Applied Social Psychology: Understanding and Addressing Social and Practical Problems

Books

Jamie A. Gruman, Frank W. Schneider & Larry M. Coutts

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Dedication

    To Solly, Tommi, and Michi

       —JAG

    To my wife Scottie and our loving parents in memory

       —FWS

    To Jacinthe, Sarah, and Juliane

       —LMC

    Preface

    This textbook serves as an introduction to applied social psychology, which is the branch of the field of social psychology that focuses on understanding social and practical problems and on developing intervention strategies directed at the amelioration of such problems. As editors of this third edition, as with the first two editions, we have two main objectives. One objective is to produce a text for a course in applied social psychology that is compatible with the interests and abilities of students at the advanced undergraduate level. The second main objective is to share with students the promise of applied social psychology and our excitement about the field. That excitement can be traced to a considerable extent to our mutual involvement in the graduate program in applied social psychology at the University of Windsor: Frank Schneider was a co-founder of the program, Jamie Gruman earned his doctorate from the program, and Larry Coutts served as a faculty member in the program. Our excitement also stems from an awareness of the mounting evidence of the applicability of social psychological theory and knowledge to the improvement of the functioning of individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and societies with respect to a wide variety of social and practical problems.

    Reactions to Earlier Editions

    Not long after the publication of the first edition our initial vision for the book began to be confirmed by two formal reviews of the book (Boon, 2005; Simpson, 2005) and by the rate of its adoption as a text. Both reviewers had high praise for the book, including how well we were able to maintain consistency of writing style and organization despite the involvement of many authors. An unanticipated reward for us was the pedagogical impact the book had on the reviewers themselves. One reviewer wrote,

    I have a renewed enthusiasm for my field and a much deeper appreciation of the range of situations in which social psychological theory and research may be, and indeed have been, applied, and a fuller understanding of the opportunities, perhaps even the obligation, that I have, as a social psychologist, to do research that positively impacts the world. (Boon, 2005, p. 251)

    The second reviewer wrote,

    “This is a refreshing, well-written, inspirational text that suggests that psychology is indeed making progress in making the world a better place. Reading it has revitalized my desire to redirect my formal experimental social psychology training to solve practical problems.” (Simpson, 2005)

    We also were encouraged by the number of instructors who adopted the book for courses in applied social psychology and related courses (applied psychology, special topics in social psychology, etc.), as well as by the feedback from the psychology editor at SAGE that Applied Social Psychology was regarded as among their more successful books. Moreover, we were pleased to learn of the book’s adoption in a number of graduate courses, including applied social psychology and the social bases of behavior. We were also delighted to learn that the book is used around the globe. One indication of its global impact was a review of the second edition in the Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology (Team JIAAP, 2014).

    Organization

    As with the two earlier editions, the book maintains a balance between social psychological theory, research, and application. The book is formally divided into three parts.

    Part 1: Foundations of Applied Social Psychology includes four chapters that provide readers with bases for understanding the processes by which applied social psychologists develop theories, acquire knowledge, and design and evaluate interventions. Chapter 1 defines the field of applied social psychology and places the field in a historical and intellectual context. Chapter 2 defines and illustrates the nature of theory and the processes of theory development. Chapter 3 reviews basic research designs and data collection methods used by applied social psychologists. Chapter 4 defines and illustrates the steps involved in the design, implementation, and evaluation of programmatic interventions.

    Part 2: Applying Social Psychology to Arenas of Life consists of 10 chapters that examine how social psychological theory and research evidence have been applied to understanding and addressing social and practical problems in different topic areas: clinical/counseling (Chapter 5), sports teams (Chapter 6), media (Chapter 7), health (Chapter 8), education (Chapter 9), organizations (Chapter 10), criminal justice (Chapter 11), community (Chapter 12), environment (Chapter 13), and diversity (Chapter 14).

    Part 3: Applying Social Psychology to One’s Own Life consists of 3 chapters that examine how individuals can draw on social psychological theory and evidence to improve their own lives (i.e., “personal interventions”) with respect to selected areas of functioning: interpersonal relationships (Chapter 15), the classroom (Chapter 16), and well-being (Chapter 17).

    The book is most appropriate for students with some course work in psychology. However, students with little or no formal background in psychology, including those in allied fields (e.g., sociology, communication studies) should feel comfortable in reading the book because of the instructional approach that it takes. In particular, the instructional features come in the first four chapters which systematically review the basic processes of applied social psychology.

    Features
    • Central role of intervention strategies. The content and emphases are guided by the assumption that at the core of applied social psychology is the development and implementation of intervention strategies directed at the improvement of individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and societies.
    • Personal interventions. The book is unique among applied social psychology books in having chapters that focus on personal uses of social psychology that help to underscore the personal relevance and utility of the field.
    • Focuses on research and intervention. The chapters in Part 2 include at least one Focus on Research and one Focus on Intervention, which are boxed sections that review in greater detail and depth research studies and social psychologically based interventions, respectively.
    • Culture capsules. The chapters in Parts 2 and 3 include a Culture Capsule that reports empirical data that serve to illustrate that theoretical principles, research findings, and/or intervention practices that are well established in the North American context do not necessarily hold true or prove effective in other cultural contexts.
    • Other pedagogical elements. All chapters include an opening outline, highlighting of key terms, and a final summary. Also, chapters in Parts 2 and 3 begin with a vignette that sets the stage for the content that follows.
    New to the Third Edition
    • Content has been updated in all chapters resulting in over 270 new citations.
    • Consistent with the growth in popularity of qualitative research methods, new detailed examples of research using qualitative methods have been added to all content chapters.
    • Chapter 1 incorporates a new discussion of the different approaches adopted in the field of applied social psychology.
    • Chapter 2 includes an entirely new section drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior to explain the nature of social psychological theory.
    • Chapter 3 incorporates an expanded discussion of qualitative research methods and notes where examples of specific methods can be found in the text.
    • Chapter 4 includes a detailed example of incorporating qualitative methods to design and evaluate interventions.
    • Chapter 6 introduces the concept of shared mental models in teams.
    • Chapter 7 presents an updated account of video games and aggression, and how the Internet influences the way we consume news media.
    • Chapter 8 includes a new section on health literacy and how people evaluate health claims on the Internet.
    • Chapter 9 presents new material on procrastination, bullying, and cyberbullying, new Focus on Research and Focus on Intervention sections, and an expanded discussion of intrinsic motivation and goals.
    • Chapter 10 includes new material on persuasiveness in communication.
    • Chapter 11 incorporates an elaborated discussion of false confessions.
    • Chapter 12 includes a new discussion of virtual sense of community, introduces the concept of intersectionality, and includes a new section on activism in research.
    • Chapter 13 includes an expanded discussion on how to effectively craft messages to promote environmentally friendly behavior.
    • Chapter 14 contains a new section on the social axioms approach to cultural analysis.
    • Chapter 16 includes an expanded discussion of cognitive errors and tendencies.
    • Chapter 17 includes an expanded discussion of optimism and pessimism, positive social psychology, and introduces a balance framework for conceptualizing how social phenomena promote “the good life.”
    • In sum, new sections and/or substantially revised sections permeate the entire book.
    In Appreciation

    We greatly appreciate the contributions of the many individuals who helped us accomplish this revision. We certainly extend our gratitude to the contributing authors who sustained their commitment to our vision for the book by agreeing to revise their chapters for a third edition. SAGE commissioned reviews of the second edition in preparation for the revision. We were very impressed with the reviewers’ thoughtful comments and suggestions and drew on many of their ideas to improve the new edition. We thank Reid Hester, our initial editor, who encouraged us to produce a third edition of the book, and Lara Parra who took over from Reid and saw the book to completion. Special thanks go out to Morgan Shannon, her editorial assistant, whose professionalism and timeliness made managing this large project much easier. We would also like to thank the faculty in the applied social psychology area of the University of Guelph for offering valuable insight into recent developments in the field and changes to the book that might best improve it. In particular, we thank Drs. Paula Barata, Benjamin Giguère, Ian Newby-Clark, and Kieran O’Doherty. We would especially like to thank Dr. Jennifer Dobson, who stepped up to assist with much of the research, writing, and administrative details involved with this revision. Her experience teaching applied social psychology using the text in addition to her keen judgment allowed her to offer valuable suggestions about changes, and implement many of those changes. Jennifer’s contributions cannot be overstated and are partly recognized with an authorship of one of the chapters. Finally, we’d like to thank all of the instructors around the globe who have chosen to use and continue to use this book in their courses. It is because of your continued willingness to select this book from among all of those available that a third edition was warranted and has allowed this text to be born anew. We hope this third edition lives up to your expectations of it as the “go to” textbook on applied social psychology.

