader outlook on spirituality, culture, and psychology. The mounting number of research studies and clinical observations from those who have ventured beyond their own cultural milieu all indicate that culture in psychotherapy matters.

    Scientists must seek out the wisdom holders within other cultures and meet on equal ground for the exchange of knowledge. On this point, beginning in 1987, the Dalai Lama co-initiated ongoing meetings between Buddhist scholars and top Western scientists in what is now called Dialogues With the Dalai Lama.3 Similar meetings could be established among Asian elders and healers and Western scientists and educators. While this may be a challenging and daunting endeavor, it is worth the effort as a way to work toward restoring harmony among the world’s people, a world in which all will benefit.


    1. American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377–402.

    2. Reimer, C. S. (1999). Counseling the Inupiat Eskimo. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

    3. Dalai Lama. (2005). The universe in a single atom. New York, NY: Doubleday.


    We want to express our sincere thanks and appreciation to all the authors in this book for the creative and innovative way in which they responded to our invitation to write about Asian healing traditions and its intersection with counseling and psychotherapy. These expert researchers with numerous years of practice and teaching wonderfully distilled their canon of work into the limitation of space in this book. Also, our very special thanks and gratitude go to all the clients or patients whose stories were part of the analysis. We deeply appreciate your desire and openness to engage in a holistic and integrative approach to achieve wellness, health, and mental health care.

    Our deepest gratitude goes to several colleagues, friends, and family members who were very supportive during this book’s development; they are Roisin Anna, Javeria Arshad, Joy Bon, Charles Chen, Zina Claude, Maya Florence, Daniel Harry, Tara Isabelle, Mama Ishii, Melissa Morton, Joe So, Anissa Talahite, and Joanne Zhu.

    Our thanks go to the publication team at SAGE: Nathan Davidson, Kassie Graves, Katherine Hepburn, Megan Markanich, Carrie Montoya, Alissa Nance, Andrew Olson, Abbie Rickard, and Rose Storey.

    We would also like to thank the following reviewers: Mary Olufunmilayo Adekson, St. Bonaventure University; Mary Fukuyama, University of Florida; Tonya R. Hammer, Oklahoma State University; Joanne Jodry, Monmouth University; Theresa S. Kearns-Cooper, Jackson State University; Gerard Kenny, University of the West of England; Fernand Lubuguin, University of Denver; Charmaine Sonnex, University of Northampton; Theresa Van Lith, Florida State University; Jessica Woolhiser Stallings, Emporia State University.


    The inclusion of mindfulness meditation techniques into Western therapies has clearly demonstrated that integration of Asian philosophical, religious, and healing traditions are not just a theoretical possibility but can become a major force of change in ways in which healing is understood and practiced in the West. The successful integration of mindfulness meditation into cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clearly demonstrates that integration of Asian healing traditions is happening at a much rapid rate than is currently acknowledged. Moreover, the mindfulness meditation scholarship generally has not been forthcoming in recognizing the traditional Asian healing roots of mindfulness meditation. No doubt, the integration of mindfulness meditation into counseling and psychotherapy, which began in the 1960s in North America through the efforts of Jon Kabat-Zinn and his mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in medicine, evolved in a significant methodology in counseling and psychotherapy.1 In part, it has addressed the limitations and shortfalls in Western health and mental care practices, which, in turn, provided a space for conversations about the cultural and traditional healing practices of racialized and marginalized communities. Furthermore, immigrants coming to the West since the 1960s, particularly from Asia and Africa, brought with them a compendium of methods in which to heal themselves physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually. Indeed, many first- and second-generation immigrants today practice traditional healing alongside conventional medicine to make up for the many shortcomings of Western health and mental care practices.2 The crisis that counseling, psychotherapy, psychology, and psychiatry are experiencing in relation to not meeting the mental health needs of a diverse multicultural society has provided a space for the inclusion of mindfulness meditation. Since mindfulness meditation now appears to be firmly rooted in Western health and mental care, other Asian healing traditions and their histories and philosophies can be explored for inclusion and integration, such as Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism.

    While traditional, cultural, and indigenous healing practices have been used since the dawn of history, it has only recently been part of the conversation of health and mental health care in the West. Throughout the period of colonialism, cultural, indigenous, and traditional healing practices were not encouraged at best or were completely banned, outlawed, and disavowed. Notwithstanding the disruptions and oppressions of the colonial period, Asian healing traditions, like aboriginal, African, Caribbean, Hispanic, and South Asian healing traditions, have been the mainstay of health and mental health practices for wellness and well-being for the majority of people from those cultures, being practiced in various ways openly or secretly in clandestine sessions and underground and away from the public gaze or the ever seeing eye of colonial regimes. While many indigenous and traditional approaches have not changed from its earliest origins of practice, many have been modified and reconstituted to suit the sociopolitical contexts and health care needs of people from those cultures. At the same time, the lived experiences of those cultural communities also determine the growth, research, and development of the indigenous healing practices. Some of the traditional and cultural healing practices were even modified to respond to the racism and colonial oppression that people experienced—for example, voodoo healing in the Caribbean.3 The failures of the prohibitions of traditional healing practices during the colonial hegemony are a clear sign of the strength and resilience of these practices. It also shows that these cultural healing practices are embedded in an epistemologically richly grounded past; a significant part of the evolutionary history of the community is the production of knowledge for the health and well-being of the people. In particular, Asian healing traditions can clearly trace their development to specific cultural, historical, and political periods in the Far East.

    The result of gaining independence from European colonialism and the subsequent rise of nationalism led to the indigenizing psychology movement in many non-Western countries. In many cases, these movements were a direct response to oppressive colonial practices and the need to reclaim indigenous and cultural healing methods.4 For example, in China, the Cultural Revolution saw the rise and growth of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with its own exclusions of some indigenous practices that it deemed superstitious. However, in more recent times, these disavowed practices are now resurfacing and are being accepted as mainstream, such as palm readings.

