`A unique and indispensible work that serves both as a basic introduction to the disarmament scene and a reference book for experts' - Disarmament Times `This compendium of the history and achievements of arms control and disarmament efforts is unique in its kind and is likely to remain so. This for three reasons: first, because of its unparalleled comprehensiveness; second, because of the outstanding quality of its presentation, and, third, because of its author, Jozef Goldblat, one of the world's leading experts in the field. This triad makes the updated Second Edition of Arms Control: The New Guide to Negotiations and Agreements a must for all concerned with international security in general and arms control in particular' - Curt Gasteyger, Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva `The thesaurus of arms regulation and disarmament...a precious tool for negotiators and treaty makers' - Ambassador V Petrovsky, Former Secretary-General of the Conference on Disarmament `Being the most comprehensive and authoritative compilation and analysis of arms control agreements available, this is an indispensable reference volume for students and practitioners of arms control and international security. The author has spent a lifetime in the study and practice of international security affairs: where international law and arms control agreements are concerned, there is no one better qualified than him' - Sverre Lodgaard, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, Oslo The revised and updated edition of Arms Control: The New Guide to Negotiations and Agreements contains the most authoritative and comprehensive survey ever published of the documents related to arms control. All major agreements reached since the second half of the nineteenth century through to mid-2002 are critically analysed and assessed. The assessment is made in the light of the international security environment, the developments in the field of weapon technology, the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons proliferation, and the efforts to strengthen the humanitarian law of armed conflict. The accompanying CD-ROM reproduces full text and carefully selected excerpts of treaties, conventions, common understandings, statutes, charters, binding decisions of international bodies, final acts of international conferences, exchanges of letters and diplomatic notes. Multilateral agreements are followed by a list of parties. Enriched with new maps, tables and figures, as well as an expanded glossary and bibliography, the book will remain the definitive resource for students of international relations, journalists, diplomats and military strategists. Jozef Goldblat, the author, is Vice-President of the Geneva International Peace Research Institute (GIPRI), Resident Senior Fellow of the UN Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) and Associate Editor of Security Dialogue, published by SAGE for the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO). He has studied the problems of arms control since the 1950s and has been involved in arms control negotiations. From 1969 to 1989 he directed the arms control and disarmament programme of studies at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). He has lectured at various universities and has written reports, articles and books on the arms race and disarmament. His latest publications include The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime: Assessment and Prospects, The Hague Academy of International Law, 1997, and Nuclear Disarmament: Obstacles to Banishing the Bomb, I. B. Tauris, 2000.
Chapter 11: The Sea Environment
The Sea Environment
Over 70% of the surface of the globe is sea, and more than two-thirds of the world's human population live within 300 kilometres of a sea coast. Hence the continuous interest with which nations have followed the build-up of naval forces and the effects of militarization of the seas on international ...