         Jamie A. Gruman

         Frank W. Schneider

         Larry M. Coutts

  • References

    Abela, J. R. Z., Gagnon, H., & Auerbach, R. P. (2007). Hopelessness depression in children: An examination of the symptom component of the hopelessness theory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31(3), 401417.
    Abelson, R. P., Aronson, E., McGuire, W. J., Newcomb, T. M., Rosenberg, M. J., & Tannenbaum, P. H. (Eds.). (1968). Theories of cognitive consistency: A sourcebook. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    Abend, T. A., & Williamson, G. M. (2002). Feeling attractive in the wake of breast cancer: Optimism matters, and so do interpersonal relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 427436.
    Abfalter, D., Zaglia, M. E., & Mueller, J. (2012). Sense of virtual community: A follow up on its measurement. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2), 400404.
    Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., Vlek, C., & Rothengatter, T. (2005). A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 273291.
    Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., Vlek, C., & Rothengatter, T. (2007). The effect of tailored information, goal setting, and tailored feedback on household energy use, energy-related behaviors, and behavioral antecedents. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27, 265276.
    Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358372.
    Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., & Teasdale, I. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Abnormal Psychology, 87, 4974.
    Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267299). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R. L., & Syme, S. L. (1994). Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist, 49, 1524.
    Adler, N. E., & Snibbe, A. C. (2003). The role of psychosocial processes in explaining the gradient between socioeconomic status and health. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(4), 119123.
    Affleck, G., Tennen, H., & Apter, A. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and daily life with chronic illness. In E. C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 147168). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Ainsworth, M. D., Blehar, S. D., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior (pp.1139). New York, NY: Springer.
    Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179211.
    Ajzen, I. (1998). Models of human social behavior and their application to health psychology. Psychology and Health, 13, 735739.
    Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 665683.
    Ajzen, I. (2011a). Behavioral interventions: Design and evaluation guided by the theory of planned behavior. In M. M. Mark, S. I. Donaldson, & B. Campbell (Eds.), Social psychology and evaluation (pp. 74100). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
    Ajzen, I. (2011b). The theory of planned behavior. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology: Volume one (pp. 438459). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Akehurst, L., & Vrij, A. (1999). Creating suspects in police interviews. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 192210.
    Albright, J. M. (2008). Sex in America online: An exploration of sex, marital status, and sexual identity in Internet sex seeking and its impacts. Journal of Sex Research, 45, 175186.
    Alinsky, S. (1971). Rules for radicals. New York, NY: Random House, Vintage Books.
    Allen, M., D’Alessio, D., & Brezgel, K. (1995). A meta-analysis summarizing the effects of pornography II: Aggression after exposure. Human Communication Research, 22, 258283.
    Allen, M., D’Alessio, D., Emmers, T. M., & Gebhardt, L. (1996). The role of educational briefings in mitigating effects of experimental exposure to violent sexually explicit material: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sex Research, 33, 135141.
    Allen, M., Emmers, T., Gebhardt, L., & Giery, M. A. (1995). Exposure to pornography and acceptance of rape myth. Journal of Communication, 45, 525.
    Allen, V. L., & Wilder, D. A. (1975). Categorization, belief similarity, and intergroup discrimination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 971977.
    Alloy, L. B., & Clements, C. M. (1998). Hopelessness theory of depression: Tests of the symptom component. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 303335.
    Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 357376.
    American College of Emergency Physicians. (2001). NHTSA update on safety belt effectiveness: Crowded emergency departments urged to prepare for mass casualty incidents. Annals News Release. Retrieved from http://www.acep.org/1,2727,0.html
    American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (
    5th
    ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
    American Psychological Association. (2010). American Psychological Association ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
    American Psychological Association Committee on Accreditation. (2007). Guidelines and principles for accreditation of programs in professional psychology. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ed/accreditation/about/policies/guiding-principles.pdf
    Anderson, A. H., McEwan, R., & Carletta, J. (2007). Virtual team meetings: An analysis of communication and context. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 25582580.
    Anderson, C. A. (2004). An update on the effects of playing violent video games. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 113122.
    Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353359.
    Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 2751.
    Anderson, C. A., Gentile, D. A., & Buckley, K. E. (2007). Violent video game effects on children and adolescents: Theory, research, and public policy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2016). The psychology of criminal conduct (
    6th
    ed.). Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis.
    Andrews, D. A., Leschied, A. W., & Hoge, R. D. (1992). The prediction and assessment of youth at risk: A social psychological approach. Toronto, ON: Ministry of Community and Social Services.
    Ansolabehere, S., & Iyengar, S. (1996). Going negative: How political advertisements shrink and polarize the electorate. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Aos, S., Phipps, R., Barnoski, R., & Lieb, R. (2001). The comparative costs and benefits of programs to reduce crime, Version 4.0. Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy. Retrieved from http://www.wsipp.wa.gov/rptfiles/costbenefit.pdf
    Apple, K. S. (1993). The antecedents and consequences of multidimensional cohesion throughout an intercollegiate baseball season. Unpublished master’s thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
    Argote, L., Seabright, M. A., & Dyer, L. (1986). Individual versus group use of base-rate and individuating information. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 38, 6575.
    Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 471499.
    Arnett, J. J. (2008). The neglected 95%: Why American psychology needs to become less American. American Psychologist, 63, 602614.
    Aronson, E. (1968). Dissonance theory: Progress and problems. In R. P. Abelson, E. Aronson, W. J. McGuire, T. M. Newcomb, M. J. Rosenberg, & P. H. Tannenbaum (Eds.), Theories of cognitive consistency: A sourcebook (pp. 527). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    Aronson, E. (1992). Stateways can change folkways. In R. Baird & S. Rosenbaum (Eds.), Bigotry, prejudice and hatred: Definitions, causes and solutions (pp. 185201). Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
    Aronson, E. (1999). Dissonance, hypocrisy, and the self-concept. In E. Harmon-Jones & J. Mills (Eds.), Cognitive dissonance: Progress on a pivotal theory in social psychology (pp. 103126). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Aronson, E. (2002). Building empathy, compassion, and achievement in the jigsaw classroom. In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education (pp. 209225). New York, NY: Academic Press.
    Aronson, E. (2007). The social animal (
    10th
    ed.). New York, NY: Worth.
    Aronson, E., Fried, C., & Stone, J. (1991). Overcoming denial and increasing the intention to use condoms through the induction of hypocrisy. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 16361638.
    Aronson, E., & Mills, J. (1959). The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59, 177181.
    Aronson, E., Stephan, C., Sikes, J., Blaney, N., & Snapp, M. (1978). The jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.
    Arvey, R. D., Bouchard, T. J., Segal, N. L., & Abraham, L. M. (1989). Job satisfaction: Environmental and genetic components. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 187192.
    Asch, S. E. (1946). Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 41, 258290.
    Asch, S. E. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon modification and distortion of judgements. In H. Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups, leadership, and men (pp. 177190). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Press.
    Asch, S. E. (1955). Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American, 193(5), 3135.
    Asp, E., & Garbarino, J. (1988). Integrative processes at school and in the community. In T. D. Yawkey & J. E. Johnson (Eds.), Integrative processes and socialization: Early to middle childhood (pp. 167183). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Aspinwall, L. G., & Taylor, S. E. (1992). Modeling cognitive adaptation: A longitudinal investigation of the impact of individual differences and coping on college adjustment and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 755765.
    Assad, K. K., Donnellan, M. B., & Conger, R. D. (2007). Optimism: An enduring resource for romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 285297.
    Auvinen, J., & Nafziger, E. W. (1999). The sources of humanitarian emergencies. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 43, 267290.
    Avolio, B. J. (2007). Promoting more integrative strategies for leadership theory-building. American Psychologist, 62, 2533.
    Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421449.
    Axsom, D. (1989). Cognitive dissonance and behavior change in psychotherapy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 234252.
    Axsom, D., & Cooper, J. (1985). Cognitive dissonance and psychotherapy: The role of effort justification in inducing weight loss. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 149160.
    Babbie, E., & Benaquisto, L. (2002). Fundamentals of social research. Toronto, ON: Thomson-Nelson Canada.
    Back, M. D., Schmukle, S. C., & Egloff, B. (2008). Becoming friends by chance. Psychological Science, 19(5), 439440.
    Baer, J. L., Kohut, T., & Fisher, W. A. (2015). Is pornography use associated with anti-woman aggression? Re-examining the Confluence Model with third variable considerations. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 24(2), 160173.
    Bales, R. F. (1950). Interaction process analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Balsis, S., Woods, C. M., Gleason, M. E. J., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2007). Overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of personality disorders in older adults. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(9), 742753.
    Baltes, B. B., Marcus, W. D., Sherman, M. P., Bauer, C. C., & LaGanke, J. S. (2002). Computer-mediated communication and group decision making: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 87, 156179.
    Bamberg, S., & Möser, G. (2007). Twenty years after Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: A new meta-analysis of psycho-social determinants of pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27, 1425.
    Banaji, M. R., & Heiphetz, L. (2010). Attitudes. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (
    5th
    ed., Vol. 1, pp. 353393). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Bandura, A. (1965). Influence of models’ reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 589595.
    Bandura, A. (1977a). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 191215.
    Bandura, A. (1977b). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Bandura, A. (1983). Psychological mechanisms of aggression. In R. G. Geen & E. I. Donnerstein (Eds.), Aggression: Theoretical and empirical reviews (Vol. 1): Theoretical and methodological issues (pp. 140). New York, NY: Academic Press.
    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
    Bandura, A. (2009). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (
    3rd
    ed., pp. 94124). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1963). Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 311.
    Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Barak, A., & Fisher, W. A. (1989). Counsellor and therapist gender bias? More questions than answers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20, 377383.
    Barbopoulos, A., Fisharah, F., Clark, J., & El-Khatib, A. (2002). Comparison of Egyptian and Canadian children on a picture apperception test. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8(4), 395403.
    Barker, R. G. (1968). Ecological psychology: Concepts and methods for studying the environment of human behavior. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Barnard, N., & Kursban, M. (2002, August 4). Why fast-food lawsuit is good news. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine Commentary. Retrieved from http://www.pcrm.org/health/Commentary/commentary020804.html
    Baron, R. A., Branscombe, N. R., & Byrne, D. (2008). Social psychology (
    12th
    ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Baron, R. M. (1984, August). A social-psychological perspective on environmental issues. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, ON.
    Baron, R. M., & Fisher, J. D. (1984). The equity-control model of vandalism: A refinement. In C. Lévy-Leboyer (Ed.), Vandalism: Behaviour and motivation (pp. 6375). Amsterdam: North Holland.
    Baron, R. S. (2005). So right it’s wrong: Groupthink and the ubiquitous nature of polarized group decision making. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 219253.
    Bartholomew, K. (1990). Avoidance of intimacy: An attachment perspective. Journal of Personal and Social Relationships, 7, 147178.
    Bateson, M., Nettle, D., & Roberts, G. (2006). Cues of being watched enhance cooperation in a real-world setting. Biology Letters, 2, 412414.
    Baumeister, R. F., & Cairns, K. J. (1992). Repression and self-presentation: When audiences interfere with self-deceptive strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 851862.
    Baumeister, R. F., & Scher, S. J. (1988). Self-defeating behavior patterns among normal individuals: Review and analysis of common self-destructive tendencies. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 322.
    Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2004). Sexual economics: Sex as female resources for social exchange in heterosexual interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 339363.
    Beal, A. C., Ausiello, J., & Perrin, J. M. (2001). Social influences on health-risk behaviors among minority middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28, 474480.
    Beaman, A. L., Barnes, P. J., Klentz, B., & McQuirk, B. (1978). Increasing helping rates through information dissemination: Teaching pays. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4, 406411.
    Beck, A., & Katcher, A. (1996). Between pets and people. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.
    Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Beck, B. L., Koons, S. R., & Milgrim, D. L. (2000). Correlates and consequences of behavioral procrastination: The effects of academic procrastination, self-consciousness, self-esteem and self-handicapping. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 313.
    Becker, J. C., Zawadzki, M. JU., & Shields, S. A., (2014). Confronting and reducing sexism: A call for research on intervention. Journal of Social Issues, 70(4), 603614.
    Becker-Blease, K. A., & Freyd, J. J. (2006). Research participants telling the truth about their lives: The ethics of asking and not asking about abuse. American Psychologist, 61, 218226.
    Beer, M., Ruh, R., Dawson, J. A., McCaa, B. B., & Kavanagh, M. J. (1978). A performance management system: Research, design, introduction and evaluation. Personnel Psychology, 31, 505535.
    Behr, R. L., & Iyengar, S. (1985). Television news, real-world cues, and changes in the public agenda. Public Opinion Quarterly, 49, 3857.
    Benbenishty, R., & Astor, R. A. (2005). School violence in context: Culture, neighborhood, family, school, and gender. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Benjamin, L. T., Jr., & Crouse, E. M. (2002). The American Psychological Association’s response to Brown v. Board of Education. American Psychologist, 57, 3850.
    Bennett, W. W., & Hess, K. M. (2001). Criminal investigation. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Bennington, A. J., Shetler, J. C., & Shaw, T. (2003). Negotiating order in interorganizational communication: Discourse analysis of a meeting of three diverse organizations. The Journal of Business Communication, 40(2), 118143.
    Benokraitis, N. V., & Feagin, J. R. (1995). Modern sexism: Blatant, subtle, and covert discrimination (
    2nd
    ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Benson, E. (2003). Psychology and the prison system: Rehabilitate or punish? APA Monitor, 34(7), 4647.
    Benyamini, Y. (2005). Can high optimism and high pessimism co-exist? Findings from arthritis patients coping with pain. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 14631473.
    Beranek, P. M., & Martz, B. (2005). Making virtual teams more effective: Improving relational links. Team Performance Management, 5/6, 200213.
    Berglas, S., & Jones, E. E. (1978). Drug choice as a self-handicapping strategy in response to noncontingent success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 405417.
    Berkeley, S., Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2011). Reading comprehension strategy instruction and attribution retraining for secondary students with learning and other mild disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44, 1832.
    Berkowitz, A. D. (2004). The social norms approach: Theory, research, and annotated bibliography. Retrieved from http://www.alanberkowitz.com/articles/social_norms.pdf
    Berkowitz, L. (1984). Some effects of thoughts on anti- and prosocial influences of media events: A cognitive-neoassociationistic analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 410427.
    Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 5973.
    Berkowitz, L., & LePage, A. (1967). Weapons as aggression-eliciting stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 202207.
    Berkowitz, L., & Powers, P. C. (1979). Effects of timing and justification of witnessed aggression on the observers’ punitiveness. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 7180.
    Berman, H., Ford-Bilboe, M., Moutrey, B., & Cekic, S. (2001). Portraits of pain and promise: A photographic study of Bosnian youth. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 32, 2141.
    Bernstein, M. J., Young, S. G., & Hugenberg, K. (2007). The cross-category effect: Mere social categorization is sufficient to elicit an own-group bias in face recognition. Psychological Science, 18, 706712.
    Bickman, L. (1981). Some distinctions between basic and applied approaches. In L. Bickman (Ed.), Applied social psychology annual 2 (pp. 2347). Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.
    Bierema, L. L. (2010). Diversity education: Competencies and strategies for educators. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(3), 312331.
    Biglan, A., Mrazek, P. J., Carnine, D., & Flay, B. R. (2003). The integration of research and practice in the prevention of youth problem behaviors. American Psychologist, 58, 433440.
    Bishop, G. D. (1994). Health psychology: Integrating mind and body. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). Practicing positive psychology coaching: Assessments, activities and strategies for success. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Biswas, S., Hussain, M., & O’Donnell, K. (2009). Celebrity endorsements in advertisements and consumer perceptions: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Global Marketing, 22(2), 121137.
    Bjork, R. (2000). Giving away and selling the behavioral sciences. Monitor on Psychology, 9(11), 27.
    Black, M., & Krishnakumar, A. (1998). Children in low income, urban settings: Interventions to promote mental health and well-being. American Psychologist, 53(6), 635646.
    Blackhart, G. C., Nelson, B. C., Knowles, M. L., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). Rejection elicits emotional reactions, but neither causes immediate distress nor lowers self-esteem: A meta-analytic review of 192 studies on social exclusion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 269309.
    Blackman, M. (2002). The employment interview via the telephone: Are we sacrificing accurate personality judgements for cost efficiency? Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 208223.
    Blanchard, A. L. (2008). Testing a model of virtual community. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 21072123.
    Blanton, H., Buunk, B. P., Gibbons, F. X., & Kuyper, H. (1999). When better-than-others compare upward: Choice of comparison and comparative evaluation as independent predictors of academic performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 420430.
    Blass, T. (2004). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Blue, C. L. (1995). The predictive capacity of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior in exercise behavior: An integrated literature review. Research in Nursing and Health, 18, 105121.
    Boehnke, K. (2009). Are parents decisive? The intergenerational transmission of social axioms under conditions of rapid social change. In K. Leung, & M. Bond (Eds.), Psychological aspects of social axioms: Understanding global belief systems. New York, NY: Springer.
    Boehnke, K., & Schwartz, S. (1997). Fear of war: Relations to values, gender, and mental health in Germany and Israel. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 3(2), 149165.
    Boehnke, K., Schwartz, S., Stromberg, C., & Sagiv, L. (1998). The structure and dynamics of worry: Theory, measurement, and cross-national replication. Journal of Personality, 66(5), 745782.
    Boggiano, A. K., Barrett, M., Weiher, A. W., McClelland, G. H., & Lusk, C. M. (1987). Use of the maximal-operant principle to motivate children’s intrinsic interest. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 866879.
    Boissicat, N., Pansu, P., Bouffard, T., & Cottin, F. (2012). Relation between perceived scholastic competence and social comparison mechanisms among elementary school children. Social Psychology of Education, 15, 603614.
    Bond, M. H. (1988). Finding universal dimensions of individual variation in multicultural studies of values: The Rokeach and Chinese value surveys. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 55, 10091015.
    Boon, S. (2005). [Review of the book Applied social psychology: Understanding and addressing social and practical problems]. Canadian Psychology, 46, 251252.
    Bordia, P. (1997). Face-to-face versus computer-mediated communication: A synthesis of the experimental literature. The Journal of Business Communication, 34, 99120.
    Borduin, C. M., Cone, L. T., Mann, B. J., Henggeler, S. W., Fucci, B. R., Blaske, D. M., & Williams, R. A. (1995). Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders: Long-term prevention of criminality and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 569578.
    Börkan, B. (2010). The mode effect in mixed-mode surveys: Mail and web surveys. Social Science Computer Review, 28, 371380.
    Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1: Attachment (
    2nd
    ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books. (Original work published in 1969)
    Bracken, C. C. (2005). Presence and image quality: The case of high-definition television. Media Psychology, 7, 191205.
    Bracken, C. C., & Botta, R. A. (2010). Telepresence and television. In C. C. Bracken & P. D. Skalski (Eds.), Immersed in media: Telepresence in everyday life (pp. 3962). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Bradley, S. D., Angelini, J. R., & Lee, S. (2007). Psychophysiology and memory effects of negative political ads. Journal of Advertising, 36, 115127.
    Braithwaite, J. (2000). Shame and criminal justice. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 42, 281298.
    Brand, R. J., Bonatsos, A., D’Orazio, R., & DeShong, H. (2010). What is beautiful is good, even online: Correlations between photo attractiveness and text attractiveness in men’s online dating profiles. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 166170.
    Brannon, L., Feist, J., & Updegraff, J. A. (2014). Health psychology: An introduction to behaviour and health (
    8th
    ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
    Brawley, L. R., Carron, A. V., & Widmeyer, W. N. (1992). The nature of group goals in sport teams: A phenomenological analysis. The Sport Psychologist, 6, 323333.
    Brawley, L. R., & Paskevich, D. M. (1997). Conducting team building research in the context of sport and exercise. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 9, 1140.
    Bray, C. D., & Whaley, D. E. (2001). Team cohesion, effort, and objective individual performance of high school basketball players. The Sport Psychologist, 15, 260275.
    Brehm, J. W. (1956). Postdecision changes in the desirability of alternatives. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 52, 384389.
    Brehm, J. W., & Cohen, A. R. (1962). Explorations in cognitive dissonance. New York, NY: Wiley.
    Brehm, S., & Brehm, J. W. (1981). Psychological reactance: A theory of freedom and control. New York, NY: Academic Press.
    Brehm, S. S., Kassin, S. M., & Fein, S. (1999). Social psychology (
    4th
    ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Bresnahan, M., Begg, M. D., Brown, A., Schaefer, C., Sohler, N., Insel, B. . . . Susser, E. (2007). Race and risk of schizophrenia in a U.S. birth cohort: Another example of health disparity? International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(4), 751758.
    Brewer, M. B., & Brown, R. J. (1998). Intergroup relations. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vols. 1 & 2,
    4th
    ed., pp. 554594). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Brief, A. P., Umphress, E. E., Dietz, J., Burrows, J. W., Butz, R. M., & Scholten, L. (2005). Community matters: Realistic group conflict theory and the impact of diversity. Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 830844.
    Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513531.
    Brophy, J. E. (1983). Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 631661.
    Broverman, I. K., Broverman, D. M., Clarkson, F. E., Rosenkrantz, P. S., & Vogel, S. R. (1970). Sex role stereotypes and clinical judgments of mental health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 34, 17.
    Brower, S. (1988). Design in familiar places: What makes home environments look good? New York, NY: Praeger.
    Brown, B. B., & Bentley, D. L. (1993). Residential burglars judge risk: The role of territoriality. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 5161.
    Brown, S. P., Cron, W. L., & Leigh, T. W. (1993). Do feelings of success mediate sales performance-work attitude relationships? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21, 9199.
    Brown, S. P., & Peterson, R. A. (1994). Effects of effort on sales performance and job satisfaction. Journal of Marketing, 58, 7080.
    Bruns, E. J., & Walker, J. S. (2008). The resource guide to wraparound. Portland, OR: National Wraparound Initiative, Research and Training Center for Family Support and Children’s Mental Health.
    Bryant, J., Carveth, R. A., & Brown, D. (1981). Television viewing and anxiety: An experimental examination. Journal of Communication, 31(1), 106119.
    Brydon-Miller, M. (1993). Breaking down barriers: Accessibility self-advocacy in the disabled community. In P. Park, M. Brydon-Miller, B. Hall, & T. Jackson (Eds.), Voices of change: Participatory research in the United States and Canada (pp. 125144). Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
    Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97113.
