Applied Social Psychology: Understanding and Addressing Social and Practical Problems


Jamie A. Gruman, Frank W. Schneider & Larry M. Coutts

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Copyright


    To Solly, Tommi, and Michi


    To my wife Scottie and our loving parents in memory


    To Jacinthe, Sarah, and Juliane



    This textbook serves as an introduction to applied social psychology, which is the branch of the field of social psychology that focuses on understanding social and practical problems and on developing intervention strategies directed at the amelioration of such problems. As editors of this third edition, as with the first two editions, we have two main objectives. One objective is to produce a text for a course in applied social psychology that is compatible with the interests and abilities of students at the advanced undergraduate level. The second main objective is to share with students the promise of applied social psychology and our excitement about the field. That excitement can be traced to a considerable extent to our mutual involvement in the graduate program in applied social psychology at the University of Windsor: Frank Schneider was a co-founder of the program, Jamie Gruman earned his doctorate from the program, and Larry Coutts served as a faculty member in the program. Our excitement also stems from an awareness of the mounting evidence of the applicability of social psychological theory and knowledge to the improvement of the functioning of individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and societies with respect to a wide variety of social and practical problems.

    Reactions to Earlier Editions

    Not long after the publication of the first edition our initial vision for the book began to be confirmed by two formal reviews of the book (Boon, 2005; Simpson, 2005) and by the rate of its adoption as a text. Both reviewers had high praise for the book, including how well we were able to maintain consistency of writing style and organization despite the involvement of many authors. An unanticipated reward for us was the pedagogical impact the book had on the reviewers themselves. One reviewer wrote,

    I have a renewed enthusiasm for my field and a much deeper appreciation of the range of situations in which social psychological theory and research may be, and indeed have been, applied, and a fuller understanding of the opportunities, perhaps even the obligation, that I have, as a social psychologist, to do research that positively impacts the world. (Boon, 2005, p. 251)

    The second reviewer wrote,

    “This is a refreshing, well-written, inspirational text that suggests that psychology is indeed making progress in making the world a better place. Reading it has revitalized my desire to redirect my formal experimental social psychology training to solve practical problems.” (Simpson, 2005)

    We also were encouraged by the number of instructors who adopted the book for courses in applied social psychology and related courses (applied psychology, special topics in social psychology, etc.), as well as by the feedback from the psychology editor at SAGE that Applied Social Psychology was regarded as among their more successful books. Moreover, we were pleased to learn of the book’s adoption in a number of graduate courses, including applied social psychology and the social bases of behavior. We were also delighted to learn that the book is used around the globe. One indication of its global impact was a review of the second edition in the Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology (Team JIAAP, 2014).


    As with the two earlier editions, the book maintains a balance between social psychological theory, research, and application. The book is formally divided into three parts.

    Part 1: Foundations of Applied Social Psychology includes four chapters that provide readers with bases for understanding the processes by which applied social psychologists develop theories, acquire knowledge, and design and evaluate interventions. Chapter 1 defines the field of applied social psychology and places the field in a historical and intellectual context. Chapter 2 defines and illustrates the nature of theory and the processes of theory development. Chapter 3 reviews basic research designs and data collection methods used by applied social psychologists. Chapter 4 defines and illustrates the steps involved in the design, implementation, and evaluation of programmatic interventions.

    Part 2: Applying Social Psychology to Arenas of Life consists of 10 chapters that examine how social psychological theory and research evidence have been applied to understanding and addressing social and practical problems in different topic areas: clinical/counseling (Chapter 5), sports teams (Chapter 6), media (Chapter 7), health (Chapter 8), education (Chapter 9), organizations (Chapter 10), criminal justice (Chapter 11), community (Chapter 12), environment (Chapter 13), and diversity (Chapter 14).

    Part 3: Applying Social Psychology to One’s Own Life consists of 3 chapters that examine how individuals can draw on social psychological theory and evidence to improve their own lives (i.e., “personal interventions”) with respect to selected areas of functioning: interpersonal relationships (Chapter 15), the classroom (Chapter 16), and well-being (Chapter 17).

    The book is most appropriate for students with some course work in psychology. However, students with little or no formal background in psychology, including those in allied fields (e.g., sociology, communication studies) should feel comfortable in reading the book because of the instructional approach that it takes. In particular, the instructional features come in the first four chapters which systematically review the basic processes of applied social psychology.