    In the postcolonialism period and more recently through globalization and international migration, many people in the West and not just the new immigrant communities actively seek alternative and complementary treatments, such as TCM (including acupuncture, Qigong [QG]), Ayurveda, herbalism, yogic meditation, and many others for their mental and physical well-being.5 The result of globalization and internationalization has no doubt increased the degree to which Asian healing practices are now part of a larger global or universal health and wellness practice; many are now found on the main streets in metropolitan cities in the West accessed by non-Asian clients.

    However, globalization has generally led to the domination of Eurocentric ideas and methods in health and mental health. This has constructed and shaped health and mental health policies and interventions across the globe. This is due, in part, to the well-established status and specialty of Western health and mental health theories and practices as the standard approach to health and well-being. But as immigration continues to characterize the Western world, it is imperative for mental health practitioners and clinicians, and those in training, to abandon their sense of self-sufficiency and actively increase their understanding of non-Western healing traditions and practices. This book, Asian Healing Traditions in Counseling and Psychotherapy, has been developed to address shortcomings in Western health care practices vis-à-vis the Asian communities and make a significant contribution to the already growing awareness, understanding, knowledge, and practices of the rich, centuries-old Far East Asian healing traditions amongst scholars, practitioners, researchers, and patients. Asian Healing Traditions in Counseling and Psychotherapy not only defines the processes involved and explains the philosophical basis for these healing practices but engages Western practitioners to seriously consider integration and collaboration toward formulating a new approach to health and mental health care.

    Traditional Healing, Multiculturalism, Counseling, and Psychotherapy

    Since the 1960s, the developments in multiculturalism and counseling and psychotherapy offered a tremendous potential for innovative research, theory building, and practice of multicultural (cross-cultural, intercultural, transcultural) counseling and psychotherapy. While the evolution and trajectory of U.S. multicultural counseling, psychology, and psychotherapy development attempted to parallel the sociocultural, political, and historical events within North American and European societies, it has also largely neglected to offer a critical analysis of Eurocentric approaches and methodologies. The curriculum of counseling and psychotherapy programs in Western universities are essentially ethnocentric, Eurocentric, and individualistic. Even multicultural counseling has systemically failed to address the root causes of anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, suicide deaths, and many others. The focus on cultural competencies and racial identity theories over the decades has led to a lack of research on critical issues such as oppression, domination, racism, poverty, and marginalization of ethnic minority communities. Moreover, it has also failed to theorize and engage the practice of indigenous, cultural, and traditional healing in health and mental health care.6 Nor did it allow for an acknowledgment and focus on the traditional healing practices of Diaspora ethnic or visible minority communities: indigenous, aboriginal, First Nation, and many other indigenous communities from around the world. Indeed, on the contrary, the opposite has happened in mainstream counseling psychology and psychiatry where indigenous healing traditions have been critiqued for being unscientific, primitive, or just mumbo jumbo arising from undeveloped, unsophisticated, and nascent societies in the developing world, or in the West from the era of slavery or the colonial period.

    In more recent decades, with the advent of diversity (race, gender, class, sexual orientation, disability, religion, age) taking a more prominent place in multicultural counseling, the healing traditions of non-Western cultures are also being acknowledged and accepted for their clinical and healing potential. These changes in both counseling and multicultural counseling are illustrative of the fact that counseling and psychotherapy are in dire need of change to avert the crisis that these mental health fields find themselves in: poor rates of participation by non-Western communities in psychotherapy, premature termination if they engage in therapy, and failure to adequately address the mental health needs of communities and groups that are not identified as part of the dominant culture. More importantly, there is a clear understanding that health and mental health interventions would need to be situated in local cultural contexts to solve local problems. As Good and Good said, “the meaning of illness for an individual is grounded in … the network of meanings an illness has in a particular culture” (p. 148).7 It seems that indigenous and traditional healing practices are then an obvious resource for any intervention in a local context; the network of meanings for both the illness and the wellness is best mediated through practices that arise from within the same cultural contexts. Thus, in recent years, counseling and psychotherapy have become more open to the idea of locating culture more centrally in their healing project. Yet, this is not a new idea, since psychoanalysis and psychotherapy have its roots in 19th-century European culture with deeply underpinning Jewish roots through its founder, Sigmund Freud. Subsequently, each type of psychotherapy has developed out of its own cultural context and represents the dominant worldview of that time and age. For example, CBT and client-centered therapy (CCT) are uniquely North American. However, in our contemporary context, with a diverse population, each approach may find its own adherents depending on the cultural match between the therapy and the help-seekers—for example, for those with a past orientation, psychoanalysis may be meaningful, while for those with a future perspective, solution-focused therapy may be more effective.8 Traditional healing is based on the cultural context of the specific tradition from which it arose. For example, aboriginal cultural healing practices, such as healing circles, storytelling circles, sweat lodge ceremonies, medicine wheel, and the Pimaatisiwin circle are deeply rooted in thousands of years of aboriginal cultures.9 It is often more holistic with an emphasis on the spiritual and social aspects of an individual and his or her community. That is appealing to many who are dissatisfied with the more clinical approach in many current therapies. An integration of aspects of such traditional healing with current psychotherapies may offer a blend that is refreshing to the users and rewarding to counselors and psychotherapists. Indeed, working alongside these Western-trained practitioners are the traditional healers who are fast becoming part of the healing landscape of health services, who offer a form of medical pluralism and dual interventions by using cultural and traditional healing practices as one of many sources of healing for their health and mental health needs.10

    The various chapters in this book are ordered in such a way to offer the reader an introduction into the complex field of Asian traditional healing and its integration into counseling, psychotherapy, and psychiatry. The earlier chapters explore the historical trajectory and the evolution of Asian healing to both contextualize its age-old roots and draw attention to the potentiality in contemporary clinical practice. Specific modalities of practices are discussed with a focus on integration into Western health and ­mental health approaches.