    Buchanan, G. M., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1995). Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Bukszar, E., & Connolly, T. (1988). Hindsight bias and strategic choice: Some problems in learning from experience. Academy of Management Journal, 31, 628641.
    Bullock, J. R. (1992). Children without friends: Who are they and how can teachers help? Childhood Education, 69, 9296.
    Burger, J. M. (2009). Replicating Milgram: Would people still obey today? American Psychologist, 64, 111.
    Burgoon, J. K. (1994). Nonverbal signals. In M. L. Knapp & G. R. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal communication (pp. 229285). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Burk J. P., & Sher, K. J. (1990). Labeling the child of an alcoholic: Negative stereotyping by mental health professionals and peers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 51, 156163.
    Burnam, A., Komarraju, M., Hamel, R., & Nadler, D. R. (2014). Do adaptive perfectionism and self-determined motivation reduce academic procrastination? Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 165172.
    Burnstein, E., & Vinokur, A. (1977). Persuasive argumentation and social comparison as determinants of attitude polarization. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9, 236245.
    Burton, D. (1989). Winning isn’t everything: Examining the impact of performance goals on collegiate swimmers’ cognitions and performance. The Sport Psychologist, 3, 105132.
    Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56, 477489.
    Bushman, B. J., Huesmann, L. R., & Whitaker, J. L. (2009). Violent media effects. In R. L. Nabi & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of media processes and effects (pp. 361376). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Bushman, B. J., & Stack, A. D. (1996). Forbidden fruit versus tainted fruit: Effects of warning labels on attraction to television violence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2, 207226.
    Buss, D. M. (1985). Human mate selection. American Scientist, 73, 4751.
    Buss, D. M. (2008). Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind (
    3rd
    ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Cacioppo, J. T., Cacioppo, S., Gonzaga, G. C., Ogburn, E. L., & VanderWeele, T. J. (2013). Marital satisfaction and break-ups differ across on-line and off-line meeting venues. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(25), 1013510140.
    Cady, S. H., & Valentine, J. (1999). Team innovation and perceptions of consideration: What difference does diversity make? Human Relations, 30, 730750.
    Calhoon, M. B. (2005). Effects of a peer-mediated phonological skill and reading comprehension program on reading skill acquisition for middle school students with reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 424433.
    California Youth Authority. (1997). LEAD: A boot camp and intensive parole program: Final impact evaluation. Sacramento, CA: Department of the Youth Authority.
    Campbell, D. T. (1969). Reforms as experiments. American Psychologist, 24, 409429.
    Campbell, J. D. (1986). Similarity and uniqueness: The effects of attribute type, relevance, and individual differences in self-esteem and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 281294.
    Canadian Psychological Association. (2000). Canadian code of ethics for psychologists (
    3rd
    ed.). Ottawa, ON: Author.
    Cancian, F. M. (1993). Conflicts between activist research and academic success: Participatory research and alternative strategies. The American Sociologist, 24(1), 92106.
    Cantor, J. (2009). Fright reactions to mass media. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (
    3rd
    ed., pp. 287303). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Cantor, J., Harrison, K., & Nathanson, A. I. (1998). Ratings and advisories for television programming. In National television violence study (Vol. 2, pp. 269322). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Cantor, J., Kester, D., & Miller, A. (2000). Amazing results! Teacher expectations and student achievement (TESA) follow-up survey of TESA-trained teachers in 45 states and District of Columbia. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the California Educational Research Association, Santa Barbara, CA.
    Cantor, J., & Nathanson, A. I. (1996). Children’s fright reactions to television news. Journal of Communication, 46(4), 139152.
    Cantor, J., & Sparks, G. G. (1984). Children’s fear responses to mass media: Testing some Piagetian predictions. Journal of Communication, 34(2), 90103.
    Cantor, J., Wilson, B. J., & Hoffner, C. (1986). Emotional reactions to a televised nuclear holocaust film. Communication Research, 13, 257277.
    Cantor, N. (1990). From thought to behavior: “Having” and “doing” in the study of personality and cognition. American Psychologist, 90, 735750.
    Cantril, H., Gaudet, H., & Herzog, H. (1940). The invasion from Mars: A study in the psychology of panic. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Cappella, J. N., & Jamieson, K. H. (1997). Spiral of cynicism: The press and the public good. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Carlson, M., Marcus-Newhall, A., & Miller, N. (1990). Effects of situational aggression cues: A quantitative review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 622633.
    Carnahan, T., & McFarland, S. (2007). Revisiting the Stanford prison experiment: Could participant self-selection have led to the cruelty? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 603614.
    Carpentier, F. D., Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, B. (2008). A test of network models of political priming. Media Psychology, 11, 186206.
    Carron, A. V., & Ball, J. R. (1977). Cause-effect characteristics of the cohesiveness and participation motivation in intercollegiate hockey. International Review of Sport Sociology, 12, 4960.
    Carron, A. V., Brawley, L. R., & Widmeyer, W. N. (1997). The measurement of cohesiveness in sport groups. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
    Carron, A. V., Colman, M., Wheeler, J., & Stevens, D. (2002). Cohesion and performance in sport: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24, 168188.
    Carson, E. A. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
    Cartwright, E. (Ed.). (1951). Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers by Kurt Lewin. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers.
    Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2009). Optimism. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 330342). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S, C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 879889
    Casey-Campbell, M., & Martens, M. L. (2009). Sticking it all together: A critical assessment of the group cohesion-performance literature. International Journal of Management Reviews, 11, 223246.
    Casteel, C., & Peek-Asa, C. (2000). Effectiveness of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) in reducing robberies. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18, 99115.
    Castelli, L., De Dea, C., & Nesdale, D. (2008). Learning social attitudes: Children’s sensitivity to the nonverbal behaviors of adult models during interracial interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 15041513.
    Catalani, C., & Minkler, M. (2010). Photovoice: A review of the literature in health and public health. Health Education and Behavior, 37(3), 424451.
    Catalino, L. I., Furr, R. M., & Bellis, F. A. (2012). A multilevel analysis of the self-presentation theory of social anxiety: Contextualized, dispositional, and interactive perspectives. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 361373.
    Catalyst. (2010). Quick takes: Statistical overview of women in the workplace. New York, NY: Author.
    Center for Consumer Freedom. (2002). Special report: “The first thing we do, let’s kill all the lawyers.” July 26. Retrieved from http://www.consumerfreedom.com/news_detail.cfm/h/1500-special-report-the-first-thing-we-do-lets-kill-all-the-lawyers
    Centerwall, B. S. (1989). Exposure to television as a cause of violence. In G. Comstock (Ed.), Public communication and behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 158). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Chan, R. Y. K., & Lau, L. B. Y. (2002). Explaining green purchasing behavior: A cross-cultural study on American and Chinese consumers. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 14(2–3), 940.
    Chang, E. C., Asakawa, K., & Sanna, L. J. (2001). Cultural variations in optimistic and pessimistic bias: Do Easterners really expect the worst and Westerners really expect the best when predicting future life events? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 476491.
    Chang, E. C., Chang, R., & Sanna, L. J. (2009). Optimism, pessimism, and motivation: Relations to adjustment. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3/4, 494506.
    Chang, L. (1999). Gender egalitarian attitudes in Beijing, Hong Kong, Florida, and Michigan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 722742.
    Chansky, T. E., & Kendall, P. C. (1997). Social expectancies and self-perceptions in anxiety-disordered children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11, 347363.
    Charlton, T., Gunter, B., & Hannan, A. (2002). Broadcast television effects on a remote community. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Chase, M. A., Feltz, D. L., & Lirgg, C. D. (2003). Sources of collective and individual efficacy of collegiate athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1, 180191.
    Cheavens, J. S., Feldman, D., Gum, A., Michael, S. T., & Snyder, C. R. (2006). Hope therapy in a community sample: A pilot investigation. Social Indicators Research, 77, 6178.
    Checkoway, B. (1995). Six strategies of community change. Community Development Journal, 30(1), 220.
    Chemers, M. M., Hu, L., & Garcia, B. F. (2001). Academic self-efficacy and first-year college student performance and adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 5564.
    Chen, M. -W., Froehle, T., & Morran, K. (1997). Deconstructing dispositional bias in clinical inference: Two interventions. Journal of Counseling & Development, 76, 7481.
    Cheung, S. F., & Chan, D. K. -S., & Wong, Z. S. -Y. (1999). Reexamining the theory of planned behavior in understanding wastepaper recycling. Environment and Behavior, 31(5), 587612.
    Choy, O., Farrington, D. P., & Raine, A. (2014). The need to incorporate autonomic arousal in developmental and life-course research and theories. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, 1, 189207.
    Christenfeld, R., Wagner, J., Pastva, G., & Acrish, W. P. (1989). How physical settings affect chronic mental patients. Psychiatric Quarterly, 60, 253264.
    Christensen, L. B. (2004). Experimental methodology (
    9th
    ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
    Cialdini, R. B., Cacioppo, J. T., Bassett, R., & Miller, J. A. (1978). Low-ball procedure for producing compliance: Commitment then cost. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 436476.
    Cialdini, R. B., Demaine, L. J., Sagarin, B. J., Barrett, D. W., Rhoads, K., & Winter, P. L. (2006). Managing social norms for persuasive impact. Social Influence, 1, 315.
    Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J. (2004). Social influence: Compliance and conformity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 591621.
    Cialdini, R. B., Kallgren, C. A., & Reno, R. R. (1991). A focus theory of normative conduct: A theoretical refinement and reevaluation of the role of norms in human behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 201234.
    Cialdini, R. B., Trost, M. R., & Newsom, J. T. (1995). Preference for consistency: The development of a valid measure and the discovery of surprising behavioral implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 318328.
    Classification and Rating Administration. (2011). Rating rules. Retrieved from http://www.filmratings.com/filmratings_cara/#/ratings/rules
    Cline, R. J. W., & Haynes, K. M. (2001). Consumer health information seeking on the internet: The state of the art. Health Education Research, 16(6), 671692.
    Coates, R., Miller, A., & Ohlin, L. (1978). Diversity in a youth correctional system. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Cobb, H. C., Reeve, R. E., Shealy, C. N., Norcross, J. C., Schare, M. L., Rodolfa, E. R. . . . Hall, M. (2004). Overlap among clinical, counseling, and school psychology: Implications for the profession and combined-integrated training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60, 939955.
    Cohen, A. (2010). Values and commitment: A test of Schwartz’s human values theory among Arab teachers in Israel. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(8), 19211947.
    Cohen, A. K. (1960). Delinquent boys. New York, NY: The Free Press.
    Cohen, S., & Wills, T. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310357.
    Cokley, K. (2000). An investigation of academic self-concept and its relationship to academic achievement in African American college students. Journal of Black Psychology, 26, 148164.
    Cokley, K. (2002). Ethnicity, gender, and academic self-concept: A preliminary examination of academic disidentification and implications for psychologists. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8, 378388.
    Cokley, K., McClain, S., Jones, M., & Johnson, S. (2011). A preliminary investigation of academic disidentification, racial identity, and academic achievement among African American adolescents. The High School Journal, 95, 5468.
    Cokley, K., & Moore, P. (2007). Moderating and mediating effects of gender and psychological disengagement on the academic achievement of African American college students. Journal of Black Psychology, 33, 169187.
    Cokley, K., & Patel, N. (2007). A psychometric investigation of the academic self-concept of Asian American college students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 67, 8899.
    Cole, E. R. (2009). Intersectionality and research in psychology. American Psychologist, 64(3), 170180.
    Collett, D. (1971). Training Englishmen in the nonverbal behavior of Arabs. International Journal of Psychology, 6, 209215.
    Condry, J. C., & Condry, S. (1976). Sex differences: A study of the eye of the beholder. Child Development, 47, 812819.
    Conger, J. A. (1991). Inspiring others: The language of leadership. Academy of Management Executive, 5, 3145.
    Conner, M., & Armitage, C. J. (1998). Extending the theory of planned behavior: A review and avenues for further research. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(15), 14291464.
    Connolly, J. J., & Viswesvaran, C. (2000). The role of affectivity in job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 265281.
    Converse, P. D., Wolfe, E. W., Huang, X., & Oswald, F. L. (2008). Response rates for mixed-mode surveys using mail and e-mail/web. American Journal of Evaluation, 29, 99107.
    Conway, D. (1973). Social science and design: A process model for architect and social scientist collaboration. Washington, DC: American Institute of Architects.
    Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Cooper, J., & Axsom, D. (1982). Effort justification in psychotherapy. In G. Weary & H. Mirels (Eds.), Integrations of clinical and social psychology (pp. 214230). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Copeland, B. L., & Straub, W. F. (1995). Assessment of team cohesion: A Russian approach. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 81, 443450.
    Coren, S. (1993). When teaching is evaluated on political grounds. Academic Questions, 6, 7379.
    Correll, J., & Park, B. (2005). A model of the ingroup as a social resource. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 341359.
    Corrigan, P., & Penn, D. (1999). Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatric stigma. American Psychologist, 54, 765778.
    Corrigan, P. W. (2007). How clinical diagnosis might exacerbate the stigma of mental illness. Social Work, 52(1), 3139.
    Cose, E. (1994, July 11). Drawing up safer cities. Newsweek, p. 57.
    Cotton, J. L., & Tuttle, J. M. (1986). Employee turnover: A meta-analysis and review with implications for research. Academy of Management Review, 11(1), 5570.
    Cottrell, W. (2011). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=William_Cottrell&oldid=411990111
    Couper, M. P. (2000). Web surveys: A review of issues and approaches. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64, 464494.
    Couper, M. P., & Miller, P. V. (2008). Web survey methods: Introduction. Public Opinion Quarterly, 72, 831835.
    Couper, M. P., Tourangeau, R., & Conrad, F. G. (2004). What they see is what they get: Response options for web surveys. Social Science Computer Review, 22, 111127.
    Cox, T. H. (1991). The multicultural organization. Academy of Management Executive, 5, 3444.
    Cox, T. H., & Blake, S. (1991). Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness. Academy of Management Executive, 5, 4556.
    Cozby, P. C. (2009). Methods in behavioral research (
    10th
    ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
    Cramer, K. M., & Lafreniere, K. D. (2003). Wedding preparation stress: Results of a pilot study. Guidance and Counselling, 19, 1827.
    Crano, W. D., & Brewer, M. B. (2002). Principles and methods of social research (
    2nd
    ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Crawford, N. (2003). Web site puts out information on reproductive health. Monitor on Psychology, 34(2), 17. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/feb03/website.html
    Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 140, 139167.
    Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (
    2nd
    ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (
    3rd
    ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Crisp, R. J., & Turner, R. N. (2009). Can imagined interactions produce positive perceptions? Reducing prejudice through simulated social contact. American Psychologist, 64, 231240.
    Crocetti, G., Spiro, H., & Siassi, H. (1973). Contemporary attitudes toward mental illness. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Crowell, D. H. (1987). Childhood aggression and violence: Contemporary issues. In D. H. Crowell, I. M. Evans, & C. R. O’Donnell (Eds.), Childhood aggression and violence: Sources of influence, prevention, and control (pp. 1752). New York, NY: Plenum.
    Cunha, M., Jr., & Caldieraro, F. (2009). Sunk-cost effects on purely behavioral investments. Cognitive Science, 33,105113.
    Cunningham, I. J., & Eys, M. A. (2007). Role ambiguity and intra-team communication in interdependent sport teams. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 22202237.
    Dabbs, J. M., Carr, T. S., Frady, R. L., & Riad, J. K. (1995). Testosterone, crime, and misbehavior among 692 male prison inmates. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 627633.
    Dale, G. A., & Wrisberg, C. A. (1996). The use of a performance profiling technique in a team setting: Getting athletes and coaches on the “same page.” The Sport Psychologist, 10, 261277.
    D’Alessio, S., & Stolzenberg, L. (1990). A crime of convenience: The environment and convenience store robbery. Environment and Behavior, 22, 255271.
    Dalton, J., Elias, M., & Wandersman, A. (2007). Community psychology: Linking individuals and communities (
    2nd
    ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Danzinger, P. R., & Welfel, E. R. (2000). Age, gender and health bias in counselors: An empirical analysis. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22, 135149.
    Darcy, K., Davila, J., & Beck, J. G. (2005). Is social anxiety associated with both interpersonal avoidance and interpersonal dependence? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(2), 171186.
    Darley, J., & Latané, B. (1970). The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn’t he help? New York, NY: Appleton Century Crofts.
    Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 377383.
    Das, E., Bushman, B. J., Bezemer, M. D., Kerkhof, P., & Vermeulen, I. E. (2009). How terrorism news reports increase prejudice against outgroups: A terror management account. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 453459.
    Davis, J. H. (1992). Some compelling intuitions about group consensus decisions, theoretical and empirical research, and interpersonal aggregation phenomena: Selected examples, 19501990. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 52, 338.
    Davison, K., Pennebaker, J., & Dickerson, S. (2000). Who talks? The social psychology of illness support groups. American Psychologist, 55, 205217.
    Dawe, S. W. L., & Carron, A. V. (1990, October). Interrelationships among role acceptance, role clarity, task cohesion, and social cohesion. Paper presented at the Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology, Windsor, Ontario.
    Dawes, R. M. (1973). The commons dilemma game: An N-person mixed motive game with a dominating strategy for defection. ORI Research Bulletin, 13, 112.
    Dawes, R. M. (1980). Social dilemmas. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 169193.
    DeAngelis, T. (2008). Psychologists’ expertise in human behavior is increasingly welcomed in many nontraditional career settings. Monitor on Psychology, 39(4), 6571.
    DeAngelis, T. (2009). Changing the way we see one another. Monitor on Psychology, 40, 5457.
    Dearing, J. W., & Rogers, E. M. (1996). Agenda setting. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 105115.
    Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
    Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Self-determination theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology, Volume one (pp. 416437). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    DeLeon, P. H. (2002). Presidential reflections: Past and future. American Psychologist, 57, 425430.
    Dennis, A. R., Rennecker, J. A., & Hansen, S. (2010). Invisible whispering: Restructuring collaborative decision making with instant messaging. Decision Sciences, 41, 845886.
    DePaulo, B. M., Kenny, D. A., Hoover, C. W., Webb, W., & Oliver, P. (1987). Accuracy of person perception: Do people know what kinds of impressions they convey? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 303315.
    DePaulo, B. M., Lindsay, J. J., Malone, B. E., Muhlenbruck, L., Charlton, K., & Cooper, H. (2003). Cues to deception. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 74112.
    DePaulo, P. (1992). Applications of nonverbal behavior research in marketing and management. In R. Feldman (Ed.), Applications of nonverbal behavioral theories and research (pp. 6387). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    DeSanctis, G., & Monge, P. (1999). Introduction to the special issue: Communication processes for virtual organizations. Organization Science, 10(6), 693703.
    Desforges, D. M., Lord, C. G., Ramsey, S. L., Mason, J. A., Van Leeuwen, M. D., West, S. C., & Lepper, M. R. (1991). Effects of structured cooperative contact on changing negative attitudes toward stigmatized social groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 531544.
    Deshpande, S., Basil, M. D., & Basil, D. Z. (2009). Factors influencing healthy eating habits among college students: An application of the health belief model. Health Marketing Quarterly, 26, 145164.
    DeSteno, D., Dasgupta, N., Bartlett, M. Y., & Cajdric, A. (2004). Prejudice from thin air: The effect of emotion on automatic intergroup attitudes. Psychological Science, 15, 319324.
    Deutsch, M. (1969). Socially relevant science: Reflections on some studies of interpersonal conflict. American Psychologist, 24, 10761092.
    Deutsch, M. (1973). The resolution of conflict. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Deutsch, M., & Gerard, H. B. (1955). A study of normative and social influences upon individual judgment. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 629636.
    Devellis, B. M., Blalock, S., & Sandler, R. (1990). Predicting participation in cancer screening: The role of perceived behavioral control. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 639660.
    Devine, D., Forehand, R., Morse, E., Simon, P., Clark, L., & Kernis, M. (2000). International Journal of Rehabilitation and Health, 5, 141156.
    de Visser, R. O., Graber, R., Hart, A., Abraham, C., Scanlon, T., Watten, P., & Memon, A. (2015). Using qualitative methods within a mixed-methods approach to developing and evaluating interventions to address harmful alcohol use among young people. Health Psychology, 34, 349360.
    Devos-Comby, L., & Salovey, P. (2002). Applying persuasion strategies to alter HIV-relevant thoughts and behavior. Review of General Psychology, 6, 287304.
    De Vries, H., Backbier, E. H., Kok, G., & Dijkstra, M. (1995). The impact of social influences in the context of attitude, self-efficacy, intention, and previous behavior as predictors of smoking onset. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(3), 237257.
    Diamond, S. S., Peery, D., Dolan, F. J., & Dolan, E. (2009). Achieving diversity on the jury: Jury size and the peremptory challenge. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 6, 425449.
    DiBerardinis, J. D., Barwind, J., Flanningam, R. R., & Jenkins, V. (1983). Enhanced interpersonal relation as predictor of athletic performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 14, 243251.
    Dickerson, C., Thibodeau, R., Aronson, E., & Miller, D. (1992). Using cognitive dissonance to encourage water conservation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 841854.
    Diefenbach, D. (1997). The portrayal of mental illness on prime time television. Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 289302.
    DiFonzo, N., Hantula, D. A., & Bordia, P. (1998). Microworlds for experimental research: Having your (control and collection) cake, and realism too. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 30, 278286.
    Dijkstra, M., De Dreu, C., Evers, A., & van Dierendonck, D. (2009). Passive responses to interpersonal conflict at work amplify employee strain. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18(4), 405423.
    Dijkstra, P., Kuyper, H., van der Werf, G., Buunk, A. P., & van der Zee, Y. G. (2008). Social comparison in the classroom: A review. Review of Educational Research, 78, 828879.
    Dillman, D. A. (2000). Mail and Internet surveys: The tailored design method (
    2nd
    ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
    DiMatteo, M. R., & Martin, L. R. (2002). Health psychology. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Dion, K. K., Berscheid, E., & Walster, E. (1972). What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 285290.
    Dishion, T. J., & Piehler, T. F. (2007). Peer dynamics in the development and change of child and adolescent problem behavior. In A. S. Masten (Ed.), Multilevel dynamics in developmental psychopathology: Pathways to the future. Minnesota symposia on child psychology (pp. 151180). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group/Erlbaum.
    Dishion, T. J., Spracklen, K. M., Andrews, D. W., & Patterson, G. R. (1996). Deviancy training in male adolescent friendships. Behavior Therapy, 27, 373390.
    Donaldson, G., & Lorsch, J. (1983). Decision making at the top. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Donnerstein, E., & Berkowitz, L. (1981). Victim reactions in aggressive erotic films as a factor in violence against women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 710724.
    Doornwaard, S. M., Bickham, D. S., Rich, M., ter Bogt, T. F. M., & van den Eijnden, R., J. J. M. (2015). Adolescents’ use of sexually explicit internet material and their sexual attitudes and behavior: Parallel development and directional effects. Developmental Psychology, 51(10), 14761488.
    Dovidio, J. F. (2001). On the nature of contemporary prejudice: The third wave. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 829849.
    Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2000). Aversive racism and selection decisions: 1989 and 1999. Psychological Science, 11, 315319.
    Dowling, C. G. (2000, August 14). Mistaken identity. People, pp. 5055.
    Drabman, R. S., & Thomas, M. H. (1974). Does media violence increase children’s toleration of real-life aggression? Developmental Psychology, 10, 418421.
    Drapaski, A. L., Lucksted, A., Perrin, P. B., Aakre, J. M., Brown, C. H., DeForge, B. R., & Boyd, J. E. (2013). A model of internalized stigma and its effects on people with mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 64, 264269.
    Driskell, J. E., Radtke, P. H., & Salas, E. (2003). Virtual teams: Effects of technological mediation on team performance. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, 7, 297323.