    • Central role of intervention strategies. The content and emphases are guided by the assumption that at the core of applied social psychology is the development and implementation of intervention strategies directed at the improvement of individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and societies.
    • Personal interventions. The book is unique among applied social psychology books in having chapters that focus on personal uses of social psychology that help to underscore the personal relevance and utility of the field.
    • Focuses on research and intervention. The chapters in Part 2 include at least one Focus on Research and one Focus on Intervention, which are boxed sections that review in greater detail and depth research studies and social psychologically based interventions, respectively.
    • Culture capsules. The chapters in Parts 2 and 3 include a Culture Capsule that reports empirical data that serve to illustrate that theoretical principles, research findings, and/or intervention practices that are well established in the North American context do not necessarily hold true or prove effective in other cultural contexts.
    • Other pedagogical elements. All chapters include an opening outline, highlighting of key terms, and a final summary. Also, chapters in Parts 2 and 3 begin with a vignette that sets the stage for the content that follows.
    New to the Third Edition
    • Content has been updated in all chapters resulting in over 270 new citations.
    • Consistent with the growth in popularity of qualitative research methods, new detailed examples of research using qualitative methods have been added to all content chapters.
    • Chapter 1 incorporates a new discussion of the different approaches adopted in the field of applied social psychology.
    • Chapter 2 includes an entirely new section drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior to explain the nature of social psychological theory.
    • Chapter 3 incorporates an expanded discussion of qualitative research methods and notes where examples of specific methods can be found in the text.
    • Chapter 4 includes a detailed example of incorporating qualitative methods to design and evaluate interventions.
    • Chapter 6 introduces the concept of shared mental models in teams.
    • Chapter 7 presents an updated account of video games and aggression, and how the Internet influences the way we consume news media.
    • Chapter 8 includes a new section on health literacy and how people evaluate health claims on the Internet.
    • Chapter 9 presents new material on procrastination, bullying, and cyberbullying, new Focus on Research and Focus on Intervention sections, and an expanded discussion of intrinsic motivation and goals.
    • Chapter 10 includes new material on persuasiveness in communication.
    • Chapter 11 incorporates an elaborated discussion of false confessions.
    • Chapter 12 includes a new discussion of virtual sense of community, introduces the concept of intersectionality, and includes a new section on activism in research.
    • Chapter 13 includes an expanded discussion on how to effectively craft messages to promote environmentally friendly behavior.
    • Chapter 14 contains a new section on the social axioms approach to cultural analysis.
    • Chapter 16 includes an expanded discussion of cognitive errors and tendencies.
    • Chapter 17 includes an expanded discussion of optimism and pessimism, positive social psychology, and introduces a balance framework for conceptualizing how social phenomena promote “the good life.”
    • In sum, new sections and/or substantially revised sections permeate the entire book.
    In Appreciation

    We greatly appreciate the contributions of the many individuals who helped us accomplish this revision. We certainly extend our gratitude to the contributing authors who sustained their commitment to our vision for the book by agreeing to revise their chapters for a third edition. SAGE commissioned reviews of the second edition in preparation for the revision. We were very impressed with the reviewers’ thoughtful comments and suggestions and drew on many of their ideas to improve the new edition. We thank Reid Hester, our initial editor, who encouraged us to produce a third edition of the book, and Lara Parra who took over from Reid and saw the book to completion. Special thanks go out to Morgan Shannon, her editorial assistant, whose professionalism and timeliness made managing this large project much easier. We would also like to thank the faculty in the applied social psychology area of the University of Guelph for offering valuable insight into recent developments in the field and changes to the book that might best improve it. In particular, we thank Drs. Paula Barata, Benjamin Giguère, Ian Newby-Clark, and Kieran O’Doherty. We would especially like to thank Dr. Jennifer Dobson, who stepped up to assist with much of the research, writing, and administrative details involved with this revision. Her experience teaching applied social psychology using the text in addition to her keen judgment allowed her to offer valuable suggestions about changes, and implement many of those changes. Jennifer’s contributions cannot be overstated and are partly recognized with an authorship of one of the chapters. Finally, we’d like to thank all of the instructors around the globe who have chosen to use and continue to use this book in their courses. It is because of your continued willingness to select this book from among all of those available that a third edition was warranted and has allowed this text to be born anew. We hope this third edition lives up to your expectations of it as the “go to” textbook on applied social psychology.

         Jamie A. Gruman

         Frank W. Schneider

         Larry M. Coutts

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