    Part A: The Ancient Art of Asian Healing Traditions offers a discussion on the origins of Asian traditional healing through its exploration of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism and its constructions of healing. For example, in Chapter 1: Confucianism and Healing, Kwang-Kuo Hwang explores the concept of self-exertion and putting oneself in the place of another as the core idea that arises from Confucian theory. The chapter discusses several ideas that establish a critical background to Asian healing traditions—for example: the two branches of neo-Confucianism—Cheng-Chu School of lixne and Lu-Wang School of xinxue—in the Sung–Ming dynasties; Wang Yangming’s theory on the Unity of Knowledge and Practice, which was imported to Japan before the era of Meiji Restoration; and the development of Confucianism during the Cultural Revolution. Chapter 2: Taoism and Healing, by Catherine Tien-Lun Sun, on the other hand, explores how the essence of Taoism (found in the taijitu) illustrates the concepts of harmonious equilibrium, noninterference, mutual generation, mutual attenuation, and dynamism—for example, the human body and the universe are both conceived of being made up by the interaction and composition of yin and yang, and the five elements of metal, wood, water, fire, and earth. From this conception, the elements of traditional Chinese healing are derived. Furthermore, in Chapter 3: Buddhism and Healing, Tony Toneatto discusses how Buddhist psychology, which is primarily concerned with the alleviation of human suffering, distress, and dissatisfaction, closely resembles many clinical perspectives in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Finally, in this section, Chapter 4: Qigong and Healing (Based on Taoist Philosophy) and Chapter 5: Ki (氣) and Healing examine the concept of qi or ki in different contexts. Qi, or ki, or sometimes referred to as the life force or energy flow, underlies many concepts in traditional healing and is explored throughout this book. Specifically, in Chapter 4, Amy L. Ai explores how the ancient art of QG, part of TCM and an energy-based health care practice and originating in Daoism (or Taoism), has the potential for clinical practice. And Chapter 5, by Tadashi Ogawa and Mami Ishii, considers how ki (or qi) is conceptualized in a Japanese context to engage with healing and mental health.

    Part B: Integrating Asian Healing Traditions Into Clinical Practices includes chapters that explore how Asian healing practices can be integrated into various clinical approaches. Specifically, in Chapter 6: Infusing Asian Healing Traditions Into Counseling Psychology, Ben C. H. Kuo and Beatriz Rodriguez-Rubio discuss the incorporation of Asian traditional healing into counseling and psychotherapy. The chapter reviews the current understanding, views, and debates on indigenous healing or helping approaches and contemporary practices and training of counseling psychology. Integration into psychotherapy is further expounded in Chapter 7: Integrating Asian Healing Traditions Into Psychotherapy by Boon-Ooi Lee, who argues that through this kind of integration psychotherapy may become more culturally relevant as worldviews embedded in psychotherapy largely reflect the Euro-American concepts of the self, human nature, well-being, and suffering. Chapter 8: Integrating Asian Healing Traditions Into Biomedicine, by Tenzin Lhundup and James H. Lake, engages the reader in an interesting conversation about the inclusion of Asian traditional healing practices into biomedicine. This chapter explores how conventional biomedicine (also known as allopathic medicine) and Asian healing traditions including TCM, Tibetan medicine, and Ayurveda, present many complex issues and opportunities in the treatment of medical and psychiatric problems. Finally, in Chapter 9: Integrating Mindfulness Meditation, Buddhism, and Therapeutic Practices, Marco Mascarin explores the relationship between Buddhism and mindfulness meditation and its integration into clinical practice. This chapter begins with the historical Buddhist traditions that gave rise to mindfulness meditation, considers several concepts of Buddhism—amongst them, the Four Noble Truths, an Eightfold Path, and right mindfulness—and articulates a strong position for strategic integration into therapeutic work.

    Part C: Asian Healing Traditions and Their Contemporary Formulations considers the approaches that have been developed in the current period but has roots in culture and traditions. For example, in Chapter 10: Chinese Taoist Cognitive Psychotherapy, Yu-ping Cao, Jie Zeng, and Ya-lin Zhang discuss how Chinese Taoist cognitive psychotherapy (CTCP), a culturally grounded approach, shaped by Confucianism (e.g., social hierarchies and collective responsibility, moral development, self-cultivation, professional achievement, control over nature) and Taoism (e.g., easy enjoyment of life’s pleasures, development of a flexible personality, acceptance over action, conformity to natural laws), can be a contemporary clinical approach to healing. Chapter 11: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Asian Thought, by Kenneth Fung and Zhuo-Hong Zhu, explores the third wave of psychotherapy, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its roots in Eastern philosophy and its integration into clinical practice. ACT consists of six interrelated processes: (1) cognitive defusion, (2) acceptance, (3) contact with the present moment, (4) self-as-context, (5) values, and (6) committed action. The chapter discusses how ACT is used to treat a variety of psychological and medical problems, neurosis, psychosis, chronic pain, and other health and mental health concerns.

    In Chapter 12: Japanese Contemplative Practice of Naikan, Chikako Ozawa-de Silva and Yoshihiko Miki discuss Naikan, the introspective healing practice derived from Japanese Mahayana Buddhism, referred to as a “pre-religious practice” as it does not require any religious belief or knowledge but can lead to self-transformation through cognitive and conceptual shifts. This chapter explores how Naikan as a discursive and analytical method of structured self-reflection can lead to relief from physical and psychological discomforts. Furthermore, in Chapter 13: Morita Therapy, Charles P. Chen discusses Japanese Morita therapy as an alternative helping approach for therapeutic and counseling interventions. The chapter explores how Morita therapy supports emotional and psychological well-being as well as psychological coping and healing. Finally, in Chapter 14: Reiki Therapy, Martha P. Novoa and Emily Kedar discuss the history and origins of Reiki, its evolution and use in the West, and the future of Reiki in counseling and psychotherapy.