    Dryburgh, H. (2001). Changing our ways: Why and how Canadians use the internet. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/56f0006x/56f0006x2000001-eng.pdf
    Duck, W. O. (2012). An ethnographic portrait of a precarious life: Getting by on less. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 642, 124138.
    Duffy, K. G., & Wong, F. Y. (2003). Community psychology (
    3rd
    ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Dunham, P., Hurshman, A., Litwin, E., Gusella, J., Ellsworth, C., & Dodd, P. (1998). Computer mediated social support: Single young mothers as a model system. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26, 281290.
    Dunkerley, K. J., & Robinson, W. P. (2002). Similarities and differences in perceptions and evaluations of the communication styles of American and British managers. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 21(4), 393409.
    Dunn, S. W. (2009). Candidate and media agenda setting in the 2005 Virginia gubernatorial election. Journal of Communication, 59, 635652.
    DuPaul, G. J., Ervin, R. A., Hook, C. L., & McGoey, K. E. (1998). Peer tutoring for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Effects on classroom behavior and academic performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 579592.
    Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
    Ebbeson, E. B., Kjos, G. L., & Konecni, V. J. (1976). Spatial ecology: Its effects on the choice of friends and enemies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 505518.
    Eccles, D. W., & Tenenbaum, G. (2007). A social cognitive perspective on team functioning in sport. Handbook of Sport Psychology (
    3rd
    ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Eddy, J. M., Reid, J. B., & Fetrow, R. A. (2001). An elementary school-based prevention program targeting modifiable antecedents of youth delinquency and violence: Linking the interests of families and teachers (LIFT). In H. M. Walker & M. H. Epstein (Eds.), Making schools safer and violence free: Critical issues, solutions, and recommended practices (pp. 128139). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Edley, N. (2001). Unravelling social constructionism. Theory and Psychology, 11(3), 433441.
    Edwards, D. L., Schoenwald, S. K., Henggeler, S. W., & Strother, K. B. (2001). A multilevel perspective on the implementation of multisystemic therapy (MST): Attempting dissemination with fidelity. In G. A. Bernfeld, D. P. Farrington, & A. W. Leschied (Eds.), Offender rehabilitation in practice: Implementing and evaluating effective programs (pp. 97120). New York, NY: Wiley.
    Edwards, J. R. (1991). Person-job fit: A conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique. In C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 283357). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Efran, M. G. (1974). The effects of physical appearance on the judgment of guilt, interpersonal attraction, and severity of recommended punishment in a simulated jury task. Journal of Research in Personality, 8, 4554.
    Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (2003). A motivational analysis of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping. Journal of Personality, 71, 369396.
    Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501519.
    Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York, NY: Lyle Stuart.
    Ellsworth. P. C. (1991). To tell what we know or wait for Godot? Law and Human Behavior, 15, 205224.
    Ellsworth, P. C., & Mauro, R. (1998). Psychology and law. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (pp. 684732). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
    Emrich, C., Brower, H. H., Feldman, J. M., & Garland, H. (2001). Images in words: Presidential rhetoric, charisma, and greatness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, 527557.
    Engel, G. L. (1977). The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196, 129136.
    Engelhardt, C. R., Bartholow, B. D., Kerr, G. T., & Bushman, B. J. (2011). This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 10331036.
    Eronen, S., Nurmi, J.-E., & Salmela-Aro, K. (1998). Optimistic, defensive-pessimistic, impulsive and self-handicapping strategies in university environments. Learning and Instruction, 8, 159177.
    Erturan-İlker, G. (2014). Effects of feedback on achievement goals and perceived motivational climate in physical education. Issues in Education Research, 24, 152161.
    Esses, V. M., & Webster, C. D. (1988). Physical attractiveness, dangerousness, and the Canadian Criminal Code. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 10171031.
    Evans, G. W., & McCoy, J. M. (1998). When buildings don’t work: The role of architecture in human health. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 8594.
    Evans, M. J., & Moore, J. S. (2013). Peer tutoring with the aid of the Internet. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44, 144155.
    Ewoldsen, D. R., Eno, C. A., Okdie, B. M., Velez, J., Guadagno, R. E., & DeCoster, J. (2012). Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 277280.
    Eys, M. A., Patterson, M. M., Loughead, T. M., & Carron, A. V. (2006). Team building in sport. In J. Duda, D. Hackfort, & R. Lidor (Eds.), Handbook of research in applied sport psychology: International perspectives (pp. 219231). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
    Farina, A., & Felner, R. D. (1973). Employment interviewer reactions to former mental patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82(2), 268272.
    Farina, A., & Ring, K. (1965). The influence of perceived mental illness on interpersonal relations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70(1), 4751.
    Feingold, A. (1990). Gender differences in effects of physical attractiveness in romantic attraction: A comparison across five research paradigms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 981993.
    Felmlee, D. (2001). No couple is an island: A social stability network perspective on dyadic stability. Social Forces, 79, 12591287.
    Feltz, D. L., & Chase, M. A. (1998). The measurement of self-efficacy and confidence in sport. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advancements in sport and exercise psychology measurement (pp. 6580). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
    Feltz, D. L., & Lirgg, C. D. (1998). Perceived team and player efficacy in hockey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 557564.
    Fenton, R., & O’Leary, N. (1990, February). Improving student achievement through enhancing the instructional communication competence of teachers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Communication and Instruction Division of the Western States Communication Association, Phoenix, Arizona.
    Fernández, M. J., Guàrdia-Olmos, J., & Peró-Cebollero, M. (2014). Qualitative methods of data analysis in psychology: An analysis of the literature. Qualitative Research, 14, 2036.
    Ferrari, J. R. (2001). Procrastination as self-regulation failure of performance: Effects of cognitive load, self-awareness, and time limits on “working best under pressure.” European Journal of Personality, 15, 391406
    Feshbach, S. (1961). The stimulating versus cathartic effects of vicarious aggressive activity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 381385.
    Fessel, F., Epstude, K., & Roese, N. J. (2009). Hindsight bias redefined: It’s about time. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110, 5664.
    Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117140.
    Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Festinger, L. (1999). Reflections on cognitive dissonance 30 years later. In E. Harmon-Jones & J. Mills (Eds.), Cognitive dissonance: Progress on a pivotal theory in social psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203210.
    Festinger, L., Schachter, S., & Back, K. W. (1950). Social pressures in informal groups: A study of human factors in housing. New York, NY: Harper.
    Filstead, W. J. (1979). Qualitative methods: A needed perspective in evaluation research. In T. D. Cook & C. S. Reichardt (Eds.), Qualitative and quantitative methods in evaluation research (pp. 3348). Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.
    Finkel, E. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (2010). Attraction and rejection. In R. F. Baumeister & E. J. Finkel (Eds.), Advanced social psychology: The state of the science (pp. 419459). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Fischer, R., & Smith, P. B. (2003). Reward allocation and culture: A meta-analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(3), 251268.
    Fischoff, B. (1975). Hindsight is not foresight: The effect of outcome knowledge on judgment under uncertainty. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1, 288299.
    Fisher, B. A. (1978). Perspectives on human communication. New York, NY: Macmillan.
    Fisher, R. J. (1982). Social psychology: An applied approach. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
    Fisher, R. J. (1990). The social psychology of intergroup and international conflict resolution. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
    Fisher, R. P. (2010). Interviewing cooperative witnesses. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15(1), 2538.
    Fisher, R. P., & Geiselman, R. E. (1992). Memory-enhancing techniques in investigative interviewing: The cognitive interview. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
    Fisher, R. P., Geiselman, R. E., & Raymond, D. S. (1987). Critical analysis of police interview techniques. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 15, 177185.
    Fisher, R. P., & Schreiber, N. (2007). Interviewing protocols to improve eyewitness memory. In M. Toglia, J. Reed, D. Ross, & R. Lindsay (Eds.), The handbook of eyewitness psychology: Volume 1. Memory for events (pp. 5380). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Fiske, S. T. (1993). Social cognition and social perception. In E. W. Porter & M. R. Rosenzweig (Eds.), Annual review of psychology (pp. 155194). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Fiske, S. T., Xu, J., & Cuddy, A. C. (1999). (Dis)respecting versus (dis)liking: Status and interdependence predict ambivalent stereotypes of competence and warmth. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 473489.
    Fitchen, C. S., & Amsel, R. A. (1986). Trait attribution about college students with a physical disability: Circumplex analyses and methodological issues. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16(5), 410427.
    Fitzpatrick, S. E., Reddy, S., Lommel, T. S., Fischer, J. G., Speer, E. M., Stephens, H., Park, S., & Johnson, M. A. (2008). Physical activity and physical function improved following a community-based intervention in Georgia senior centers. Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 27, 135154.
    Flanagan, E. H., Blashfield, R. K. (2005). Gender acts as a context for interpreting diagnostic criteria. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(12), 14851498.
    Foa, U. G., & Foa, E. B. (1974). Societal structures of the mind. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
    Fointiat, V. (2004). ‘I know what I have to do, but. . .’ When hypocrisy leads to behavioral change. Social Behavior and Personality, 32(8), 741746.
    Folkes, V. S. (1982). Forming relationships and the matching hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 631636.
    Forsterling, F. (2001). Attribution: An introduction to theories, research and applications. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
    Forston, R. F., & Larson, C. U. (1968). The dynamics of space: An experimental study in proxemic behavior among Latin Americans and North Americans. Journal of Communication, 18, 109116.
    Forsyth, D. R. (1999). Group dynamics (
    4th
    ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Foster-Fishman, P., Nowell, B., Deacon, Z., Nievar, M. A., & McCann, P. (2005). Using methods that matter: The impact of reflection, dialogue, and voice. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36(3/4), 275291.
    Fournier, D. M. (2005). Evaluation. In S. Mathison (Ed.), Encyclopedia of evaluation (pp. 139140). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Fowler, F. J. (1998). Design and evaluation of survey questions. In L. Bickman & D. J. Rog (Eds.), Handbook of applied social research methods (pp. 343374). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Freedman, J., Cunningham, J., & Krismer, K. (1992). Inferred values and the reverse-incentive effect in induced compliance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 357368.
    Freijy, T., & Kothe, E. J. (2013). Dissonance-based interventions for health behaviour change: A systematic review. British Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 310337.
    Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Seabury.
    Freud, S. (1935). A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York, NY: Liveright.
    Fried, C., & Aronson, E. (1995). Hypocrisy, misattribution, and dissonance reduction: A demonstration of dissonance in the absence of aversive consequences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 925933.
    Fried, Y., & Ferris, G. R. (1987). The validity of the job characteristics model: A review and meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 40, 287322.
    Friedlander, M. L., & Stockman, S. J. (1983). Anchoring and publicity effects in clinical judgment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 637643.
    Friedman, H. S. (2002). Health psychology (
    2nd
    ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Friedman, L. C., Kalidas, M., Elledge, R., Chang, J., Romero, C., Husain, I., . . . Liscum, K. R. (2006). Optimism, social support and psychosocial functioning among women with breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 15, 595603.
    Frisco, M. L. (2005). Parental involvement and young women’s contraceptive use. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 110121.
    Frye, C. M. (1996). New evidence for the job characteristics model: A meta-analysis of the job characteristics-job satisfaction relationship using composite correlations. Paper presented at the 11th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.
    Funder, D. C., & Ozer, D. J. (1983). Behavior as a function of the situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 107112.
    Funk, J. B., Baldacci, H. B., Pasold, T., & Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violence exposure in real-life video games, television, movies, and the Internet: Is there desensitization? Journal of Adolescence, 27, 2339.
    Furlong, M., & Morrison, G. (2001). The school in school violence: Definitions and facts. In H. M. Walker & M. H. Epstein (Eds.), Making schools safer and violence free: Critical issues, solutions, and recommended practices (pp. 516). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Gable, S. L., Gonzaga, G. C., & Strachman, A. (2006). Will you be there for me when things go right? Supportive responses to positive event disclosures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 904917.
    Gadd, J. (2003, June 3). Matti kicked like a “rag doll,” trial told. The National, p. A11.
    Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (1986). The aversive form of racism. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination and racism (pp. 6181). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. F., Rust, M. C., Nier, J. A., Banker, B. S., Ward, C. M., . . Houlette, M. (1999). Reducing intergroup bias: Elements of intergroup cooperation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 388402.
    Gamble, J. A. (2008). A developmental evaluation primer. Montreal, Canada: J. W. McConnell Family Foundation.
    Gallant, M., & Maticka-Tyndale, E. (2004). School-based HIV prevention programmes for African youth. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 13371351.
    Gamson, W. A., & Sifry, M. L. (2013). The #Occupy Movement: An introduction. The Sociological Quarterly, 54(2), 159163.
    Garb, H. N. (2005). Clinical judgment and decision making. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 6789.
    Garb, H. N. (2010). The social psychology of clinical judgment. In J. E. Maddux & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Social psychological foundations of clinical psychology (pp. 297311). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Gardner, D. E., Light-Shields, D. L., Bredemeier, B. J., & Bostrom, A. (1996). The relationship between perceived coaching behaviors and team cohesion among baseball and softball players. Sport Psychologist, 10, 367381.
    Gardner, R., Ostrom, E., & Walker, J. (1990). The nature of common-pool resource problems. Rationality & Society, 2, 335358.
    Gardner, R. M., & Dalsing, S. (1986). Misconceptions about psychology among college students. Teaching of Psychology, 13, 3234.
    Gatehouse, J. (2003, June 9). The good news about the bad news. Maclean’s, 2022.
    Gaudiano, B. A., & Herbert, J. D. (2003). Preliminary psychometric evaluation of a new self-efficacy scale and its relationship to treatment outcome in social anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 537555.
    Gaudiano, B. A., Herbert, J. D. (2007). Self-efficacy for social situations in adolescents with generalized social anxiety disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 35(2), 209223.
    Geen, R. G. (2001). Human aggression. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
    Gelfand, M., Nishii, L., Holcombe, K., Dyer, N., Ohbuchi, K., & Fukuno, M. (2001). Cultural influences on cognitive representation of conflict: Interpretations of conflict episodes in the United States and Japan. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 10591074.
    Gendreau, P., Little, T., & Goggin, C. (1996). A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works! Criminology, 34, 575607.
    Genesee, F., & Holobow, N. E. (1989). Change and stability in intergroup perceptions. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 8(1), 1738.
    Gentile, D. A., Anderson, C. A., Yukawa, S., Ihori, N., Saleem, M., Ming, L. K., . . . Sakamoto, A. (2009). The effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behaviors: International evidence from correlational, longitudinal, and experimental studies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 752763.
    Genuis, S. K., Willows, N., Alexander First Nation, & Jardine, C. (2015). Through the lens of our cameras: Children’s lived experience with food security in a Canadian Indigenous community. Child: Care, Health and Development, 41(4), 600610.
    George, T. R., & Feltz, D. L. (1995). Motivation in sport from a collective efficacy perspective. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 98116.
    Gerard, H. B., & Mathewson, G. C. (1966). The effects of severity of initiation on liking for a group: A replication. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2, 278287.
    Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., Signorielli, N., & Shanahan, J. (2002). Growing up with television: Cultivation processes. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (
    2nd
    ed., pp. 4368). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Gergen, K. J. (1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. American Psychologist, 40, 266275.
    Gibbons, F. X., Lane, D. J., Gerrard, M., Reis-Bergen, M., Lautrup, C. L., Pexa, N. A., & Blanton, H. (2002). Comparison-level preferences after performance: Is downward comparison theory still useful? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 865880.
    Gifford, J., & Gifford, R. (2000). FISH 3: A microworld for studying social dilemmas and resource management. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 32(3), 417442.
    Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental psychology: Principles and practice (
    4th
    ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.
    Gifford, R. (2008). Psychology’s essential role in climate change. Canadian Psychology, 49, 273280.
    Gifford, R. (2011). The dragons of inaction: Psychological barriers that limit climate change mitigation and adaptation. American Psychologist, 66, 290302.
    Gifford, R. (2014). Environmental psychology: Principles and practice (
    5th
    ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.
    Gifford, R., & Comeau, L. (2011). Message framing influences perceived climate change competence, engagement, and behavioral intentions. Global Environmental Change, 21, 13011307.
    Gifford, R., & Hine, D. W. (1997). “I’m cooperative, but you’re greedy”: Some cognitive tendencies in a commons dilemma. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 29, 257265.
    Gifford, R., & Martin, M. (1991). A multiple sclerosis centre program and post-occupancy evaluation. In W. F. E. Preiser & J. Vischer (Eds.), Design innovation: The challenge of cultural change. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    Gilbert, D. T., & Malone, P. S. (1995). The correspondence bias. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 2138.
    Gilbert, D. T., Pelham, B. W., & Krull, D. S. (1988). On cognitive busyness: When person perceivers meet persons perceived. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 733740.
    Giles, D. (2003). Media psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Gillespie, B. M., Chaboyer, W., Longbottom, P., & Wallis, M. (2010). The impact of organizational and individual factors on team communication in surgery: A qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47, 732741.
    Gillham, J. E. (Ed.). (2000). The science of optimism and hope: Research essays in honor of Martin E. P. Seligman. Philadelphia, PA: Templeton Foundation.
    Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Freres, D. R., Chaplin, T. M., Shatté, A. J., Samuels, B. . . . Seligman, M. E. (2007). School-based prevention of depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled study of the effectiveness and specificity of the Penn Resiliency Program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 919.
    Gilmour, H., & Hofmann, N. (2010). H1N1 vaccination. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 82-003-XPE Health Reports, 21, 17.
    Gilson, L. L., Maynard, M. T., Jones Young, N. C., Vartiainen, M., & Hakonen, M. (2014). Virtual teams research: 10 years, 10 themes, and 10 opportunities. Journal of Management, 41, 13131337.
    Ginsburg-Block, M. D., Rohrbeck, C. A., & Fantuzzo, J. W. (2006). A meta-analytic review of social, self-concept, and behavioral outcomes of peer-assisted learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 732749.
    Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
    Glaze, L. E., & Kaebel, D. (2014). Correctional populations in the United States, 2013. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus13.pdf
    Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 491512.
    Goddard, M. J. (2011). On being possibly sane in possibly insane places. Psychiatric Services, 62(8), 831832.
    Godin, G., & Kok, G. (1996). The theory of planned behavior: A review of applications to health-related behaviors. American Journal of Health Promotion, 11(2), 8798.
    Goh, J. X., & Hall, J. A. (2015). Nonverbal and verbal expressions of men’s sexism in mixed-gender interactions. Sex Roles, 72, 252261.
    Gonzales, M. H., Aronson, E., & Costanzo, M. A. (1988). Using social cognition and persuasion to promote energy conservation: A quasi-experiment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 10491066.
    Gonzalez-Navarro, P., Orengo, V., Zornoza, A., Ripoll, P., & Peiro, J. M. (2010). Group interaction style in a virtual context: The effects of group outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 14721480.
    Good, J. J., & Sanchez, D. T. (2010). Doing gender for different reasons: Why gender conformity positively and negatively predicts self-esteem. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34, 203214.
    Goodwin, C. J. (2003). Research in psychology: Methods and design. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Goodwin, R. (1999). Personal relationships across cultures. London, UK: Routledge.
    Goodwin, R., & Tang, D. (1991). Preferences for friends and close relationship partners: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Social Psychology, 131, 579581.
    Gordon, M. E., & Stewart, L. P. (2009). Conversing about performance: Discursive resources for the appraisal interview. Management Communication Quarterly, 22, 473501.
    Gottfredson, D. C., Marciniak, E., Birdseye, A. T., & Gottfredson, G. D. (1991). Increasing teacher expectations for student achievement: An evaluation. Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on Effective Schooling for Disadvantaged Students.
    Gottfredson, N. C., Panter, A. T., Daye, C. E., Allen, W. A., Wightman, L. F., & Deo, M. E. (2008). Does diversity at undergraduate institutions influence student outcomes? Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 1, 8094.
    Gozenbach, W. J. (1996). The media, the president, and public opinion: A longitudinal analysis of the drug issue, 1984–1991. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Graham, J., Koo, M., & Wilson, T. D. (2011). Conserving energy by inducing people to drive less. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41, 106118.
    Graham, J. W., Marks, G., & Hansen, W. B. (1991). Social influence processes affecting adolescent substance use. Journal of Applied Psychology, 7, 291298.
    Grandpre, J., Alvaro, E. M., Burgoon, M., Miller, C. H., & Hall, J. R. (2003). Adolescent reactance and anti-smoking campaigns: A theoretical approach. Health Communication, 15, 349366.
    Grant, J. D. (1980). From “living learning” to “learning to live”: An extension of social therapy. In H. Toch (Ed.), Therapeutic communities in corrections (pp. 4149). Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Grau, U., Möller, J., & Gunnarsson, J. I. (1988). A new concept of counseling: A systemic approach for counseling coaches in team sports. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 37, 6583.
    Greenlees, I. A., Graydon, J. K., & Maynard, I. W. (2000). The impact of individual efficacy beliefs on group goal selection and group goal commitment. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 451459.
    Greenlees, I. A., Nunn, R. L., Graydon, J. K., & Maynard, I. W. (1999). The relationship between collective efficacy and pre-competitive affect in rugby players: Testing Bandura’s model of collective efficacy. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 89, 431440.
    Greitemeyer, T., & Osswald, S. (2010). Effects of prosocial games on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 98, 211221.
    Grieve, F. G., Whelan, J. P., & Meyes, A. W. (2000). An experimental examination of the cohesion-performance relationship in an interactive team sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12, 219235.
    Griffin, M. A., Neal, A., & Parker, S. K. (2007). A new model of work role performance: Positive behavior in uncertain and interdependent contexts. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 327347.
    Griffiths, C. T., & Cunningham, A. C. (2000). Canadian corrections. Scarborough, ON: Nelson.
    Gross, A. E. (1983). Date selection: The all-important first meeting. Unpublished manuscript.
    Gruman, J. A., Lumley, M. N., & Gonzalez-Morales, G. (2016). Incorporating balance: Challenges and opportunities for positive psychology. Manuscript submitted for publication. Research
    Guay, F., Marsh, H. W., & Boivin, M. (2003). Academic self-concept and academic achievement: Developmental perspectives on their causal ordering. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 124136.
    Gunter, B. (2002). Media sex: What are the issues? Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Gurung, R. A. R. (2014). Health psychology: A cultural approach (
    3rd
    ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
    Gutkowski, S., Ginath, Y., & Guttman, F. (1992). Improving psychiatric environments through minimal architectural change. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 920923.
    Hackett, R. D., & Guion, R. M. (1985). A reevaluation of the absenteeism-job satisfaction relationship. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 35, 340381.
    Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 250279.
    Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., Barkoukis, V., Wang, J. C. K., Hein, V., Pihu, M., Soos, I., & Karsai, I. (2007). Cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior among young people in a physical activity context. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 120.
    Haines, M. P. (1996). A social norms approach to preventing binge drinking at colleges and universities (Publication No. ED/OPE/96-18). Newton, MA: The Higher Education Centre for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention.
    Haines, M. P. (2003). The Northern Illinois University experiment: A longitudinal case study of the social norms approach. In H. W. Perkins (Ed.), The social norms approach to preventing school and college age substance abuse: A handbook for educators, counselors, and clinicians (pp. 2134). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Hald, G. M., Malamuth, N. M., & Yuen, C. (2010). Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: Revisiting the relationship in nonexperimental studies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 1420.
    Halpern-Felsher, B. L., & Millstein, S. G. (2002). The effects of terrorism on teens’ perceptions of dying: The new world is riskier than ever. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 308311.
    Hamermesh, D. S., & Biddle, J. E. (1994). Beauty and the labor market. American Economic Review, 84, 11741195.
    Hamermesh, D. S., & Parker, A. M. (2005). Beauty in the classroom: Instructors’ pulchritude and putative pedagogical productivity. Economics of Education Review, 24, 369376.
    Hamon, R. R., & Ingoldsby, B. B. (Eds.). (2003). Mate selection across cultures. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Ham-Rowbottom, K. A., Gifford, R., & Shaw, K. T. (1999). Defensible space theory and the police: Assessing the vulnerability of residencies to burglary. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 117129.
    Han, H., Hsu, L., & Sheu, C. (2010). Application of the theory of planned behavior to green hotel choice: Testing the effect of environmental friendly activities. Tourism Management, 31(3), 325334.
    Haney, C., Banks, W. C., & Zimbardo, P. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in a simulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 6997.
    Haney, C., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2009). Persistent dispositionalism in interactionist clothing: Fundamental attribution error in explaining prison abuse. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 807814.
    Hanin, Y. (1992). Social psychology and sport: Communication processes in top performance teams. Sport Science Review, 1, 1328.
    Hansen, S., Meissler, K., & Ovens, R. (2000). Kids together: A group play therapy model for children with ADHD symptomatology. Journal of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy, 10, 191211.
    Hanze, M., & Berger, R. (2007). Cooperative learning, motivational effects, and student characteristics: An experimental study comparing cooperative learning and direct instruction in 12th grade physics classes. Learning and Instruction, 17, 2941.
    Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., & Elliott, A. J. (1998). Rethinking achievement goals: When are they adaptive for college students and why? Educational Psychologist, 33, 121.
    Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Pintrich, P. R., Elliott, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2002a). Revision of achievement goal theory: Necessary and illuminating. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 638645.
    Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J.M., & Elliott, A. J. (2002b). Predicting success in college: A longitudinal study of achievement goals and ability measures as predictors of interest and performance from freshman year through graduation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 562575.
    Hardeman, W., Johnston, M., Johnston, D. W., Bonetti, D., Wareham, N. J., & Kinmonth, L. (2002). Application of the theory of planned behaviour in behaviour change interventions: A systematic review. Psychology and Health, 17(2), 123158.
    Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 12431248.
    Harmon-Jones, E., & Mills, J. (Eds.). (1999). Cognitive dissonance: Progress on a pivotal theory in social psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (1999). Tales from the screen: Enduring fright reactions to scary media. Media Psychology, 1, 97116.
    Hart, K. E., & Sasso, T. (2011). Mapping the contours of contemporary positive psychology. Canadian Psychology, 52, 8292.
    Harter, S. (1982). The perceived competence scale for children. Child Development, 53(1), 8797.
    Harvey, M. L., Loomis, R. J., Bell, P. A., & Marino, M. (1998). The influence of museum exhibit design on immersion and psychological flow. Environment and Behavior, 30, 601627.
    Hasel, L. E., & Kassin, S. M. (2009). On the presumption of evidentiary independence: Can confessions corrupt eyewitness identifications? Psychological Science, 20, 122126.
    Haslam, S. A., Reicher, S. D., & Birney, M. E. (2014). Nothing by mere authority: Evidence that in an experimental analogue of the Milgram paradigm participants are motivated not by orders but by appeals to science. Journal of Social Issues, 70, 473488.
    Hass, R. G., Katz, I., Rizzo, N., Bailey, J., & Eisenstadt, D. (1991). Cross-racial appraisal as related to attitude ambivalence and cognitive complexity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 8392.
    Hatfield, E., & Sprecher, S. (1986). Mirror, mirror . . . The importance of looks in everyday life. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Hazlett, A., Molden, D., & Sackett, A. M. (2011). Hoping for the best or preparing for the worst? Regulatory focus and preferences for optimism and pessimism in predicting personal outcomes. Social Cognition, 29, 7496.
    Hearold, S. (1986). A synthesis of 1,043 effects of television on social behavior. In G. Comstock (Ed.), Public communication and behavior (Vol. 1, pp. 66135). Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.
    Heerwegh, D., & Loosveldt, G. (2008). Face-to-face versus web surveying in a high-Internet-coverage population: Differences in response quality. Public Opinion Quarterly, 72, 836846.
    Hegelson, V. S., & Cohen, S. (1996). Social support and adjustment to cancer: Reconciling descriptive, correlational, and intervention research. Health Psychology, 15, 135148.
    Heiman, G. W. (2002). Research methods in psychology (
    3rd
    ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Heine, S. J., & Lehman, D. R. (1997). Culture, dissonance, and self-affirmation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 389400.
    Heinrichs, N., Rapee, R. M., Alden, L. A., Bogels, S., Hofmann, S. G., Oh, K. J., & Sakano, Y. (2006). Cultural differences in perceived social norms and social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(8), 11871197.
    Hendricks, B., Marvel, M. K., & Barrington, B. L. (1990). The dimensions of psychological research. Teaching of Psychology, 17, 7682.
    Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Borduin, C. M., Rowland, M. D., & Cunningham, P. B. (2009). Multisystemic therapy for antisocial behavior in children and adolescents (
    2nd
    ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Hennessey, B. A., & Zbikowski, S. M. (1993). Immunizing children against the negative effects of reward: A further examination of intrinsic motivation training techniques. Creativity Research Journal, 6, 297307.
    Hennessy, J., & West, M. A. (1999). Intergroup behaviour in organizations: A field test of social identity. Small Group Research, 30, 361382.
    Hennigan, K. M., Del Rosario, M. L., Heath, L., Cook, T., Wharton, J. D., & Calder, B. J. (1982). Impact of the introduction of television on crime in the United States: Empirical findings and theoretical implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 461477.
    Hennigan, K. M., Flay, B. R., & Cook, T. D. (1980). “Give me the facts”: Some suggestions for using social science knowledge in national policy-making. In R. F. Kidd & M. J. Saks (Eds.), Advances in applied social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 113145). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Henry, D. B. (2001). Classroom context and the development of aggression: The role of normative processes. In F. Columbus (Ed.), Advances in psychology research (Vol. 6, pp. 193213). Huntington, NY: Nova Science.
    Henry, S. (2009). School violence beyond Columbine: A complex problem in need of an interdisciplinary analysis. American Behavioral Scientist, 52, 12461265.
    Hensley, T. R., & Griffin, G. W. (1986). Victims of groupthink. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 30, 497531.
    Herzberg, P. Y., Glaesmer, H., & Hoyer, J. (2006). Separating optimism and pessimism: A robust psychometric analysis of the Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Psychological Assessment, 18, 433438.
    Herzog, T. A. (2008). Analyzing the transtheoretical model using the framework of Weinstein, Rothman, and Sutton (1998): The example of smoking cessation. Health Psychology 27(5), 548556.
    Heuze, J. P., & Fontayne, P. (2002). A French language instrument for measuring team cohesion. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24, 4267.
    Hicks, D. J. (1965). Imitation and retention of film-mediated aggressive peer and adult models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 97100.
    Hill, C., Memon, A., & McGeorge, P. (2008). The role of confirmation bias in suspect interviews: A systematic evaluation. Law and Criminological Psychology, 13, 357371.
    Hill, D. M., & Shaw, G. (2013). A qualitative examination of choking under pressure in team sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 103110.
    Hilt, L. M. (2003). Attribution retraining for therapeutic change: Theory, practice, and future directions. Imagination, Cognition, & Personality, 23, 289307.
    Hilton, J. L., & von Hipple, W. (1996). Stereotypes. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 237271.
    Hine, D. W., & Gifford, R. (1996). Attributions about self and others in commons dilemmas. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 429445.
    Hine, D. W., & Gifford, R. (1997). What harvesters really think about in commons dilemma simulations: A grounded theory analysis. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 29, 179193.
    Hinsz, V. B., Tindale, R. S., & Vollrath, D. A. (1997). The emerging conceptualization of groups as information processors. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 4364.
    Hirt, E. R., & Markman, K. D. (1995). Multiple explanation: A consider-an-alternative strategy for debiasing judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 10691086.
    Hirt, E. R., McCrea, S. M., & Kimble, C. E. (2000). Public self-focus and sex differences in behavioral self-handicapping: Does increasing self-threat still make it “just a man’s game”? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 11311141.
    Hitsch, G., & Ariely, D. (2007, October). What makes you click? Mate preferences and matching outcomes in the Internet age. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, Chicago, IL.
    Hobden, K. L., & Olson, J. M. (1994). From jest to antipathy: Disparagement humor as a source of dissonance-motivated attitude change. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 15, 239249.
    Hochschild, A. (1989). The second shift: Working parents and the revolution at home. New York, NY: Viking Penguin.
    Hodges, L., & Carron, A. V. (1992). Collective efficacy and group performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 23, 4859.
    Hodges, S. D., Klaaren, K. J., & Wheatley, K. (2000). Talking about safe sex: The role of expectations and experience. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 330349.
    Hodgins, S., Kratzer, L., & McNeil, T. F. (2002). Are pre- and postnatal factors related to the development of criminal offending? In R. R. Corrado, R. Roesch, S. D. Hart, & J. K. Gierowski (Eds.), Multi-problem violent youth (pp. 5880). Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.
    Hoekstra, S. J., Harris, R. J., & Helmick, A. L. (1999). Autobiographical memories about the experience of seeing frightening movies in childhood. Media Psychology, 1, 117140.
    Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London, UK: McGraw-Hill.
    Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences (
    2nd
    ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.
    Hofstede, G. (2010). The GLOBE debate: Back to relevance. Journal of International Business Studies, 41, 13391346.
    Hoge, R. D. (2001). The juvenile offender: Theory, research, and application. Boston, MA: Kluwer.
    Høigaard, R., Säfvenbom, R., & Tønnessen, F. E. (2006). The relationship between group cohesion, group norms, and perceived social loafing in soccer teams. Small Group Research, 37, 217232.
    Holahan, C. J. (1972). Seating patterns and patient behavior in an experimental dayroom. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 80, 115124.
    Holahan, C. J. (1983). Interventions to reduce environmental stress: Enhancing social support and personal control. In E. Siedman (Ed.), Handbook of social interventions (pp. 542560). Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.
    Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213218.
    Holton, A., Weberling, B., Clarke, C. E., & Smith, M. J. (2012). The blame frame: Media attribution of culpability about the MMR-autism vaccination scare. Health Communication, 27(7), 690701.
    Homan, A. C., Buengeler, C., Eckhoff, R. A., van Ginkel, W. P., & Voelpel, S. C. (2015). The interplay of diversity training and diversity beliefs on team creativity in nationality diverse teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(5), 14561467.
    Hooper, J., & Reid, D. H. (1985). A simple environmental re-design for improving classroom performance of profoundly retarded students. Education and Treatment of Children, 8, 2539.
    Horn, T., Byrd, M., Martin, E., & Young, C. (2012). Perceived motivational climate and team cohesion in adolescent athletes. Sport Science Review, 21(3–4), 2548.
    Horselenberg, R., Merckelbach, H., Smeets, T., Franssens, D., Peters, G.-J. Y., & Zeles, G. (2006). False confessions in the lab: Do plausibility and consequence matter? Psychology, Crime, and Law, 12(1), 6175.
    Hoshino-Browne, E., Zanna, A. S., Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., Kitayama, S., & Lackenbauer, S. (2005). On the cultural guises of cognitive dissonance: The case of Easterners and Westerners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 294310.
    House, R. J. (1971). A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, 321338.
    Houston, D. A., & Doan, K. (1999). Can you back that up? Evidence (or lack thereof) for the effects of negative and positive political communication. Media Psychology, 1, 191206.
    Houston, D. A., Doan, K., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R. (1999). Negative political advertising and choice conflict. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 5, 316.
    Houston, D. A., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R. (1998). The cancellation-and-focus model of choice and preferences for political candidates. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 20, 305312.
    Hovland, C. I., Janis, I. L., & Kelly, H. H. (1953). Communication and persuasion: Psychological studies of opinion change. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Howard, D. J., Gengler, C. E., & Jain, A. (1997). The name remembrance effect: A test of alternative explanations. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 12, 801810.
    Howard, J. L., & Ferris, G. R. (1996). The employment interview context: Social and situational influences on interviewer decisions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26(2), 112136.
    Howell, A. J., & Watson, D. C. (2007). Procrastination: Associations with achievement goal orientation and learning strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 167178.
    Hoyt, J. L. (1970). Effect of media violence “justification” on aggression. Journal of Broadcasting, 14, 455464.
    Huang, W., & Li, D. (2007). Opening up the black box in GSS research: Explaining group decision outcome with group processes. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 5878.
    Hudley, C., Graham, S., & Taylor, A. (2007). Reducing aggressive behavior and increasing motivation in school: The evolution of an intervention to strengthen school adjustment. Educational Psychology, 42, 251260.
    Huesmann, L. R., Eron, L. D., Klein, R., Brice, P., & Fischer, P. (1983). Mitigating the imitation of aggressive behaviors by changing children’s attitudes about media violence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 899910.
    Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C. L., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children’s exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977–1992. Developmental Psychology, 39, 201221.
    Huguet, P., Dumas, F., Monteil, J. M., & Genestoux, N. (2001). Social comparison choices in the classroom: Further evidence for students’ upward comparison tendency and its beneficial impact on performance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 557578.
    Hui, C-M, & Hui, N. H-H. (2009). The mileage from social axioms: Learning from the past and looking forward. In K. Leung, & M. Bond (Eds.), Psychological aspects of social axioms: Understanding global belief systems. New York, NY: Springer.
    Hulin, C. L., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Job attitudes. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 255276). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Hunt, M. E. (1985). Enhancing a building’s imageability. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 2, 151168.
    Hunt, M. E. (1991). The design of supportive environments for older people. Special Issue: Congregate housing for the elderly: Theoretical, policy, and programmatic perspectives. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 9, 127140.
    Hyde, J. S. (1991). Half the human experience: The psychology of women (
    4th
    ed.). Toronto, ON: Heath.
    Iaffaldano, M. T., & Muchinsky, P. M. (1985). Job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 251273.
    Ilies, R., & Judge, T. A. (2003). On the heritability of job satisfaction: The mediating role of personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 750759.
    Imada, T., & Kitayama, S. (2010). Social eyes and choice justification: Culture and dissonance revisited. Social Cognition, 28, 589608.
    Inbau, F. E., Reid, J. E., Buckley, J. P., & Jayne, B. C. (2013). Criminal interrogation and confessions (
    5th
    ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
    Inciardi, J. A., Martin, S. S., & Butzin, C. A. (2004). Five-year outcomes of therapeutic community treatment of drug-involved offenders after release from prison. Crime & Delinquency, 50, 88107.
    Innocence Project. (2016). The causes of wrongful conviction. Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/
    Intons-Peterson, M. J., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, B. (1989). Mitigating the effects of violent pornography. In S. Gubar & J. Hoff (Eds.), For adult users only: The dilemma of violent pornography. Bloomington, IN: University Press.
    Intons-Peterson, M. J., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., Thomas, L., Shirley, M., & Blut, D. (1989). Will educational materials reduce negative effects of exposure to sexual violence? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 8, 256275.
    Isen, A. M., & Baron, R. A. (1991). Positive affect as a factor in organizational behavior. Research in Organizational Behavior, 13, 153.
    Ivory, J. D., & Kalyanaraman, S. (2007). The effects of technological advancement and violent content in video games on players’ feelings of presence, involvement, physiological arousal, and aggression. Journal of Communication, 57, 532555.
    Iyengar, S. (1991). Is anyone responsible? How television frames political issues. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Iyengar, S., & Kinder, D. R. (1987). News that matters. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Iyengar, S., & Ottati, V. (1994). Cognitive perspectives on political psychology. In R. S. Wyer, Jr., & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition (
    2nd
    ed., Vol. 2, pp. 143187). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Iyengar, S., & Simon, A. (1993). News coverage of the Gulf Crisis and public opinion: A study of agenda-setting, priming, and framing. Communication Research, 20, 365383.
    Jackson, K. M., & Aiken, L. S. (2000). A psychosocial model of sun protection and sunbathing in young women: The impact of health beliefs, attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy for sun protection. Health Psychology, 19, 469478.
    Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. New York, NY: Random House.
    James, J. R., & Tetrick, L. E. (1986). Confirmatory analytic tests of three causal models relating job perceptions to job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 7782.
    Jane, J. S., Oltmanns, T. F., South, S. C., & Turkheimer, E. (2007). Gender bias in diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: An item response theory analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 166175.
    Janis, I. L. (1983). Groupthink: Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes (
    2nd
    ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Janis, I. L. (1996). Groupthink. In J. Billsberry (Ed.), The effective manager: Perspectives and illustrations (pp. 166178). London, UK: SAGE.
    Janis, I. L. (2007). Groupthink. In R. P. Vecchio (Ed.), Leadership: Understanding the dynamics of power and influence in organizations (
    2nd
    ed., pp. 157169). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Janz, N. K., & Becker, M. H. (1984). The health belief model: A decade later. Health Education Quarterly, 11, 147.
    Jason, L. A., & Rose, T. (1984). Influencing the passage of child passenger restraint legislation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 12(4), 485495.
    Jenkins-Hall, K., & Sacco, W. P. (1991). Effect of client race and depression on evaluations by white therapists. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 322333.
    Johns, G., & Saks, A. M. (2001). Organizational behaviour: Understanding and managing life at work (
    5th
    ed.). Toronto, Canada: Addison Wesley Longman.
    Johnson, J. G., Han, Y. S., Douglas, C. J. Johannet, C. M., & Russell, T. (1998). Attributions for positive life events predict recovery from depression among psychiatric inpatients: An investigation of the Needles and Abramson model of recovery from depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 369376.
    Johnson-Cartee, K. S., & Copeland, G. A. (1991). Negative political advertising. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Johnston, A. C., Worrell, J. L., Di Gangi, P. M., & Wasko, M. (2013). Online health communities: An assessment of the influence of participation and patient empowerment outcomes. Information Technology & People, 26(2), 213235.
    Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (1999). National survey results on drug use from the Monitoring the Future study, 1975–1998: Vol. 2. College students and young adults (NIH Publication No. 99-4661). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Joiner, T. E., Steer, R. A., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Schmidt, N. B. (2001). Hopelessness depression as a distinct dimension of depressive symptoms among clinical and non-clinical samples. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 523526.
    Joinson, C. (1999, May). Teams at work. HR Magazine, 44(5), 3036.
    Jones, C. J., Smith, H., & Llewellyn, C. (2014). Evaluating the effectiveness of health belief model interventions: A systematic review. Health Psychology Review, 8(3), 253269.
    Jones, E. E. (1998). Major developments in five decades of social psychology. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (
    4th
    ed., Vol. 1, pp. 357). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
    Jones, E. E., & Harris, V. A. (1967). The attribution of attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 3, 124.
    Jones, E. E., & Nisbett, R. E. (1972). The actor and the observer: Divergent perceptions of the causes of behavior. In E. E. Jones, D. E. Kanouse, H. H. Kelley, R. E. Nisbett, S. Valins, & B. Weiner (Eds.), Attribution: Perceiving the causes of behavior (pp. 7994). Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
    Jones, J. M. (1997). Prejudice and racism (
    2nd
    ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Jones, L. M., & Foley, L. A. (2003). Educating children to decategorize racial groups. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 554564.
    Jones, M. (1953). The therapeutic community: A new treatment method in psychiatry. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Josephson, W. L. (1987). Television violence and children’s aggression: Testing the priming, social script, and disinhibition predictions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 882890.
    Joshi, A. (2006). The influence of organizational demography on the external networking behavior of teams. The Academy of Management Review, 31, 583595.
    Jowett, S., & Chaundy, V. (2004). An investigation into the impact of coach leadership and coach-athlete relationship on group cohesion. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 8(4), 3023011.
    Joy, L. A., Kimball, M. M., & Zabrack, M. L. (1986). Television and children’s aggressive behavior. In T. M. Williams (Ed.), The impact of television: A natural experiment in three communities (pp. 303360). New York, NY: Academic Press.
    Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluation traits, self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 8092.
    Judge, T. A., Heller, D., & Mount, M. K. (2002). Five-factor model of personality and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 530541.
    Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction-job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127(3), 376407.
    Jussim, L., & Harber, K. D. (2005). Teacher expectations and self-fulfilling prophecies: Knowns and unknowns, resolved, and unresolved controversies. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 131155.
    Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1972). Subjective probability: A judgment of representativeness. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 430454.
    Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1982). The psychology of preferences. Scientific American, 39, 341350.
    Kalokerinos, E. K., von Hipple, C., & Zacher, H., (2014). Is stereotype threat a useful construct for Organizational Psychology research and practice? Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 7, 381402.
    Kane, T. D., Marks, M. A., Zaccaro, S. J., & Blair, V. (1996). Self-efficacy, personal goals, and wrestlers’ self-regulation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18, 3648.
    Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaefer, C., & Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 139.
    Karasawa, M. (1991). Toward an assessment of social identity: The structure of group identification and its effects on in-group evaluations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 30(4), 293307.
    Kashima, Y., Siegal, M., Tanaka, K., & Kashima, E. S. (1992). Do people believe behaviours are consistent with attitudes? Towards a cultural psychology of attribution processes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 111124.
    Kassin, S. M. (2015). The social psychology of false confessions. Social Issues and Policy Review, 9(1), 2551.
    Kassin, S. M., Bogart, D., & Kerner, J. (2012). Confessions that corrupt: Evidence from the DNA exoneration case files. Psychological Science, 23, 4145.
    Kassin, S. M., Drizin, S. A., Grisso, T., Gudjonsson, G. H., Leo, R. A., & Redlich, A. D. (2010). Police-induced confessions: Risk factors and recommendations. Law and Human Behavior, 34, 338.
    Kassin, S. M., Dror, I., & Kukucka, J. (2013). The forensic confirmation bias: Problems, perspectives, and proposed solutions. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 2, 4252.
    Kassin, S. M., & Kiechel, K. L. (1996). The social psychology of false confessions: Compliance, internalization, and confabulations. Psychological Science, 7, 125128.
    Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1966). The social psychology of organizations. New York, NY: Wiley.
    Kawakami, K., & Dion, K. L. (1995). Social identity and affect as determinants of collective action: Toward an integration of relative deprivation and social identity theories. Theory and Psychology, 5(4), 551577.
    Kazdin, A. E. (2009). Psychological science’s contributions to a sustainable environment. American Psychologist, 64(5), 339356.