    Part D: Asian Healing Traditions Inspire Creative Therapies explores new therapies that use Asian healing traditions and their foundation for therapeutic work. In Chapter 15: Tai Chi and Meditation, Paul Posadzki and Samantha Jacques discuss Tai Chi (TC) and meditation. This chapter considers the conceptual congruence and therapeutic benefits of both these practices. Furthermore, in Chapter 16: Hakoniwa: Japanese Sandplay Therapy, Carolyn Zerbe Enns and Makiko Kasai introduce Sandplay therapy with a Eastern paradigm that emphasizes verbal and direct expression, linear and cause–effect thinking, and a distinction between physical and mental well-being. This chapter discusses its relationship to Jungian and Eastern philosophy and clarifies how Japanese values and perspectives on the self and mental health are consistent with the practice of Hakoniwa. In contrast, in Chapter 17: Oishii: Japanese Delicious Moment Therapy, Mami Ishii and Ted Lo introduce the readers to a new and novel approach to healing and therapy. Oishii is a Japanese concept of “deliciousness.” The holistic nature of Japanese aesthetics values the simplicity, harmony, and impermanence as seen in many traditional healing practices. This chapter explores these ideas through the four domains of wellness: (1) the body (biological), (2) the mind (psychological), (3) the spiritual (metaphysical), and (4) the social (society).

    Finally, in the Conclusion: Integrating Asian Healing Traditions Into Counseling and Psychotherapy, Roy Moodley, Julie Hong, and Na Zhu offer a brief summary of some of the critical issues that were discussed. The conclusion considers issues of integration and the ways in which integration is accomplished. In bringing these ideas and thoughts together, the concluding piece endeavors to strengthen the relationship between Asian healing and Western Eurocentric clinical approaches.


    1. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness (Rev. 2nd ed.). New York, NY: Bantam/Random House.

    2. Moodley, R. (2011). The Toronto traditional healers project: An introduction. In R. Moodley & S. Stewart, Special issue: Integrating traditional healing practices into health promotion and education. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 49(3), 71–136.

    3. Sutherland, P., Moodley, R., & Chevannes, B. (Eds.). (2014). Caribbean healing traditions: Implications for health and mental health. New York, NY: Routledge.

    4. Moodley, The Toronto traditional healers project.

    5. Ibid.

    6. Moodley, R. (2011). Outside the sentence. Readings in critical multicultural counselling and psychotherapy. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto, CDCP Publications.

    7. Good, B. J., & Good, M.–J. D. (1982). Towards a meaning centered analysis of popular illness categories “fright illness” and “heat illness” in Iran. In A. J. Marsella & G. M. White (Eds.), Cultural conceptions of mental health and therapy. Dordecht, Netherlands: Reidel.

    8. Fung, K., & Lo, T. (in press). An integrative clinical approach to cultural competent psychotherapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy.

    9. Poonwassie, A., & Charter, A. (2005). Aboriginal worldview of healing: Inclusion, bending and bridging. In R. Moodley & W. West (Eds.), Integrating traditional healing practices into counseling and psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    10. Moodley, R., Gielen, U. P., & Wu, R. (Eds.). (2013). International counseling case study handbook. Alexandra, VA: American Counseling Association; Moodley, R., & Sutherland, P. (2009). Traditional and cultural healers and healing: Dual interventions in counselling and psychotherapy. Counselling and Spirituality Journal, 28(1), 11–31.

  • Glossary

    Amae (甘え):

    Amae means “sweet” in Japanese, symbolizing the first of experience of love with a mother through the sweetness of breast milk. It refers to the opportunity to depend on the benevolence or indulgence of others with whom one has close relationships (e.g., parents, ­children, romantic partners). This quality of relatedness is communicated primarily through nonverbal means and involves feelings of warmth, intimacy, and security. It also implies unconditional acceptance within close relationships.

    Art of living:

    This refers to the pragmatic and skillful approaches described in Yojokun to take responsibility for one’s wholesomeness and to appreciate abundance and savor the fulfillment of one’s life with purpose and meaning. Detailed instructions were described over eight volumes about food and drink, hygiene and bathing, illness and preventive treatment, aging and longevity, education, acupuncture, and medicinal herbs. The moral practice also emphasized the respect for ­parents and the heaven and earth due to the strong influence of neo-Confucianism.

    Biomedical psychiatry:

    This is the dominant conceptual framework within which mental illness is understood, diagnosed, and treated in the context of Western biomedicine. This broad framework is based on contemporary biological models of brain function at the level of neurotransmitters and functional brain circuits.


    Considered one of humanity’s great religions, Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in Nepal approximately 2,500 years ago. Its core belief defines suffering (and its resolution) as a result of our distorted beliefs about the world we experience, specifically about the nature of the self. A goal of Buddhism is to experientially realize the true nature of the self and what it perceives in order to eliminate suffering and attain enlightenment.

    Byosen scanning:

    Byosen is a scanning technique used in Reiki to detect energy blockages on the client’s body. The technique uses the sensitivity on the practitioner’s hands to perceive disrupted energy. The disrupted energy may present as areas with different density or different temperature. The disrupted areas will need more Reiki healing energy.

    Chinese Taoist cognitive psychotherapy (CTCP):

    This is a form of indigenous psychotherapy developed in China. The process of CTCP resembles cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), but it is infused with Chinese values. Clients learn to replace their maladaptive beliefs with Taoist doctrines.

    Chinese worldview model of equilibrium:

    This traditional Chinese cosmology is designated to maintain harmony and balance among humans and nature, humans and society, and within any human being.

    Common factors model:

    This model is one of the approaches for psychotherapy integration. It postulates that the effectiveness of the many counseling theories is due to their similarities (common factors) rather than their specific processes. Past research has identified a number of common factors, including shared worldviews, the therapeutic relationship, interventions, client ­expectations, extra-therapeutic factors, hope, and placebo effects.

    Confucian self-cultivation:

    This is a doctrine for practicing the Confucian core values of “self-­exertion” and “putting oneself in the place of others.”


    This is a system of philosophy developed by Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BC). There is an emphasis on ethics, harmony, and maintenance of social order. At an individual level, people strive to become an upright person, or junzhi, who is concerned with justice, morality, and welfare of others while reinforcing social order.

    Dao Yin (導引):

    This is a series of exercises, a practice as a precursor of Qigong (QG). Literally, it means leading and guiding the vital energy, following Dao and sometimes tracing the channel of bodily qi—that is, meridians and its key points, in this ancient practice. The Daoist Canon (AD 1145) comprises 1,120 volumes, including 1 dedicated to the classic version of Dao Yin, which contains all the principles involved in QG.

    Eightfold Path:

    This describes the Buddha’s teachings on how one can attain the end of suffering and realize enlightenment. These can be summarized into three major teachings on ethics (how to behave toward others), wisdom (how to perceive reality as it is), and meditation (how to understand the mind).

    Feng shui:

    It is written as “wind–water(風水)” in Chinese character. It is an ancient Chinese art and the practice of a philosophical system that governs spatial arrangement of objects and things in relation to the flow of energy (qi) in a living environment. The purpose of feng shui is to enhance the harmonization of the environments to support health and well-being and invite wealth and happiness.

    The five elements:

    This is a foundational concept in Chinese medicine that is also used in other disciplines, including feng shui, martial arts, and philosophy (e.g., The I Ching). The elements are metal, wood, water, fire, and earth. This schema is used to describe the interaction between nature and different dimensions of the human being, including internal organs and emotions.


    This is a positive psychology concept that is a measure of overall life wellness including positive emotion, engagement, interest, meaning, and purpose. In mental health, flourishing individuals are filled with emotional vitality and functioning positively in their lives rather than merely existing.


    This is a psychological mechanism for Chinese people to restrain their tempers and to cope with frustrations or interpersonal conflicts in a harmonious way.

    Four Noble Truths:

    These truths or insights encapsulate the core Buddhist beliefs that life is characterized by emotional suffering, that the cause of suffering is a tendency to project our beliefs onto the outside world (leading to attachment and aversion toward experience), and that such tendencies can be corrected through the pursuit of personality transformation.

    Futei (wind–body):

    It is a term to describe the “atmosphere” around a person and written as “wind–body(風体).” In this case, the atmosphere includes all aspects of the external appearance, including style, shape, complexion, dress, facial expression, demeanor, countenance, and so on. It is often used to describe the impression of a person.


    This is treatment of the whole person, which takes into account the physical, emotional, psychological, spiritual, and environmental factors of a person’s health.

    Huangdi Neijing:

    This is an ancient Chinese medical text, the foundation source of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The manuscript is composed of two texts each of 81 chapters in a question-and-answer format.

    The I Ching:

    This is an ancient book on the results of divination. Confucianists’ reinterpretation of it had transformed it into a classic of Confucian cosmology and self-cultivation.

    Indigenous healing:

    This is localized helping beliefs, practices, and strategies that originate within a given culture or society that are not imported from other regions and are intended to treat the members of that given cultural groups.


    The word karesansui can be translated as a dry landscape or rock garden. The garden may include rocks, sand, pruned trees and bushes, water features, and other elements that are used to depict natural scenes. These landscapes, often referred to as Zen gardens, are typically enclosed by a wall and are often integrated within a Zen temple context. A porch-like sitting area allows individuals to view the garden and engage in meditative practices.

    Maha-satipatthana Sutta:

    This is the great aphorism or sermon on the foundation or establishment of mindfulness. These are the Buddha’s instructions on the foundations of mindfulness, and it is regarded as the canonical Buddhist text that contains the most comprehensive teachings on mindfulness meditation techniques. The word satipatthana is the name for an approach to meditation aimed at establishing sati, or mindfulness.


    This is the primary means by which the mind is transformed. Buddhist meditation practices encourage the development of one-pointed concentration and equanimity as well as a clear insight or understanding of the true nature of phenomena. With discipline, meditation becomes the means by which the personality is transformed and suffering ended.


    Naikan practitioners are called mensetsu-sha in Japanese, and the term literally means “a person who interviews.” A mensetsu-sha is also a Naikan-sha.

    Metabolic syndrome:

    This is a disorder caused by abnormal use and storage of the body’s metabolic energy and is often associated with abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high-serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels that place individuals at increased risk of developing heart disease and diabetes. Several widely prescribed antipsychotics and other medications are associated with significantly increased risk of developing a metabolic syndrome.

    Metacognitive acuity:

    What various definitions of mindfulness hold in common is the notion of a cultivated meta-cognitive capacity to observe events in awareness (i.e., thoughts, feelings, and sensations) without reacting to them in an automatic, habituated pattern.


    The term is derived from the Pali word sati or smr.ti in Sanskrit and translates as nonforgetfulness or recollection. The term is related to the verb sarati—“to remember” or “to keep in mind” and can be used in the context of recall or memory of past events or remembering to do some activity in the future. In the context of mindfulness meditation, it relates to present-focused attention, the “keeping in mind” of arising phenomena—that is, the object of one’s meditation, such as the sensations related to breathing (ānāpānasati). “Right-mindfulness” is defined in the context of the Buddhist Eightfold Path as being, guided by the right view, grounded by ethics, and motivated by the right intention.

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR):

    This is a manualized treatment program developed by Kabat-Zinn for the management of chronic pain. The typical protocol is an 8- to 10-week ­program for groups of up to 30 participants who commit to meeting for 2 to 3 hours a week. Examples of mindfulness techniques introduced in MBSR training are the body scan (a participant directs their attention through the body, cultivating increased proprioception), walking meditation, hatha yoga, diaphragmatic breathing, and seated meditation.


    This term literally means “self-examination,” and this Buddhist meditational practice involves severe and ascetic meditation-like bodily engagement such as fasting and deprivation of sleep until one achieves spiritual awakening. Mishirabe forms part of the basis of Naikan, but the founder of Naikan, Yoshimoto Ishin, modified mishirabe so that it would be more accessible to a wide range of people regardless of their religion.

    Morita therapy:

    Japanese psychiatrist Shoma Morita developed Morita psychotherapy and counseling. Its primary tenets include accepting reality as it is and taking constructive action in one’s life. It works closely with harmonizing oneself to nature and following one’s own natural rhythms.

    Multicultural counseling competencies:

    Multicultural counseling competencies refer to three specific domains associated with counselors’ cultural competencies: awareness, knowledge, and skills. These competencies enable counselors to work effectively with clients of various cultural and diversity backgrounds.

    Multitheoretical psychotherapy (MTP):

    Multitheoretical psychotherapy is one of the approaches for psychotherapy integration. It aims at integrating different counseling theories at both ­conceptual and practical levels. It adopts a pragmatic approach whereby theories do not have to be ­reconciled or synthesized.