    Keil, L. J., McClintock, C. G., Kramer, R., & Platow, M. J. (1990). Children’s use of social comparison standards in judging performance and their effects on self-evaluation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 15, 7591.
    Kelley, H. H. (1973). The process of causal attribution. American Psychologist, 28, 107128.
    Kelly, H. K., & Thibault, J. W. (1978). Interpersonal relationships: A theory of interdependence. New York, NY: Wiley.
    Kelly, S., & Collett, J. L. (2008). From C. P. Ellis to school integration: The social psychology of conflict reduction. Sociology Compass, 2, 16381634.
    Kennedy, D. (1991). The young child’s experience of space and child care center design: A practical meditation. Children’s Environments Quarterly, 8, 3748.
    Kennedy, D. M., Vozdolska, R. R., & McComb, S. A. (2010). Team decision making in computer supported cooperative work: How initial computer-mediated or face-to-face meetings set the stage for later outcomes. Decision Sciences, 41, 933954.
    Kenrick, D. T., & Funder, D. C. (1988). Profiting from controversy: Lessons from the person-situation debate. American Psychologist, 43, 2334.
    Kerman, S., Kimball, T., & Martin, M. (1980). Teacher expectations and student achievement: Coordinator manual. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa.
    Kerr, S. K., Walker, W. R., Warner, D. A., & McNeill, B. W. (2004). Counselor trainees’ assessment and diagnosis of lesbian clients with dysthymic disorder. 15, 1126.
    Killion, C. M., & Wang, C. C. (2000). Linking African American mothers across life stage and station through Photovoice. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 11(3), 310325.
    Kim, N. S., & Ahn, W. (2002). Clinical psychologists’ theory-based representations of mental disorders predict their diagnostic reasoning and memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 131(4), 451476.
    Kim, R. K., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 2633.
    Kim, Y. K., & Lee, H. R. (2009). Airline employee’s service behavior toward different nationalities. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(3), 454465.
    Kimmel, A. J. (2004). Ethical issues in social psychology research. In C. Sansone, C. C. Morf, & A. T. Panter (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of methods in social psychology (pp. 4570). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Kingston, D. A., Malamuth, N. M., Fedoroff, P., & Marshall, W. L. (2009). The importance of individual differences in pornography use: Theoretical perspectives and implications for treating sexual offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 46, 216232.
    Kingston, K. M., & Hardy, L. (1997). Effects of different types of goals on processes that support performance. Sport Psychologist, 11, 277293.
    Kipnis, D. (1997). Ghosts, taxonomies, and social psychology. American Psychologist, 52, 205212.
    Kirby, B. J. (1999). Income source and race effects on new-neighbor evaluations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 14971511.
    Kitayama, S., Snibbe, A. C., Markus, H. R., & Suzuki, T. (2004). Is there any “free” choice? Cognitive dissonance in two cultures. Psychological Science, 15, 527533.
    Klare, M. (2001). Resource wars: The new landscape of global conflict. New York, NY: Henry Holt.
    Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 915931.
    Klaver, J. R., Lee, Z., & Rose, V. G. (2008). Effects of personality, interrogation techniques and plausibility in an experimental false confession paradigm. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 13, 7188.
    Kluemper, D. H., Little, L. M., & DeGroot, T. (2009). State or trait: Effects of state optimism on job-related outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 209231.
    Kneidinger, L. M., Maple, T. L., & Tross, S. A. (2001). Touching behavior in sport: Functional components, analysis of sex differences, and ethological considerations. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25, 4362.
    Knox, R. E., & Inkster, J. A. (1968). Post-decision dissonance at post time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 319323.
    Knox, S., Schlosser, L. Z., Pruitt, N. T., & Hill, C. E. (2006). A qualitative examination of graduate advising relationships: The advisor perspective. The Counselling Psychologist, 34, 489518.
    Koch, H. (1970). The panic broadcast. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
    Köhnken, G. (1996). Social psychology and the law. In G. R. Semin & K. Fiedler (Eds.), Applied social psychology (pp. 257281). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Komorita, S. S., & Parks, C. D. (1994). Social dilemmas. Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark.
    Kondowe, E. B., & Mulera, D. (1999). A cultural approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care: Malawi’s experience. UNESCO: The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
    Konovsky, M. A., & Organ, D. W. (1996). Dispositional and contextual determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 253266.
    Kowalski, R. M., Giumetti, G. W., Schroeder, A. N., & Lattanner, M. R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 10731137.
    Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S22S30.
    Kozub, S. A., & McDonnell, J. F. (2000). Exploring the relationship between cohesion and collective efficacy in rugby teams. Journal of Sport Behavior, 23, 120129.
    Kraus, S. J. (1997). Attitudes and the prediction of behavior: A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 5875.
    Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukopadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? American Psychologist, 53, 10171031.
    Kristoff, A. L. (1996). Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49, 149.
    Krone, K. J., Jablin, F. M., & Putnam, L. L. (1987). Communication theory and organizational communication: Multiple perspectives. In F. M. Jablin, L. L. Putnam, K. H. Roberts, & L. W. Porter (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 1840). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Krosnick, J. A., & Brannon, L. A. (1993). The impact of the Gulf War on the ingredients of presidential evaluations: Multidimensional effects of political involvement. American Political Science Review, 87, 963975.
    Krueger, J. I., & Funder, D. C. (2004). Toward a balanced social psychology: Causes, consequences and cures for the problem-seeking approach to social behavior and cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 313376.
    Krueger, J., Ham, J. J., & Linford, K. M. (1996). Perceptions of behavioral consistency: Are people aware of the actor-observer effect? Psychological Science, 7, 259264.
    Krupat, E., & Kubzansky, P. E. (1987). Designing to deter crime. Psychology Today, 21, 5861.
    Kubiak, S. P. (2009). Assessing the therapeutic environment in hybrid models of treatment: Prisoner perceptions of staff. Journal of Offenders Rehabilitation, 48, 85100.
    Kubisch, A. C., Auspos, P., Brown, P., & Delwar, T. (2010). Voices from the field: Lessons and challenges from two decades of community change efforts. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute.
    Kukucka, J., & Kassin, S. M. (2014). Do confessions taint perceptions of handwriting evidence? An empirical test of the forensic confirmation bias. Law and Human Behavior, 38, 5670.
    Kunda, Z. (1999). Social cognition: Making sense of people. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    Kuo, B. C. H., Kwantes, C. T., Towson, S., & Nanson, K. (2006). Generalized social beliefs as determinants of attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help among ethnically-diverse university students, Canadian Journal of Counselling, 40(4), 224241.
    Kurlychek, M. C. (2010). Transforming attitudinal change into behavioral change: The missing link. Criminology & Public Policy, 9, 119125.
    Kwak, H., Zinkhan, G. M., & Dominick, J. R. (2002). The moderating role of gender and compulsive buying tendencies in the cultivation effects of TV shows and TV advertising: A cross cultural study between the United States and South Korea. Media Psychology, 4, 77111.
    Kwantes, C. T. (2003). Organizational citizenship and withdrawal behaviors in the U.S.A. and India: Does commitment make a difference? International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 3, 526.
    Kwantes, C. T., Karam, C. M., Kuo, B. C. H., & Towson, S. (2008). Organizational citizenship behaviours: The influence of culture. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32, 229243.
    Kyllo, L. B., & Landers, D. M. (1995). Goal setting in sport and exercise: A research synthesis to resolve the controversy. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 117137.
    Ladd, G. W., Price, J. M., & Hart, C. H. (1988). Predicting preschoolers’ peer status from their playground behaviors and peer contacts. Child Development, 59, 986992.
    Lafreniere, K. D., Ledgerwood, D. M., & Docherty, A. L. (1997). Influences of leaving home, perceived family support, and gender on the transition to university. Guidance and Counselling, 12, 1418.
    La Greca, A. M., & Stone, W. L. (1993). Social Anxiety Scale for Children—Revised: Factor structure and concurrent validity. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22(1), 1727.
    Lamb, M. E., Orbach, Y., Hershkowitz, I., Esplin, P. W., & Horowitz, D. (2007). A structured forensic interview protocol improves the quality and informativeness of investigative interviews with children: A review of research using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol, Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 12011231.
    Lambert, W. E. (1992). Challenging established views on social issues: The power and limitations of research. American Psychologist, 47(4), 533542.
    Lane, D. J., & Gibbons, F. X. (2007). Social comparison and satisfaction: Students’ reactions after exam feedback predict future academic performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 13631384.
    Langdon, P. E., Cosgrave, N., & Tranah, T. (2004). Social climate within an adolescent medium-security facility. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 48, 504515.
    Langlois, J. H., Kalakanis, L., Rubenstein, A. J., Larson, A., Hallam, A., & Smoot, M. (2000). Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 390423.
    Lansing, J. B., & Marans, R. W. (1969). Evaluation of neighborhood quality. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35, 195199.
    Lapidot-Lefler, N., & Dolev-Cohen, M. (2015). Comparing cyberbullying and school bullying among school students: Prevalence, gender, and grade level differences. Social Psychology of Education, 18, 16.
    Lassiter, G. D., Ware, L. J., Ratcliff, J. J., & Irvin, C. R. (2009). Evidence of the camera perspective bias in authentic videotaped interrogations: Implications for emerging reform in the criminal justice system. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 14, 157170.
    Latané, B., & Nida, S. (1981). Ten years of research on group size and helping. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 308324.
    Latham, G. P., & Pinder, C. C. (2005). Work motivation theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Annual Review of Psychology, 56(1), 485516.
    Lau, R. R., Jacobs Quadrel, M., & Hartman, K. A. (1990). Development and change of young adults’ preventive health beliefs and behavior: Influence from parents and peers. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31, 240259.
    Lausic, D., Tennebaum, G., Eccles, D., Jeong, A., & Johnson, T. (2009). Intrateam communication and performance in doubles tennis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80, 281290.
    Lawler, E. E., III, & Porter, L. W. (1967). The effect of performance on job satisfaction. Industrial Relations, 7, 2028.
    Lawrence, J. S., Crocker, J., & Dweck, C. S. (2005). Stereotypes negatively influence the meaning students give to academic settings. In G. Downey, J. S. Eccles, & C. M. Chatman (Eds.), Navigating the future: Social identity, coping, and life tasks (pp. 2343). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer.
    Lazarus, R. S., & Launier, R. (1978). Stress-related transactions between person and environment. In L. A. Pervin & M. Lewis (Eds.), Perspectives in interactional psychology (pp. 287327). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
    Leary, M. R., & Atherton, S. C. (1986). Self-efficacy, social anxiety and inhibition in interpersonal encounters. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4, 256267.
    Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1995). Social anxiety: Emotions and social behavior. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Leary, M. R., & Miller, R. S. (1986). Social psychology and dysfunctional behavior: Origins, diagnosis and treatment. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
    Lee, F., Hallahan, M., & Herzog, T. (1996). Explaining real-life events: How culture and domain shape attributions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 732741.
    Lee, R. (2000). Unobtrusive methods in social research. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
    Leigh, T. W., & Summers, J. O. (2002). An initial evaluation of industrial buyer’s impressions of salesperson’s nonverbal cues. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 22, 4153.
    Leippe, M. R., & Eisenstadt, D. (1994). Generalization of dissonance reduction: Decreasing prejudice through induced compliance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 395413.
    Lenhart, A., Kahne, J., Middaugh, E., Macgill, E. R., Evans, C., & Vitak, J. (2008, September 16). Teens, video games, and civics. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project.
    Leo, R. A. (2008). Police interrogation and American justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Leo, R. A. (2014). The justice gap and the promise of criminological research. Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society, 15(3), 137.
    Lepper, M. R., Greene, D., & Nisbett, R. E. (1973). Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 129137.
    Lepper, M. R., & Henderlong, J. (2000). Turning “play” into “work” and “work” into “play”: 25 years of research on intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. In C. Sansone & J. M. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance (pp. 257307). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Lepper, M. R., Ross, L., & Lau, R. R. (1986). Persistence of inaccurate beliefs about the self: Perseverance effects in the classroom. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 482491.
    Leung, K. (1988). Theoretical advances in justice behavior: Some cross-cultural inputs. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The cross-cultural challenge to social psychology (pp. 218229). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.
    Leung, K., Bond, M. H., de Carrasquel, S. R., Munoz, C., Hernandez, M., Murakami, F., Yamaguchi, S., Bierbrauer, G., & Singelis, T. M. (2002). Social axioms: The search for universal dimensions of general beliefs about how the world functions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 286302.
    Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1998). Small groups. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2,
    4th
    ed., pp. 415469). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
    Levine, J. M., & Thompson, L. (1996). Intragroup conflict. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 745776). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Levine, M. (1981). The history and politics of community mental health. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Levine, M., & Levine, A. (1970). A social history of helping services. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    LeVine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T. (1972). Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes, and group behaviour. New York, NY: Wiley.
    Levy, L. H. (2000). Self-help groups. In J. Rapport & E. Seidman (Eds.), Handbook of community psychology (pp. 591614). New York, NY: Plenum.
    Levy, P. E. (2003). Industrial/organizational psychology: Understanding the workplace. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Lewandowsky, S., Stritzke, W. G. K., Oberauer, K., & Morales, M. (2005). Memory for fact, fiction, and misinformation: The Iraq War 2003. Psychological Science, 16, 190195.
    Lewin, K. (1936). A dynamic theory of personality. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Lewin, K. (1946). Action research and minority problems. Journal of Social Issues, 2(4), 3446.
    Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science. New York, NY: Harper. (Original work published in 1944)
    Lewin, K. (1951). Problems of research in social psychology. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Field theory in social science (pp. 155169). New York, NY: Harper & Row.
    Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., & White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created “social climates.” Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271301.
    Lichacz, F. M., & Partington, J. T. (1996). Collective efficacy and true team performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 27, 146158.
    Liden, R. C., Martin, C. L., & Parsons, C. K. (1993). Interviewer and applicant behaviors in employment interviews. Academy of Management Journal, 36(2), 372386.
    Lieberman, J. D., & Arndt, J. (2000). Understanding the effects of limiting instructions: Social psychological explanations for the failures of instructions to disregard pretrial publicity and other inadmissible evidence. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6, 677711.
    Lilienfeld, S. O., Lynn, S. J., Ruscio, J., & Beyerstein, F. L. (2010). 50 great myths of popular psychology: Shattering widespread misconceptions about human behavior. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Lindskold, S. (1978). Trust development, the GRIT proposal, and the effects of conciliatory acts on conflict and cooperation. Psychological Bulletin, 85(4), 772793.
    Link, B. G., Phelan, J. C., Bresnahan, M., Stueve, A., & Pescosolido, B. A. (1999). Public conceptions of mental illness: Labels, causes, dangerousness, and social distance. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 13281333.
    Linley, P. A., Joseph, S. Harrington, S., & Wood, A, M. (2006). Positive psychology: Past, present and (possible) future. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 316.
    Linville, P. W., Fischer, G. W., & Salovey, P. (1989). Perceived distributions of the characteristics of in-group and out-group members: Empirical evidence and a computer simulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 165188.
    Linz, D. (1989). Exposure to sexually explicit materials and attitudes toward rape: A comparison of study results. Journal of Sex Research, 26, 5084.
    Linz, D. G., Donnerstein, E., & Penrod, S. (1988). Effects of long-term exposure to violent and sexually degrading depictions of women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 758768.
    Lipnevich, A. A., MacCann, C., Krumm, S., Burrus, J., & Roberts, R. D. (2011). Mathematics attitudes and mathematics outcomes of U.S. and Belarusian middle school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 105118.
    Lippmann, W. (1922). Public opinion. New York, NY: Macmillan.
    Lipton, D. S. (1998). Therapeutic community: Treatment programming in corrections. Psychology, Crime and Law, 4, 213263.
    Litt, A., & Tormala, Z. L. (2010). Fragile enhancement of attitudes and intentions following difficult decisions. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 584598.
    Littell, J. H., & Girvin, H. (2002). Stages of change: A critique. Behavior Modification, 26, 223273.
    Livingstone, S., & Smith, P. K. (2014). Annual Research Review: Harms experienced by child users of online and mobile technologies: The nature, prevalence, and management of sexual and aggressive risks in the digital age. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(6), 635654.
    Lloyd, W. F. (1968). Lectures on population, value, poor laws and rent. New York, NY: August M. Kelley. (Original work published in 1837)
    Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 12971350). Chicago, IL: Rand-McNally.
    Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1985). The application of goal setting to sports. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, 205222.
    Lodzinski, A. (1995). Linking program design and evaluation: Five guiding questions for program designers. In A. J. Love (Ed.), Evaluation methods sourcebook (pp. 3038). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Evaluation Society.
    Lodzinski, A. (2003). Effective human service program design and in-house evaluation (
    5th
    ed.). Toronto, ON: Author.
    Lodzinski, A. (2012). In-house program evaluation: A practical guide. Toronto, Canada: Author.
    Loftus, E. F., & Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 585589.
    Lomas, T. (2015). Positive social psychology: A multilevel inquiry into sociocultural well-being initiatives. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 21, 338347.
    Longman, J. (2000). The girls of summer: The U.S. women’s soccer team and how it changed the world. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
    Lowenberg, G., & Conrad, K. A. (1998). Current perspectives in industrial/organizational psychology. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Lu, V. (1999, August 15). Rising sick days cost billions. The Toronto Star, pp. A1, A10.
    Lyons, P. A., Kenworthy, J. B., & Popan, J. R. (2010). Ingroup identification and group-level narcissism as predictors of U.S. citizens’ attitudes and behavior toward Arab immigrants. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 12671280.
    Lytton, H. (1990). Child and parent effects in boys’ conduct disorder: A reinterpretation. Developmental Psychopathology, 26, 683697.
    MacDonald, G., & Jensen-Campbell, L. A. (2010). Social pain: Neuropsychological and health implications of loss and exclusion. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Macdonald, J. E., & Gifford, R. (1989). Territorial cues and defensible space theory: The burglar’s point of view. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 9, 193205.
    Macias, C., Aronson, E., Hargreaves, W., Weary, G., Barreira, P. J., Harvey, J., . . . Fisher, W. (2009). Transforming dissatisfaction with services into self-determination: A social psychological perspective on community program effectiveness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39, 18351859.
    MacKenzie, D. L., Wilson, D. B., & Kider, S. B. (2001). Effects of correctional boot camps on offending. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 578, 126143.
    Mackinnon, A., Amott, N., & McGarvey, C. (2006). Mapping change: Using a theory of change to guide planning and evaluation. New York, NY: Ford Foundation, GrandCraft.
    Maddux, J. E., & Tangney, J. P. (2010). Social psychological foundations of clinical psychology. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Madill, A., & Gough, B. (2008). Qualitative research and its place in psychological science. Psychological Methods, 13, 254271.
    Madon, S. (1997). What do people believe about gay males? A study of stereotype content and strength. Sex Roles, 37(9–10), 663685.
    Madon, S., Jussim, L., & Eccles, J. (1997). In search of the powerful self-fulfilling prophecy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 791809.
    Maguire, P. (1987). Doing participatory research: A feminist approach. Amherst: University of Massachusetts.
    Magyar, T. M., Feltz, D. L., & Simpson, I. P. (2004). Individual and crew level determinants of collective efficacy in rowing. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 136154.
    Maier, M. A., Elliot, A. J., & Lichtenfeld, S. (2008). Mediation of the negative effect of red on intellectual performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 15301540.
    Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50(1–2), 66104.
    Malamuth, N. M. (1981). Rape proclivity among males. Journal of Social Issues, 37, 138157.
    Malamuth, N. M., & Huppin, M. (2007). Drawing the line on virtual child pornography: Bringing the law in line with the research evidence. NYU Review of Law & Social Change, 31, 773827.
    Mallet, P., & Rodriguez-Tome, G. (1999). Social anxiety with peers in 9- to 14-year-olds: Developmental process and relations with self-consciousness and perceived peer acceptance. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14, 387402.
    Manning, J. C. (2006). The impact of Internet pornography on marriage and the family: A review of the research. Sexual Addiction and Compulsion, 13, 131165.
    Manning, J. (2014). Construction of values in online and offline dating discourses: Comparing presentational and articulated rhetorics of relationship seeking. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19, 309324.
    Manning, R., Levine, M., & Collins, A. (2007). The Kitty Genovese murder and the social psychology of helping: The parable of 38 witnesses. American Psychologist, 62, 555562.
    Mannix, E., & Neale, M. A. (2005). What differences make a difference: The promise and reality of diverse teams in organizations. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 6(2), 3155.
    Mantler, J., Schellenberg, E. G., & Page, S. (2003). Attributions for serious illness: Are controllability, responsibility, and blame different constructs? Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 35(2), 142152.
    Mantsios, G. (2000). Media magic: Making class invisible. In T. Ore (Ed.), The social construction of difference and inequality: Race, class, gender, and sexuality. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
    Maoz, I. (2002). Is there contact at all? Intergroup interaction in planned contact interventions between Jews and Arabs in Israel. International Journal of Intercultural Relations Special Issue: Jewish-Arab Inter-Group Relations: The Case of Israel, 26, 185197.
    Marion, S. B., Kukucka, J., Collins, C., Kassin, S., & Burke, T. M. (2015). Lost proof of innocence: The impact of confessions on alibi evidence. Law and Human Behavior, 39(5).
    Mark, M. M., & Bryant, F. B. (1984). Potential pitfalls of a more applied social psychology: Review and recommendations. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 231253.
    Marks, M. (1999). A test of the impact of collective efficacy in routine and novel performance environments. Human Performance, 12, 295309.
    Marsella, A. (1998). Toward a global community psychology: Meeting the needs of a changing world. American Psychologist, 53, 12821292.
    Marsh, H. W., Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Köller, O., & Baumert, J. (2005). Academic self-concept, interest, grades, and standardized test scores: Reciprocal effects models of causal ordering. Child Development, 76, 397416.
    Martens, R., Landers, D. M., & Loy, J. W. (1972). Sport cohesiveness questionnaire. Washington, DC: AAHPERD (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance).
    Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W., Williamson, A., & Debus, R. R. (2003). Self-handicapping, defensive pessimism, and goal orientation: A qualitative study of university students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 617628.
    Martin, J. A. (2014). Agenda setting, elections, and the impact of information technology. In T. J. Johnson (Ed.), Agenda setting in a 2.0 world: New agendas in communication (pp. 2852). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Martinie, M.-A., Olive, T., & Milland, L. (2010). Cognitive dissonance induced by writing a counterattitudinal essay facilitates performance on simple tasks but not on complex tasks that involve working memory. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 587594.
    Masip, J., Barba, A., & Herrero, C. (2012). Behavioral Analysis Interview and common sense: A study with novice and experienced officers. Psychiatry, Psychology, and Law, 19, 2134.
    Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370396.
    Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality (
    2nd
    ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Row.
    Massey, S. G., & Barreras, R. E., (2013). Introducing ‘Impact Validity.’ Journal of Social Issues, 69, 615632.
    Matarazzo, J. D. (1980). Behavioral health and behavioral medicine: Frontiers for a new health psychology. American Psychologist, 35, 807817.
    Maticka-Tyndale, E., & Brouillard-Coyle, C. (2006). The effectiveness of community interventions targeting HIV and AIDS prevention in young people in developing countries. In D. A. Ross, B. Dick, & J. Ferguson (Eds.), Preventing HIV/AIDS in young people: A systematic review of the evidence from developing countries. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