    This is a Japanese indigenous introspective healing practice that has been derived from Japanese Mahayana Buddhism and established as a secular form of therapeutic self-cultivation. Naikan lies at the border of psychotherapy and spirituality. Nai means “inside,” and kan means “looking,” so Naikan literally means “introspection” or “inner-looking.” When Naikan is offered at Naikan centers, it is usually simply called Naikan. Naikan is referred to as Naikan therapy when it is offered in the clinical setting with the necessary medication and supervision by medical professionals.

    Naikan’s three themes or questions:

    These are the three themes or questions: (1) what the client received from the person on whom he or she is reflecting, (2) what he or she gave back to that person, and (3) what trouble he or she caused that person. These three themes are the essence of Naikan. They are simple and yet complex, as they require interpretation by the client. How clients respond to these questions reflects the level of their introspection. Naikan clients engage with their past in accordance with these three questions.


    The term literally means “a person who does Naikan.” Both Naikan clients and Naikan practitioners are Naikan-sha. In this book, the convention of using the terms client and practitioner will be retained for clarity, but these terms could be misleading if they are not understood within this context.

    Reiki symbols:

    The Reiki symbols are the essence of the technique. The symbols are the vehicle in which the Reiki teacher transfers the energy to the practitioner during the attunements. During a session, they are better described as keys to different healing energies to address specific issues on the recipient.


    rlung (wind) is one of the “humors” in Tibetan medicine (Sowa-Rigpa) and is generally associated with the mind and heart. Imbalances in rlung may result from or cause imbalances in the other humors and manifest as complex symptom patterns of emotional and somatic symptoms that resemble psychosomatic disorders described in Western medicine.


    Ryunen refers to a sense of apathy seen in some Japanese young people. It is often related to a lack of clarity, sense of purpose, or personal goals and may be related to feeling alienated or disenchanted about opportunities available to young people. Ryunen may be reflected in lack of work aspirations, apathy about or feeling disconnected in intimate relationships, or disengagement from one’s ­community.


    It is a positive psychology concept and refers to the action to increase the intensity, duration, and appreciation of positive experiences and emotions while coping and dealing with negative emotions. It is a way to optimize the potential benefits of positivity on people’s lives through mindful engagement and conscious awareness to the experience of pleasure in various time frames.


    This is a central tenet of Buddhism that concerns the nature of the self, which is considered to be “empty.” The self is composed of a number of psychophysical processes (i.e., consciousness, feeling, perception, volition, materiality)—the nature of which is without inherent substance or essence.


    This is a concept of the integrity of a person’s nature in which the organism spontaneously reorganizes its capacities to actualize its potential through whichever avenues are available.


    It brings a value of richness of the human existence that expands horizons and maximizes potential.


    This is a Japanese term describing a nervous predisposition and feelings of anxiety. The original Morita therapy was designed to treat clients with shinkeishitsu-related symptoms, such as excessive introspective tendencies, perfectionistic obsession, hypersensitivity, and a highly anxious character.


    The term Reiki master was created by Hawayo Takata to refer to the Reiki teacher’s level or Shinpiden as it is known in Japan. The term master is traditionally used in the East to denote a person who has achieved spiritual enlightenment or in the West to denote experience and knowledge on a subject. So what is referred to in the West as “Reiki master level” following Japanese Reiki tradition is actually Reiki teacher level.

    Social anxiety:

    This is a persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which a person has an excessive and unreasonable fear. Anxiety (intense nervousness) and self-­consciousness arise from a fear of being closely watched, judged, and criticized by others. The feared situations are avoided or else are endured with intense anxiety and distress.


    A tendency for clients to express their psychological disturbances in terms of physical complaints.


    “The science of healing” is being used more increasingly instead of “traditional Tibetan medicine.” However, scholars of Tibetan medicine claim that Sowa-Rigpa incorporates principles and clinical methods from both Ayurvedic medicine used in India and indigenous medical practices used in Tibet.

    Subtle body:

    The subtle body can be defined as an extension of the physical body. Any solid object has an energetic field. The subtle body pertains to the energetic field of living beings. Within this field lies the blueprint of our thoughts, feelings, and spirit. This blueprint can manifest in the physical body as a particular behavior, emotional state, or illness. The Reiki practitioner channels universal life force into the subtle body of the client in order to remove and rectify blockages and rebalance the client’s energetic constitution.

    Taijin kyofusho:

    This disorder can be translated as fear (kyofusho) of interpersonal relationships (taijin). This culture-specific syndrome is related to social anxieties and involves concerns about offending others. Symptoms may include fear of eye contact, fear of showing improper facial expressions, or fear of emitting body odors that may embarrass others. Taijin kyofusho may be accompanied by hikikomori, which involves a pattern of social isolation and shutting oneself away from others for a period of at least six months.


    A philosophical doctrine of Chinese origin that emphasizes living in harmony with nature (macrocosmos) and own self (microcosmos); based on writings attributed to Laozi (or Lao-tzu), Zhuangzi (or Chuang-Tzu), and others and advocates conforming one’s behavior and thought to the Tao. Taoism is based on the founder Laozi, a philosopher and sage in China in the 6th–5th century BC and his work Tao Te Ching (or Dao De Jing). There is an emphasis on nonaction, naturalness, spontaneity, simplicity, and purification of the heart through nonstriving and being in harmony with the Tao. Tao, which means “way,” “path,” or “principle,” is thought to be the natural source or force behind everything: the basic, eternal principle of the universe that transcends reality and is the source of being, nonbeing, and change. Taoist philosophy is distinguished from Taoism practiced as a religion.

    Third-wave behavioral psychotherapies:

    This is a term based on a behavioralist perspective. The origin of psychotherapy is considered psychoanalysis. The first wave began with behavioral therapy when there was an attempt to move toward empiricism and principles governing observable behaviors. The second wave refers to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) when there was a shift to focus on one’s thoughts. The third-wave interventions have in common the incorporation of mindfulness and acceptance.

    Three higher trainings:

    The Buddha’s Eightfold Path was subdivided into three divisions, often referred to as the three higher trainings—wisdom (paññakkhandha), ethical conduct (silakkhandha), and mental development (samadhikkhandha). Mental development was further subdivided into right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.

    Traditional and conventional therapy integration:

    These are systematic efforts to generate counseling or therapy approaches that incorporate the assumptions, the principles, and the practices of both traditional cultural healing and Western counseling and psychotherapy.

    Traditional healing practices:

    These are helping beliefs and methods originating in a particular cultural group. There are many forms of traditional healing practices, such as traditional and complementary medicine, shamanism, spirit mediumship, and religious healing.

    Universal life force:

    Universal life force can be defined as the energy that permeates, creates, and connects all things. It has held different names across cultural contexts such as chi (China), ki (Japan), ni (Lakota), nilch’i (Navajo), prana (India, Yogic tradition), and even the Force (Star Wars). No matter what name it is given, or what culture it appears in, universal life force holds the same characteristics and can be harnessed for use in healing. Universal life force is ever present and available to all beings. It is said to hold its own consciousness and awareness.


    are beliefs, assumptions, and values that describe reality, human nature, the meanings of life, and one’s relationships with the world.

    Wu wei:

    Idea evolving from Confucianism and tenet of Taoism philosophically describing the right way of being still as a life attitude.

    Wu-chin-his (Five Animal Dances):

    This is an ancient Qigong (QG) exercise practiced by the legendary traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) physician Hua Tua (c. 140–208). The practitioner mimics dancing movements, sounds, and breathing of the five animals (i.e., monkey, bear, deer, bird, and tiger) to bring the energy system back to the free human nature. Symbolically, the animals are related to the five elements in colors, seasons, internal organs, sensory organs, and emotions.

    Yamai wa ki kara (病は気から):

    It is a Japanese proverb, literally saying that sickness arises from one’s spirit (qi), meaning that one’s illness starts with the mind. It implies the causational relationship between one’s mind and body and mental stress can lead to physical health.

    Yin and yang:

    This presents a core philosophical idea in Daoism and other Chinese philosophy. The pair symbolically describe how opposite or contrary forces are actually complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world and how they give rise to or control over each other as they interrelate to one another. It indicates complementary (but sometime contradictive) forces that interact to form a dynamic system in which the whole is greater than the assembled parts. Yin is associated with the properties of darkness, softness, and passivity, and yang with the properties of brightness, hardness, and activity. Yin and yang are constantly in a dynamic interplay from which change becomes a constant in the universe. Yin and yang generate and attenuate each other.


    This is a concept, written as 養生 and literally meaning “nourishing life.” It is the basic philosophy in Yojokun, the teaching manual written by Kaibara Ekken for holistic health to fulfill longevity, self-responsibility for taking care of one’s own body as well as mind and spirit. It was widely read and practiced by people of the Edo period, the final period of traditional Japan characterized by unified political stability and rise of agriculture, economy, and industrial development.


    This is a school of Mahayana Buddhism originating from China as Chán and became known as Zen in Japan. It is a branch of Buddhism that emphasizes meditative practice, insight into Buddha–nature, and its application for the benefit of others. Its development has been influenced by Taoism.


    This indicates the movement of qi in the mind–body system involving its flowing and ebbing in paired organ systems and corresponding meridians. Of this system, each energetic organ–emotional pair has its own peak time around a circadian system covering a 24-hour cycle. This system can be used as a guiding principle in practicing Qigong (QG) and acupuncture.

    About the Editors

    Roy Moodley PhD, is associate professor of counseling psychology at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. He is also the director of the Centre for Diversity in Counselling and Psychotherapy. Roy’s research interests include critical multicultural counseling and psychotherapy, race and culture in psychotherapy, traditional healing practices, and gender and identity.

    Ted (Hung-Tat) Lo MBBS, MRCPsych, FRCPC, is a cultural psychiatrist in Toronto. He was assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto, consulting to the Culture, Community and Health Studies Program. Ted has developed many programs in culturally competent practice and has written and lectured widely on the topic. He also founded the Friends of Alternative and Complementary Therapies Society and organized workshops and conferences on traditional healing. With Mami Ishii, he established the Integrative Mental Health Centre of Toronto.

    Na Zhu MEd, is currently pursuing a PhD in clinical psychology at the University of Windsor in Canada. She has a master’s degree in counseling psychology from the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. Na has many years of experience in the mental health field, integrating culturally sensitive practices. Her current research interests are in developmental psychopathology and emotional competence.

    About the Contributors

    Amy L. Ai PhD, is a professor at Florida State University. She has practiced Qigong (QG) since her teenage years. Amy has led many funded projects and published 120+ academic papers. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA), Association for Psychological Sciences (APS), and the Gerontological Society of America (GSA); a Hartford scholar, a Fulbright specialist, and a delegate to the 2005 White House Conference on Aging.

    Yu-ping Cao MD, PhD, is a professor at the Mental Health Institute of Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University in China. She is the vice chairman of the young member committee of the division of Psychiatry of the Chinese Medical Association, and a committee member of the China Association of Psychological Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Charles P. Chen PhD, is a professor of counseling psychology and is the Canada Research Chair at the University of Toronto. His book Career Endeavour received the 2008 Canadian Best Counselling Book Award. Charles is a prominent social scientist featured in Canadian Who’s Who and Who’s Who in the World.

    Carolyn Zerbe Enns PhD, is a professor of psychology at Cornell College. She was born and raised in Japan, which shaped her lifelong interests. Carolyn served as resident director of the Japan Study program (study abroad). Carolyn has explored and written about Japanese indigenous psychotherapies, Japanese feminisms, and contemporary gender issues.

    Kenneth Fung MD, FRCPC, MSc, is staff psychiatrist and clinical director of the Asian Initiative in Mental Health program, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, and associate professor with Equity, Gender and Population Division, Department of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto. Kenneth’s interests include both cultural psychiatry and psychotherapy.

    Julie Hong MEd, is currently pursuing her doctorate in counseling psychology at the University of Toronto. Her clinical practice involves working with adult community populations, with special interest in trauma-related sequelae. Julie’s current research area focuses on career and life transitions of new immigrants in Canada.

    Kwang-Kuo Hwang PhD, is the National Chair Professor at National Taiwan University, awarded by Taiwan’s Ministry of Education. He has endeavored to promote the indigenization movement of psychology in Chinese society since the early 1980s and has published eight books and more than 100 articles on related issues.

    Mami Ishii ND, MT-BC, Lac, is the project coordinator for Clinical Cultural Competence Consultants, consultant for the Asian Initiative in Mental Health at Toronto Western Hospital, and a lecturer at the Canadian School of Natural Nutrition. With Ted Lo, she established the Integrative Mental Health Centre of Toronto.

    Samantha Jacques PhD, FACHE, is director of Clinical Engineering at Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. Prior to Penn State Hershey, Jacques was director of Biomedical Engineering at Texas Children’s Hospital. She has a PhD in biomedical engineering and is a Fellow of the American College of Healthcare Executives.

    Makiko Kasai PhD, is a professor at Naruto University of Education in Japan. She is a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) and on the board of directors of the Association of Japanese Clinical Psychology and the Japanese Society of Certified Clinical Psychologists. Her research includes diversity and sensitivity training for counselors.

    Emily Kedar BA, MEd (candidate), is studying psychotherapy at the University of Toronto. She is a published poet, Reiki practitioner, and professional tarot reader. She currently works at distress centers doing grief support for survivors of suicide loss. Emily plans to establish Kanaka Village, a wellness retreat center in British Columbia, Canada.

    Ben C. H. Kuo PhD, is Full Professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of Windsor. His main research and teaching are cross-cultural psychology and multicultural counseling. Ben is actively involved in international teaching and has lectured in countries such as Taiwan, China, Thailand, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand.

    James H. Lake MD, is a psychiatrist in the San Francisco Bay Area. He was previously assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine at Stanford. James founded and chaired the American Psychiatric Association Caucus on Integrative Medicine. He is a founding member and former chair of the International Network of Integrative Mental Health.

    Boon-Ooi Lee PhD, is the senior lecturer in counseling psychology at the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. His research focuses on culture and mental health. Boon-Ooi’s research is interdisciplinary, combining the knowledge and methods from psychology, cultural psychiatry, and medical anthropology.

    Tenzin Lhundup MD, is staff physician in the Department of Internal Medicine and full-time faculty at Men Tse Kang, Lhasa. He served as a staff physician in Tibetan medicine at the Qu Su County Nyi thng Village hospital, Lhasa Taktse County Bonthu Village Hospital, and Lhasa Tak tse County Hospital.

    Marco Mascarin PhD, RP, is codirector of the Institute of Traditional Medicine and Buddhist chaplain at the University of Toronto Multi-Faith Centre. He is facilitator of the Nalanda Institute’s Contemplative Psychotherapy program (Toronto) and clinical associate at the Mindfulness Clinic. Marco also served as codirector of University of Toronto’s Inter-Professional Mindfulness Program.

    Yoshihiko Miki is professor emeritus at Osaka University in Japan, a clinical psychologist, and an author of many publications. He established Nara Training Center of Naikan Therapy with his wife, Junko, and continues research on the clinical application of Naikan therapy.

    Martha P. Novoa PhD, Reiki Master, has over 15 years of experience in Reiki therapy, practicing and teaching Reiki therapy as an intervention for physical and emotional illnesses on an international level. Her interests are integration of energy therapies and quantum realities as a tool for transformation in everyday life.

    Tadashi Ogawa PhD, is professor emeritus at Kyoto University and was president of Koshien University, Japan. Ogawa’s research interest is phenomenology of qi, mood, and atmosphere. He is the editor of nine journals, including the Monist, and the author of 15 books. He has presented at many conferences in Japan, Germany, and Italy.

    Chikako Ozawa-de Silva PhD, is associate professor in the Department of Anthropology at Emory University. Her research focuses on cross-cultural understandings of health and illness, especially mental illness, by bringing together Western and Asian (particularly Japanese and Tibetan) perspectives on the mind-body, religion, medicine, and therapy.

    Paul Posadzki PhD, is Research Fellow in Health Services and Outcomes Research Programme at Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Singapore. His interests are evidence-based medicine and health care, safety, and effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine, psychosocial health, preventive medicine, physical activity and sport, physiotherapy and rehabilitation, research and practice of pain, and public health.

    Beatriz Rodriguez-Rubio PhD, received her doctoral degree in clinical psychology at the University of Windsor in 2015. Beatriz specializes in qualitative research. Her doctoral dissertation qualitatively examined therapist–trainees’ experiences while providing therapy to first-generation refugee clients in Canada. Beatriz is currently practicing in St. John’s, Newfoundland.

    Catherine Tien-Lun Sun PhD, is academic vice president and professor of the Department of Counseling and Psychology at Hong Kong Shue Yan University. She has an abiding interest in developing a body of knowledge in psychology and psychotherapy, which bears cultural relevance and is useful to people in Asia, particularly those of Chinese descent.

    Tony Toneatto PhD, is associate professor in the Department of Psychiatry and director of the Buddhism, Psychology and Mental Health program at the University of Toronto. He has published on substance and behavioral addictions, especially pathological gambling. Tony is a registered clinical psychologist and a psychoanalyst.

    Jie Zeng MD, PhD, received her master’s degree in neurology at Shanghai Jiao Tong University and PhD in psychiatry at Central South University. She has a special interest in the integration of Chinese traditional culture and psychotherapy. Jie Zeng is currently completing her psychiatry residency at Shanghai Mental Health Center.

    Ya-lin Zhang MD, PhD, is a professor at the Mental Health Institute of Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University in China. He is the vice chairman of the China Association on Psychological Counseling and Psychotherapy, and one of the founders of Chinese Taoist cognitive psychotherapy (CTCP).

    Zhuo-Hong Zhu PhD, is a professor at the Institute of Psychology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is also the president of the China Chapter of the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science (ACBS) and director of the Central State Organs and Staff Mental Health Counseling Center.

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