    Matsumoto, D., & Juang, L. (2004). Culture and psychology (
    3rd
    ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Mayo, C., & La France, M. (1980). Toward an applicable social psychology. In R. F. Kidd & M. J. Saks (Eds.), Advances in applied social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 8196). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Mazur, A. (1977). Interpersonal spacing on public benches in “contact” and “noncontact” cultures. Journal of Social Psychology, 101, 5358.
    McAlinden, A. M. (2011). ‘Transforming justice’: Challenges for restorative justice in an era of punishment-based corrections. Contemporary Justice Review, 14, 383406.
    McAlister, A. L., Perry, C., & Maccoby, N. (1980). Pilot study of smoking, alcohol and drug abuse prevention. American Journal of Public Health, 70, 719721.
    McAllister, H. A. (1996). Self-serving bias in the classroom: Who shows it? Who knows it? Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 123131.
    McChesney, R. W. (1999). Rich media, poor democracy: Communication politics in dubious times. New York, NY: The New Press.
    McCombs, M. (2014). Setting the agenda (
    2nd
    ed.). Malden, MA: Polity Press.
    McCombs, M., & Stroud, N. J. (2014). Psychology of agenda-setting effects: Mapping the paths of information processing. Review of Communication Research, 2(1), 6893.
    McGuire, T. W., Kiesler, S., & Siegel, J. (1987). Group and computer-mediated discussion effects in risk decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 917930.
    McGuire, W. J. (1964). Inducing resistance to persuasion: Some contemporary approaches. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 191229). New York, NY: Academic Press.
    McKenna, K. Y. A., Green, A. S., & Gleason, M. E. J., (2002). Relationship formation on the Internet: What’s the big attraction? Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 931.
    McKown, C., & Weinstein, R. (2002). Modeling the role of child ethnicity and gender in children’s differential response to teacher expectations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 159184.
    McLeod, P. L., Lobel, S. A., & Cox, T. H. (1996). Ethnic diversity and creativity in small groups. Small Group Research, 27, 248264.
    McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: Definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 623.
    McNulty, J. K., & Fincham, F. D. (2011). Beyond positive psychology? Toward a contextual view of psychological processes and well-being. American Psychologist, 67, 101110.
    Mednick, S. A., Moffitt, T. E., Gabrielli, W., & Hutchings, B. (1986). Genetic influences in criminal behavior: A review. In D. Olweus, J. Block, & M. Radke-Yarrow (Eds.), Development of antisocial and prosocial behavior (pp. 3350). New York, NY: Academic.
    Meehl, P. E. (1960). The cognitive activity of the clinician. American Psychologist, 15, 1927.
    Meeks, S. (1990). Age bias in the diagnostic decision-making behavior of clinicians. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 279284.
    Mehrabian, A., & Diamond, S. G. (1971). The effects of furniture arrangement, props and personality on social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 20, 1830.
    Mehrabian, A., & Ferris, S. R. (1967). Inference of attitudes from nonverbal communication in two channels. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31, 248252.
    Mello-Goldner, D., & Jackson, J. (1999). Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) as a self-handicapping strategy among college women. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 14, 607616.
    Merry, S. E. (1981). Urban danger: Life in a neighborhood of strangers. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Merton, R. (1948). The self-fulfilling prophecy. Antioch Review, 8, 193210.
    Metzger, M. (2007). Making sense of credibility on the web: Models for evaluating online information and recommendations for future research. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(13), 20782091.
    Michelson, W. (1976). Man and his urban environment: A sociological approach. Don Mills, ON: Addison-Wesley.
    Milam, J. E., Richardson, J. L., Marks, G., Kemper, C. A., & McCutchan, A. J. (2004). The roles of dispositional optimism and pessimism in HIV disease progression. Psychology and Health, 19, 167181.
    Milgram, S. (1970). The experience of living in cities. Science, 167, 14611468.
    Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental approach. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
    Miller, A. G., & Lawson, T. (1989). The effect of an informational option on the fundamental attribution error. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15(2), 194204.
    Miller, G. A. (1969). Psychology as a means of promoting human welfare. American Psychologist, 24, 10631075.
    Miller, J. G. (1984). Culture and the development of everyday social explanation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 961978.
    Miller, R. S., & Perlman, D. (2009). Intimate relationships (
    5th
    ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
    Mills, J. F., Kroner, D. G., & Forth, A. E. (2002). Measures of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA): Development, factor structure, reliability, and validity. Assessment, 9, 240253.
    Mincy, R. B. (2000). The underclass: Concept, controversy, and evidence. In K. Rosenblum & T. C. Travis (Eds.), The meaning of difference: American constructions of race, sex and gender, social class, and sexual orientation. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
    Minkler, M., & Wallerstein, N. (2003). Introduction to community-based participatory research. In M. Minkler & N. Wallerstein (Eds.), Community-based participatory research for health (pp. 326). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Mirolli, K., Henderson, P., & Hills, D. (1998). Coworkers’ influence on job satisfaction. Paper presented at the 19th annual Graduate Student Conference in Industrial/Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, San Diego, CA.
    Mitchell, T., & Kalb, L. (1981). Effects of outcome knowledge and outcome valence on supervisor’s evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 604612.
    Mitchell, T., & Wood, R. (1980). Supervisors’ responses to subordinate poor performance: A test of an attributional model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 25, 123138.
    Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychology Review, 100, 674701.
    Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., Silva, P., & Stanton, W. (1996). Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct problems in males: Natural history from ages 3 to 18 years. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 399424.
    Moghaddam, F. M. (1998). Social psychology: Exploring universals across cultures. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.
    Moghaddam, F. M., Taylor, D. M., & Wright, S. C. (1993). Social psychology in cross-cultural perspective. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.
    Molloy, L. E., Gest, S. D., & Rulison, K. L. (2011). Peer influences on academic motivation: Exploring multiple methods of assessing youths’ most “influential” peer relationships. Journal of Early Adolescence, 31, 1340.
    Montano, D. E., & Taplin, S. H. (1991). A test of an expanded theory of reasoned action to predict mammography participation. Social Science and Medicine, 32(6), 733741.
    Monto, M. A., Newcomb, M. D., Rabow, J., & Hernandez, A. C. (1992). Social status and drunk-driving intervention. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53, 6368.
    Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship? Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(6), 845855.
    Moos, R. H. (1973). Conceptualization of human environments. American Psychologist, 28, 652665.
    Moos, R. H. (1981). Social-ecological perspectives on health. In G. Stone, F. Cohen, & N. E. Adler (Eds.), Health psychology: A handbook (pp. 523547). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Moos, R. H. (1987). Correctional Institutions Environment Scale manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Morawski, J. G. (2000). Social psychology a century ago. American Psychologist, 55, 427430.
    Moreland, R. L., & Zajonc, R. B. (1982). Exposure effects may not depend on stimulus recognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 10851089.
    Morgan, M. (1990). International cultivation effects. In N. Signorielli & M. Morgan (Eds.), Cultivation analysis: New directions in media effects research (pp. 225247). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Morgan, M., Shanahan, J., & Signorielli, N. (2009). Growing up with television: Cultivation processes. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (
    3rd
    ed., pp. 3449). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Moriano, J. A., Gorgievski, M., Laguna, M., Stephan, U., & Zarafshani, K. (2012). A cross-cultural approach to understanding entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Career Development, 39(2), 162185.
    Morrison, M., Epstude, K., & Roese, N. J. (2012). Life regrets and the need to belong. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(6), 675681.
    Moskowitz, J. (1989). The primary prevention of alcohol problems: A critical review of the research literature. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50, 5488.
    Mount, M. K., Harter, J. K., Barrick, M. R., & Colbert, A. (2000). Does job satisfaction moderate the relationship between conscientiousness and job performance? Paper presented at the meeting of the Academy of Management, Toronto, Ontario.
    Moy, P., & Pfau, M. (2000). With malice toward all? The media and public confidence in democratic institutions. Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Moya, E. M., Chávez-Baray, S., & Martinez, O. (2014). Intimate partner violence and sexual health: Voices and images of Latina immigrant survivors in Southwestern United States. Health Promotion Practice, 15(5), 881893.
    Mulac, A., Jansma, L. L., & Linz, D. G. (2002). Men’s behavior toward women after viewing sexually explicit films: Degradation makes a difference. Communication Monographs, 69, 311328.
    Mulkana, S. S., & Hailey, B. J. (2001). The role of optimism in health-enhancing behavior. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25, 388395.
    Mullen, B., & Copper, C. (1994). The relation between group cohesiveness and performance: An integration. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 210227.
    Mullin, C. R., & Linz, D. (1995). Desensitization and resensitization to violence against women: Effects of exposure to sexually violent films on judgments of domestic violence victims. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 449459.
    Mumma, G. H. (2002). Effects of three types of potentially biasing information on symptom severity judgments for major depressive episode. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(10), 13271345.
    Münsterberg, H. (1908). On the witness stand: Essays on psychology and crime. New York, NY: McClure.
    Murphy, J. (1998). Using social psychology. In R. Sapsford, A. Still, D. Miell, R. Stevens, & M. Wetherell (Eds.), Theory and social psychology (pp. 161190). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Murphy, K. R., & Anhalt, R. L. (1992). Is halo error a property of the rater, ratees, or the specific behaviors observed? Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(4), 494500.
    Murray, C. B., & Warden, M. R. (1992). Implications of self-handicapping strategies for academic achievement: A reconceptualization. Journal of Social Psychology, 132, 2337.
    Murray, H. A. (1938). Explorations in personality. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Myers, D. G., & Spencer, S. J. (2004). Social psychology (2nd Canadian ed.). Toronto, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
    Myers, D. G., Spencer, S. J., & Jordon, C. (2009). Social psychology (4th Canadian ed.). Toronto, Canada: McGraw-Hill.
    Myers, N. D., Feltz, D. L., & Short, S. E. (2004). Collective efficacy and team performance: A longitudinal study of collegiate football teams. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, 8, 126138.
    Narchet, F. M., Meissner, C. A., & Russano, M. B. (2011). Modeling the influence of investigator bias on the elicitation of true and false confessions. Law & Human Behavior, 35(6), 452465.
    Nathanson, A. I. (2004). Factual and evaluative approaches to modifying children’s responses to violent television. Journal of Communication, 54, 321336.
    Nathanson, A. I., & Cantor, J. (2000). Reducing the aggressive-promoting effect of violent cartoons by increasing children’s fictional involvement with the victim: A study of active mediation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44, 125142.
    Nathanson, C. A., & Becker, M. H. (1986). Family and peer influence on obtaining a method of contraception. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 513525.
    National Center for Health Statistics. (2008). Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960–62 through 2005–2006. NCHS Health E-Stat.
    National Institute of Justice. (2003). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
    Naughton, F., Eborall, H., & Sutton, S. (2013). Dissonance and disengagement in pregnant smokers: A qualitative study. Journal of Smoking Cessation, 8, 2432.
    Needles, D. J., & Abramson, L. Y. (1990). Positive life events, attributional style, and hopefulness: Testing a model of recovery from depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 156165.
    Nelson, T. D. (2002). The psychology of prejudice. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Nemeth, C. J. (1986). Differential contributions of majority and minority influence. Psychological Review, 93, 2332.
    Nemme, H. E., & White, K. M. (2010). Texting while driving: Psychosocial influences on young people’s texting intentions and behaviour. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, 12571265.
    Nes, L. S., Evans, D. R., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2009). Optimism and college retention: Mediation by motivation, performance, and adjustment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39, 18871912.
    New Scientist. (2015). The rise of on-body cameras and how they will change how we live. Retrieved from https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22730314-500-the-rise-of-on-body-cameras-and-how-they-will-change-how-we-live/
    Newman, O. (1972). Defensible space. New York, NY: Macmillan.
    Newman, O. (1980). Community of interest. New York, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday.
    Nigbur, D., Lyons, E., & Uzzell, D. (2010). Attitudes, norms, identity and environmental behaviour: Using an expanded theory of planned behaviour to predict participation in a kerbside recycling programme. British Journal of Social Psychology, 49, 259284.
    Nisbett, R. D., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). The halo effect: Evidence for unconscious alteration of judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 250256.
    Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996). Culture of honor. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (2002, January 8). Pub. L. 107–110, 115 Stat. 1425.
    Norem, J. K., & Chang, E. C. (2002). The positive psychology of negative thinking. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 9931001.
    Norem, J., & Illingsworth, S. (2004). Mood and performance among defensive pessimists and strategic optimists. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 351366.
    Norem, J. K., & Smith, S. (2006). In L. J. Sanna & E. C. Chang (Eds.), Judgments over time: The interplay of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (pp. 3446). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Norman, P., Conner, M., & Bell, R. (1999). The theory of planned behavior and smoking cessation. Health Psychology, 18, 8994.
    Norton, M. I., Frost, J. H., & Ariely, D. (2007). Less is more: The lure of ambiguity, or why familiarity breeds contempt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 97105.
    Nutbeam, D. (2000). Health literacy as a public goal: A challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century. Health Promotion International, 15(3), 259267.
    Obst, P., & Stafurik, J. (2010). Online we are all able bodied: Online psychological sense of community and social support found through membership of disability-specific websites promotes well-being for people living with a physical disability. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 20(6), 525531.
    O’Doherty, K. C., Gauvin, F.-P., Grogan, C., & Friedman, W. (2012). Implementing a Public Deliberative Forum. Hastings Center Report, 42(2), 20-23.
    Office of Management and Budget. (2015). Fiscal year 2016 budget of the U.S. government. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2016/assets/budget.pdf
    Ofori-Dankwa, J. C., & Julian, J. D. (2002). Toward diversity and similarity curves: Implication for theory, research, and practice. Human Relations, 55, 199224.
    Ogilvie, M. (2010, July 16). Summer program inspires future doctors. The Toronto Star. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com
    Ojala, M. (2008). Recycling and ambivalence: Quantitative and qualitative analyses of household recycling among young adults. Environment and Behavior, 40, 777797.
    Okdie, B. M., Ewoldsen, D. R., Muscanell, N. L., Guadagno, R. E., Eno, C. A., Velez, J., Dunn, A., O’Mally J., & Reichart, L. (2014). Missed programs (There is no TiVo for this one): Why psychologists should study the media. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9, 180195.
    Okilwa, N. S. A., & Shelby, L. (2010). The effects of peer tutoring on academic performance of students with disabilities in Grades 6 through 12: A synthesis of the literature. Remedial and Special Education, 31, 450463.
    O’Neill, P. (1989). Responsible to whom? Responsible for what? Some ethical issues in community intervention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 323341.
    O’Neill, P. (1998). Communities, collectivities, and the ethics of research. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 17, 6778.
    Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Organ, D. W. (1990). The subtle significance of job satisfaction. Clinical Laboratory Management Review, 4, 9498.
    Organizational Research Services. (2004). Theory of change: A practical guide for action, results, and learning. Seattle, WA: Author.
    Osgood, C. E. (1962). An alternative to war or surrender. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Oskamp, S. (1991). Attitudes and opinions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Oskamp, S. (2000). A sustainable future for humanity: How can psychology help? American Psychologist, 55, 509515.
    Oskamp, S., & Schultz, P. W. (1997). Applied social psychology (
    2nd
    ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Oswald, C. A., Prorock, C., & Murphy, S. M. (2014). The perceived meaning of the video game experience: An exploratory study. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 3, 110126.
    Out, J. W., & Lafreniere, K. D. (2001). Baby Think It Over®: Using role-play to prevent teen pregnancy. Adolescence, 36, 571582.
    Owen, K. (2008). The nature of confirmatory strategies in the initial assessment process. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 30(4), 362374.
    Oyserman, D., & Lee, S. W. S (2008). Does culture influence what and how we think? Effects of priming individualism and collectivism. Psychological Bulletin, 134(2), 311342.
    Padgett, V. R., Brislin-Slütz, J. A., & Neal, J. A. (1989). Pornography, erotica, and attitudes toward women: The effects of repeated exposure. Journal of Sex Research, 26, 479491.
    Page, S. (1981). Social responsiveness toward mental patients: The general public and others. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 15(2), 3437.
    Page, S. (1997). An unobtrusive measure of racial behavior in a public cafeteria. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 21722177.
    Page, S. (2000). Community research: The lost art of unobtrusive measures. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 21262136.
    Page, S., & Day, D. (1990). Acceptance of the mentally ill in Canadian society: Reality and illusion. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 9, 5162.
    Paik, H., & Comstock, G. (1994). The effects of television violence on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Communication Research, 21, 516546.
    Paladino, M., & Castelli, L. (2008). On the immediate consequences of intergroup categorization: Activation of approach and avoidance motor behavior toward ingroup and outgroup members. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 755768.
    Parker, D., Manstead, A. S. R., Stradling, S.G., Reason, J. T., & Baxter, J. S. (1992). Intention to commit driving violations: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 94101.
    Paskevich, D. M., Brawley, L. R., Dorsch, K. D., & Widmeyer, W. N. (1999). Relationship between collective efficacy and team cohesion: Conceptual and measurement issues. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, 3, 210222.
    Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329335.
    Patterson, M. L. (1975). Personal space—Time to burst the bubble? Man-Environment Systems, 5, 67.
    Patton, M. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (
    2nd
    ed.). London, UK: SAGE.
    Patton, M. Q. (1994). Developmental evaluation. Evaluation Practice, 15, 311319.
    Patton, M. Q. (2011). Developmental evaluation: Applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Pavlik, J. V., & McIntosh, S. (2011). Converging media: A new introduction to mass communication. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Pavlou, P. A., & Chai, L. (2002). What drives electronic commerce across cultures? A cross-cultural investigation of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 3(4), 240253.
    Pearson, C. A. L., & Chong, J. (1997). Contributions of job content and social information on organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An exploration in a Malaysian nursing context. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 357374.
    Penley, L. E., Alexander, E. R., Jernigan, I. E., & Henwood, C. I. (1991). Communication abilities of managers: The relationship to performance. Journal of Management, 17, 5776.
    Pennington, N., & Hastie, R. (1986). Evidence evaluation in complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 242258.
    Perillo, J. T., & Kassin, S. M. (2011). Inside interrogation: The lie, the bluff, and false confessions. Law and Human Behavior, 35, 327337.
    Perkins, H. W. (2003). The emergence and evolution of the social norms approach to substance abuse prevention. In H. W. Perkins (Ed.), The social norms approach to preventing school and college age substance abuse: A handbook for educators, counselors, and clinicians (pp. 2134). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Perkins, H. W., Haines, M., & Rice, R. (2005). Misperceiving the college drinking norm and related problems: A nationwide study of exposure to prevention information, perceived norms, and student alcohol misuse. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66, 470478.
    Perry, D. K. (2007). Does television kill? Testing a period-characteristic model. Media Psychology, 9, 567594.
    Perry, R. P., Hechter, F. J., Menec, V. H., & Weinberg, L. E. (1993). Enhancing achievement motivation and performance in college students: An attributional retraining perspective. Research in Higher Education, 34, 687723.
    Peter, J., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2008). Adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit internet material, sexual uncertainty, and attitudes toward uncommitted sexual exploration: Is there a link? Communication Research, 35, 579601.
    Peterson, C. (2000). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55, 4455.
    Peterson, C., & Chang, E. C. (2003). Optimism and flourishing. In C. L. M. Keyes, & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived (pp. 5579). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Peterson, C., Maier, S. F., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1995). Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984). Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91, 347374.
    Peterson, C., & Vaidya, R. S. (2001). Explanatory style, expectations, and depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 12171223.
    Peterson-Badali, M., & Koegl, C. J. (2002). Juveniles’ experiences of incarceration: The role of correctional staff in peer violence. Journal of Criminal Justice, 30, 4149.
    Petrosino, A., Turpin-Petrosino, C., & Buehler, J. (2002). “Scared Straight” and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2–3.
    Petty, R. E., & Wegener, D. T. (1998). Attitude change: Multiple roles for persuasion variables. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fishe, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (
    4th
    ed., Vol. 1, pp. 323390). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
    Pfeffer, J., Cialdini, R. B., Hanna, B., & Knopoff, K. (1998). Faith in supervision and the self-enhancement bias: Two psychological reasons why managers don’t empower workers. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 20, 313321.
    Pfeiffer, A. M., Whelan, J. P., & Martin, J. M. (2000). Decision-making bias in psychotherapy: Effects of hypothesis source and accountability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 429436.
    Pillow, D. R., Zautra, A. J., & Sandler, I. (1996). Major life events and minor stressors: Identifying mediational links in the stress process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 381394.
    Pinquart, M., Feubner, C., & Ahnert, L. (2013). Meta-analytic evidence for stability in attachments from infancy to early adulthood. Attachment & Human Development, 15(2), 189218.
    Piquero, A., Farrington, D., & Blumstein, A. (2003). The criminal career paradigm. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 30, pp. 359506). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Platt, J. (1973). Social traps. American Psychologist, 28, 641651.
    Police Executive Research Forum. (2013). A national survey of eyewitness identification procedures in law enforcement agencies. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=264692
    Policy. [Def. 5]. (2016). In Merriam Webster Online. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/policy?show=0&t=1314051181
    Pollock, T. G., Whitbred, R. C., & Contractor, N. (2000). Social information processing and job characteristics: A simultaneous test of two theories with implications for job satisfaction. Human Communication Research, 26(2), 292330.
    Pomazal, R. J., & Jaccard, J. J. (1976). An informational approach to altruistic behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33(3), 317326.
    Ponterotto, J. G. (2005). Qualitative research in counselling psychology: A primer on research paradigms and philosophy of science. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 52, 126136.
    Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1973). Organization, work, and personal factors in employee turnover and absenteeism. Psychological Bulletin, 80, 151176.
    Posavac, E. J., & Carey, R. G. (2007). Program evaluation: Methods and case studies (
    7th
    ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Potter, W. J. (2003). The 11 myths of media violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Prapavessis, H., & Carron, A. V. (1997). Cohesion and work output. Small Group Research, 28, 294301.
    Prasad, J. (1950). A comparative study of rumours and reports in earthquakes. British Journal of Psychology, 46, 129144.
    Preiser, W. P. E., & Taylor, A. (1983). The habitability framework: Linking human behavior and physical environment in a special education. EEQ: Exceptional Education Quarterly, 4, 115.
    Prentice, D. A., & Miller, D. T. (1993). Pluralistic ignorance and alcohol use on campus: Some consequences of misperceiving the social norm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 243256.
    Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1986). Handbook of organizational measurement. Marshfield, MA: Pitman.
    Price, M. (2008). New system ranks HIV/AIDS interventions. Monitor on Psychology, 39(5), 1213.
    Prilleltensky, I. (2008). The role of power in wellness, oppression, and liberation: The promise of psychopolitical validity. Journal of Community Psychology, 36, 116136.
    Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 390395.
    Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1986). Toward a comprehensive model of change. In W. R. Miller & N. Heather (Eds.), Treating addictive behaviors: Processes of change (pp. 327). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
    Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 11021114.
    Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., Velicer, W. F., & Rossi, J. S. (1993). Standardized, individualized, interactive, and personalized self-help programs for smoking cessation. Health Psychology, 12, 399405.
    Prohaska, V. (1994). “I know I’ll get an A”: Confident overestimation of final course grades. Teaching of Psychology, 21, 141143.
    Pulakos, E. D., & Wexley, K. N. (1983). Relationship among perceptual similarity, sex, performance, and ratings in manager-subordinate dyads. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 129139.
    Putnam, R. (1995). Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital. Journal of Democracy, 6, 6578.
    Rabbie, J. M., & Horwitz, M. (1969). Arousal of ingroup-outgroup bias by a chance win or loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 269277.
    Ragin, D. F. (2015). Health psychology: An interdisciplinary approach to health (
    2nd
    ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Rahim, A., & Bonoma, T. V. (1979). Managing organizational conflict: A model for diagnosis and intervention. Psychological Reports, 44, 13231344.
    Rand, G. (1984). Crime and environment: A review of the literature and its implications for urban architecture and planning. Journal of Architecture and Planning Research, 1, 319.
    Rapoport, A. (1969). House form and culture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Rappaport, J. (2000). Community narratives: Tales of terror and joy. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28(1), 124.
    Redmond, M. V. (2000). Cultural distance as a mediating factor between stress and intercultural communication competence. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24(1), 151159.
    Reeve, J. (2004). Self-determination theory applied to educational settings. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 183203). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
    Reeve, J., Ryan, R., Deci, E. L., & Jang, H. (2008). Understanding and promoting autonomous self-regulation: A self-determination theory perspective. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 223244). New York, NY: Erlbaum.
    Refuerzo, B. J., & Verderber, S. (1990). Dimensions of person-environment relationships in shelters for victims of domestic violence. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 7, 3352.
    Regan, P. R. (2003). The mating game: A primer on love, sex, and marriage. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Reich, J. W. (1981). An historical analysis of the field. In L. Bickman (Ed.), Applied social psychology (pp. 4570). Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.
    Reich, S. M. (2010). Adolescents’ sense of community on MySpace and Facebook: A mixed-methods approach. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(6), 688705.
    Reichardt, C. S., & Mark, M. M. (1998). Quasi-experimentation. In L. Bickman & D. J. Rog (Eds.), Handbook of applied social research methods (pp. 193228). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Reicher, S. D., Haslam, S. A., & Miller, A. G. (2014). What makes a person a perpetrator? The intellectual, moral, and methodological arguments for revisiting Milgram’s research on the influence of authority. Journal of Social Issues, 70, 393408.
    Reid, F. J., Ball, L. J., Morley, A. M., & Evans, B. T. (1997). Styles of group discussion in computer-mediated decision making. British Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 241262.
    Reis, H. T., Maniaci, M. R., Caprariello, P. A., Eastwick, P. W., & Finkel, E. J. (2011). Familiarity does indeed promote attraction in live interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 557570.
    Reivich, K. J., Gillham, J. E., Chaplin, T. M., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). From helplessness to optimism: The role of resilience in treating and preventing depression in youth. In S. Goldstein & R. B. Brooks (Eds.), Handbook of resilience in children (pp. 223237). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
    Renick M. J., & Harter, S. (1989). Impact of social comparisons on the developing self-perceptions of learning disabled students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 631638.
    Rentsch, J. R., & Steel, R. P. (1992). Construct and concurrent validation of the Andrews and Withey job satisfaction questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 357367.
    Rheingold, H. (1993). The virtual community: Homesteading on the electronic frontier. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Rhodewalt, F. (1990). Self-handicappers: Individual differences in the preference for anticipatory, self-protective acts. In R. L. Higgins (Ed.), Self-handicapping: The paradox that isn’t (pp. 69106). New York, NY: Plenum.
    Rhodewalt, F., Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Tschanz, B., Feick, D. L., & Waller, A. (1995). Self-handicapping and interpersonal trade-offs: The effects of claimed self-handicaps on observers’ performance evaluations and feedback. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 10421050.
    Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
    Riess, M., & Schlenker, B. R. (1977). Attitude change and responsibility avoidance as modes of dilemma resolution in forced-compliance situations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 2130.
    Riger, S. (1989). The politics of community intervention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 379383.
    Riketta, M. (2008). The causal relation between job attitudes and performance: A meta-analysis of panel studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(2), 472481.
    Riksheim, E. C., & Chermak, S. M. (1993). Causes of police behaviour revisited. Journal of Criminal Justice, 21, 353382.
    Riley, D. A. (1997). Using local research to change 100 communities for children and families. American Psychologist, 52(4), 424433.
    Rind, B., & Strohmetz, D. (2001). Effect on restaurant tipping of presenting customers with an interesting task and of reciprocity. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 13791384.
    Ritscher, J. B., & Phelan, J. C. (2004). Internalized stigma predicts erosion of morale among psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatry Research, 129, 257265.
    Robbins, S. P., & Langton, N. (2001). Organizational behaviour: Concepts, controversies, applications. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada.
    Roberge, M., & van Dick, R. (2010). Recognizing the benefits of diversity: When and how does diversity increase group performance? Human Resource Management Review, 20(4), 295308.
    Roberson, L., & Kim, R. (2014). Stereotype threat research hits the sweet spot for organizational psychology. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 7(3), 450452.
    Robert, C., Probst, T. M., Martocchio, J. J., Drasgow, F., & Lawler, J. J. (2000). Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: Predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 643658.
    Robertson, K., McNeill, L., Green, J., & Roberts, C. (2012). Illegal downloading, ethical concern, and illegal behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 108, 215227.
    Robinson, M. B., & Robinson, C. E. (1997). Environmental characteristics associated with residential burglaries of student apartment complexes. Environment and Behavior, 29, 657675.
    Robinson, S. (2012, February 1). New rules for radicals: 10 ways to spark change in a post-occupy world. AlterNet. Retrieved from http://www.alternet.org
    Robinson, T. L., & Howard-Hamilton, M. F. (2000). The convergence of race, ethnicity, and gender. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Rodriguez, C. M. (2009). The impact of academic self-concept, expectations and the choice of learning strategy on academic achievement: The case of business students. Higher Education Research and Development, 28, 523539.
    Roethlisberger, F. J., & Dickson, W. J. (1939). Management and the worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Rogers, E. M. (1994). A history of communication study: A biographical approach. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Rogers, P. N., & Schoenig, S. E. (1994). A time series evaluation of California’s 1982 driving-under-the-influence legislative reforms. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 26, 6378.
    Roloff, M. E. (1981). Interpersonal communication: The social exchange approach. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.
    Romer, D., Jamieson, K. H., & Aday, S. (2003). Television news and the cultivation of fear of crime. Journal of Communication, 53, 88104.
    Rosenhan, D. L. (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179, 250258.
    Rosenstock, I. M. (1974). Historical origins of the health belief model. Health Education Monographs, 2, 328335.
    Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils’ intellectual development. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., Davies, J., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R. (2004). Implications of the mental models approach for cultivation theory. Communications, 29, 345363.
    Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R. (1997). Attitude accessibility and persuasion: Review and a transactive model. In B. Burleson (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 20 (pp. 185225). Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.
    Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R., Klinger, M. R., & Roskos-Ewoldsen, B. (2007). Media priming: A meta-analysis. In R. W. Press, M. Allen, B. M. Gayle, & N. Burrell (Eds.), Media effects research: Advances through meta-analysis (pp. 5380). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., & Carpentier, F. R. D. (2009). Media priming: An updated synthesis. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (
    3rd
    ed., pp. 7393). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Ross, L. (1977). The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: Distortions in the attribution process. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 10, pp. 174221). New York, NY: Academic Press.
    Ross, L., Greene, D., & House, P. (1977). The “false consensus effect”: An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 279301.
    Ross, L., Lepper, M., & Ward, A. (2010). History of social psychology: Insights, challenges, and contributions to theory and application. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (
    5th
    ed., Vol. 1, pp. 350). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Ross, L., & Nisbett, R. E. (1991). The person and the situation: Perspectives of social psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Rosser, S., Issakidis, C., & Peters, L. (2003). Perfectionism and social phobia: Relationship between the constructs and impact on cognitive behavior therapy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 143151.
    Rothman, A. J., Haddock, G., & Schwarz, N. (2001). How many partners is too many? Shaping perceptions of personal vulnerability. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 21952214.
    Rovio, E., Eskola, J., Kozub, S. A., Duda, J. L., & Lintunen, T. (2009). Can high group cohesion be harmful? A case study of a junior ice-hockey team. Small Group Research, 40, 421435.
    Royse, D., Thyer, B. A., Padgett, D. K., & Logan, T. K. (2006). Program evaluation: An introduction (
    4th
    ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Rubie-Davies, C., Hattie, J., & Hamilton, R. (2006). Expecting the best for students: Teacher expectations and academic outcomes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 429444.
    Rudkin, J. (2003). Community psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Runciman, W. G. (1972). Relative deprivation and social justice. Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books.
    Russano, M. B., Meissner, C. A., Narchet, F. M., & Kassin, S. M. (2005). Investigating true and false confessions within a novel experimental paradigm. Psychological Science, 16(6), 481486.
    Russo, N. F., & Denious, J. E. (2001). Violence in the lives of women having abortions: Implications for practice and public policy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(2), 142150.
    Russo, N. F., & Zierk, K. L. (1992). Abortion, childbearing, and women’s well-being. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33(4), 269280.
    R. v. Butler [1992], 1 S.C.R. 452. File No.: 22191. 1991: June 6; 1992: February 27.
    R. v. Henry (2010), B.C.J. No. 2072; 2010 BCCA 462 (British Columbia Court of Appeal).
    R. v. Mariani (2007), O.J. No. 1715, 2007 ONCA 329, 223 O.A.C. 308, 220 C.C.C. (3d) 74 (Ontario Court of Appeal).
    R. v. Parks (1993), 24 C.R. (4th) 81, C.C.C. (3d) 353, 15 O.R. (3d) 324, 65 O.A.C. 122.
    Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 5467.
    Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 333). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
    Ryhammer, L., & Smith, G. J. W. (1999). Creative and other personality functions as defined by percept-genetic techniques and their relation to organizational conditions. Creativity Research Journal, 12, 277286.
    Ryska, T. A., Yin, Z., Cooley, D., & Ginn, R. (1999). Developing team cohesion: A comparison of cognitive-behavioral strategies of U.S. and Australian sport coaches. The Journal of Psychology, 133(5), 523539.
    Sadava, S. W. (1997). Applied social psychology: An introduction. In S. Sadava & D. McCreary (Eds.), Applied social psychology (pp. 19). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Sagiv, L., & Schwartz, S. H. (1995). Value priorities and readiness for out-group social contact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(3), 437448.
    Saks, M. J., & Marti, M. W. (1997). A meta-analysis of the effects of jury size. Law and Human Behavior, 21, 451467.
    Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23(2), 224253.
    Salmivalli, C., & Poskiparta, E. (2012). Making bullying prevention a priority in Finnish schools: The KiVa antibullying program. New Directions for Youth Development, 133, 4153.
    Salovey, P., Rothman, A. J., & Rodin, J. (1998). Health behavior. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2,
    4th
    ed., pp. 633683). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Sang, Y., Lee, J., Kim, Y., & Woo, H. (2015). Understanding the intentions behind illegal downloading: A comparative study of American and Korean college students. Telematics and Informatics, 32, 333343.
    Santandreu Calonge, D., & Safiullin (Eugene Lee), A. F. (2015). Can culturally, disciplinarily and educationally diverse (D3) teams function and be creative? A case study in a Korean University. Educational Studies, 41(4), 369392.
    Sapsford, R., & Dallos, R. (1998). Resisting social psychology. In R. Sapsford, A. Still, D. Miell, R. Stevens, & M. Wetherell (Eds.), Theory and social psychology (pp. 191208). London, UK: SAGE.
    Sarafino, E. P. (1998). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (
    3rd
    ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
    Sarafino, E. P. (2002). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (
    4th
    ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
    Savage, D., & Miller, T. (Eds.). (2011). It gets better: Coming out, overcoming bullying, and creating a life worth living. New York, NY: Penguin.
    Schachter, S. (1959). The psychology of affiliation: Experimental studies of the sources of gregariousness. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Scharff, M. M. (2005). Understanding WorldCom’s accounting fraud: Did groupthink play a role? Journal of Leadership & Organization Studies, 11, 109118.
    Scheepers, D., Spears, R., Doosje, B., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2006). The social functions on ingroup bias: Creating, confirming, or changing social reality. European Review of Social Psychology, 17, 359396.
    Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1992). Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: Theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 201228.
    Schein, E. H. (2006). So how can you assess your corporate culture? In J. Gallos (Ed.), Organization development: A Jossey-Bass reader (pp. 614633). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Schellenberg, E. G., & Bem, S. L. (1998). Blaming people with AIDS: Who deserves to be sick? Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 3(2), 6580.
    Schermerhorn, J. R., Hunt, J. G., & Osborn, R. N. (2005). Organizational behavior. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Schiff, A. (2014). Reaching a mutual agreement: Readiness theory and coalition building in the Aceh peace process. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 7(1), 5782.
    Schifter, D. E., & Ajzen, I. (1985). Intention, perceived control, and weight loss: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(3), 843851.
    Schindler-Zimmerman, T. (1993). Systems family therapy with an athlete. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 4(3), 2937.
    Schindler-Zimmerman, T., & Protinsky, H. (1993). Uncommon sports psychology: Consultation using family therapy theory and techniques. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 21, 161174.
    Schindler-Zimmerman, T., Washle, W., & Protinsky, H. (1990). Strategic intervention in an athletic system. Journal of Strategic and Systemic Therapies, 9(2), 17.
    Schneekloth, L. H., & Shibley, R. G. (1993). The practice of placemaking. Architecture et Comportement[Architecture and Behavior], 9, 121144.
    Schneider, F. W., Pilon, P., Horrobin, B., & Sideris, M. (2000). Contributions of evaluation research to the development of community policing in a Canadian city. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 15, 101129.
    Schneider, S. K., & Northcraft, G. B. (1999). Three social dilemmas of workforce diversity in organizations: A social identity perspective. Human Relations, 11, 14451467.
    Schramm, W., & Carter, R. F. (1959). Effectiveness of a political telethon. Public Opinion Quarterly, 23, 121127.
    Schruijer, S. G. L., & Mostert, I. (1997). Creativity and sex composition: An experimental illustration. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology Special Issue: Group Diversity, 6(2), 175182.
    Schuller, R. A., & Ogloff, J. R. P. (2001). An introduction to psychology and law. In R. A. Schuller & J. R. P. Ogloff (Eds.), Introduction to psychology and law: Canadian perspectives (pp. 328). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
    Schuller, R. A., & Yarmey, M. (2001). The jury: Deciding guilty and innocence. In R. A. Schuller & J. R. P. Ogloff (Eds.), Introduction to psychology and law: Canadian perspectives (pp. 328). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
    Schultz, P. W. (1998). Changing behavior with normative feedback interventions: A field experiment on curbside recycling. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 2536.
    Schultz, P. W., Nolan, J., Cialdini, R., Goldstein, N., & Griskevicius, V. (2007). The constructive, destructive, and reconstructive power of social norms. Psychological Science, 18, 429434.
    Schulz, R., & Beach, S. R. (1999). Caregiving as a risk factor for mortality: The caregiver health effects study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 22152219.
    Schulz-Hardt, S., Frey, D., Lüthgens, C., & Moscovici, S. (2000). Biased information search in group decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 655669.
    Schultz-Hardt, S., Giersiepen, A., & Mojzisch, A. (2016). Preference-consistent information repetitions during discussion: Do they affect subsequent judgments and decisions? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 64, 4149.
    Schulz-Hardt, S., Jochims, M., & Frey, D. (2002). Productive conflict in group decision making: Genuine and contrived dissent as strategies to counteract biased information seeking. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 88, 563586.
    Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 165). New York, NY: Academic Press.
    Schwartz, S. H., Lehmann, A., & Roccas, S. (1999). Multimethod probes of basic human values. In J. Adamopoulos & Y. Kashima (Eds.), Social psychology and cultural context (pp. 107124). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Schwartz, S. H., Sagiv, L., & Boehnke, K. (2000). Worries and values. Journal of Personality, 68, 309346.
    Scott, K. A., Heathcote, J., & Gruman, J. A. (2011). The diverse organization: Finding gold at the end of the rainbow. Human Resource Management, 50, 735755.
    Sears, D. O. (1988). Symbolic racism. In P. Katz & D. Taylor (Eds.), Towards the elimination of racism: Profiles in controversy (pp. 5384). New York, NY: Plenum.
    Segerstrom, S. C. (2005). Optimism and immunity: Do positive thoughts always lead to positive effects? Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 19, 195200.
    Segerstrom, S. C. (2007). Optimism and resources: Effects on each other and on health over 10 years. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 772786.
    Seiter, J. S., & Weger, H., Jr. (2010). The effect of generalized compliments, sex of server, and size of dining party on tipping behavior in restaurants. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 112.
    Sejwacz, D., Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Predicting and understanding weight loss: Intentions, behaviors, and outcomes. In I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein (Eds.), Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior (pp. 101112). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development and death. San Francisco, CA: Freeman.
    Seligman, M. E. P. (1999). The president’s address. American Psychologist, 54, 559562.
    Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 114.
    Semin, G. R. (2007). Grounding communication. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (
    2nd
    ed., pp. 630649). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Senécal, J., Loughead, T. M., & Bloom, G. A. (2008). A season-long team-building intervention: Examining the effect of team goal setting on cohesion. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 186199.
    Senko, C., Hulleman, C. S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2011). Achievement goal theory at the crossroads: Old controversies, current challenges, and new directions. Educational Psychologist, 46, 2647.
    Shapira, L. B., & Mongrain, M. (2010). The benefits of self-compassion and optimism exercises for individuals vulnerable to depression. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 377389.
    Shaver, P. R., & Hazan, C. (1994). Attachment. In A. L. Weber & J. H. Harvey (Eds.), Perspectives on close relationships (Ch. 6, pp. 110130). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Shaver, P. R., Hazan, C., & Bradshaw, D. (1988). Love as attachment: The integration of three behavioral systems. In R. J. Sternberg & M. L. Barnes (Eds.), The psychology of love (pp. 6899). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Shaw, K. T., & Gifford, R. (1994). Residents’ and burglars’ assessment of burglary risk form defensible space cues. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 14, 177194.
    Shaw, M. E., & Costanzo, P. R. (1982). Theories of social psychology (
    2nd
    ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Shaw Taylor, L., Fiore, A. T., Mendelsohn, G. A., & Cheshire, C. (2011). “Out of my league”: A real-world test of the matching hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(7), 942954.
    Shehata, A. (2010). Unemployment on the agenda: A panel study of agenda-setting effects during the 2006 Swedish national election campaign. Journal of Communication, 60, 182203.
    Shehata, A., & Stromback, J. (2013). Not (yet) a new era of minimal effects: A study of agenda setting at the aggregate and individual levels. International Journal of Press/Politics, 18, 234255.
    Sherif, M. (1966a). Group conflict and cooperation. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Sherif, M. (1966b). In common predicament: Social psychology of intergroup conflict and cooperation. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Sherif, M., Harvey, O. J., White, B. J., Hood, W. E., & Sherif, C. W. (1961). Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The Robber’s Cave experiment. Norman: University of Oklahoma Book Exchange.
    Sherif, M., & Sherif, C. W. (1953). Groups in harmony and tension. New York, NY: Harper Brothers.
    Sherif, M., & Sherif, C. W. (1969). Social psychology. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
    Shields, S. A. (1975). Functionalism, Darwinism, and the psychology of women: A study in social myth. American Psychologist, 30, 739754.
    Shipler, D. K. (2004). The working poor: Invisible in America. New York, NY: Knopf.
    Shoda, Y. (2004). Individual differences in social psychology: Understanding situations to understand people, understanding people to understand situations. In C. Sansone, C. Morf, & A. Panter (Eds.), The Sage handbook of methods in social psychology (pp. 117141). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Shrum, L. J. (1999). The relationship of television viewing with attitude strength and extremity: Implications for the cultivation effect. Media Psychology, 1, 325.
    Shrum, L. J. (2009). Media consumption and perceptions of social reality: Effects and underlying processes. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (
    3rd
    ed., pp. 5073). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Shultz, T. R., Léveillé, E., & Lepper, M. R. (1999). Free choice and cognitive dissonance revisited: Choosing “lesser evils” versus “greater goods.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 4048.
    Shura, R., Siders, R. A., & Dannefer, D. (2011). Culture change in long-term care: Participatory action research and the role of the resident. The Gerontologist, 51, 212225.
    Shuter, R. (1976). Proxemics and tactility in Latin America. Journal of Communication, 26, 4652.
    Sideridis, G. D., & Padeliadu, S. (2001). The motivational determinants of students at risk of having reading difficulties. Remedial and Special Education, 22, 268279.
    Siegel, P. A., Scillitoe, J., & Parks-Yancy, R. (2005). Reducing the tendency to self-handicap: The effect of self-affirmation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 589597.
    Signorielli, N. (1990). Television’s mean and dangerous world: A continuation of the cultural indicators perspective. In N. Signorielli & M. Morgan (Eds.), Cultivation analysis: New directions in media effects research (pp. 85106). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.
    Sikorski, J. F., Rich, K., Saville, B. K., Buskist, W., Drogan, O., & Davis, S. F. (2002). Student use of introductory texts: Comparative survey findings from two universities. Teaching of Psychology, 29, 312313.
    Simon, L., Greenberg, J., & Brehm, J. (1995). Trivialization: The forgotten mode of dissonance reduction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 247260.
    Simpson, D. D. (2005). Using social psychology to ameliorate the human condition: An inspirational student-friendly introduction and guide. [Review of the book Applied social psychology: Understanding and addressing social and practical problems]. PsycCritiques, 50(19).
    Sinclair, H. C., Hood, K. B., & Wright, B. L. (2014). Revisiting the Romeo and Juliet Effect (Driscoll, Davis, & Lipetz, 1972): Reexamining the links between social network opinions and romantic relationship outcomes. Social Psychology, 45(3), 170178.
    Singh, K., Granville, M., & Dika, S. (2002). Mathematics and science achievement: Effects of motivation, interest, and academic engagement. Journal of Educational Research, 95, 323332.
    Slavin, R. E. (1990). Cooperative learning: Theory, research, and practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Sledge, M. (2011, November 10). Reawakening the radical imagination: The origins of Occupy Wall Street. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com
    Slum surgery in St. Louis. (1951). Architectural Forum, 94, 128136.
    Smith, A. (1976). The wealth of nations: Book 1. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published in 1776)
    Smith, A. M., & Cutler, B. L. (2013). Identification procedures and conviction of the innocent. In B. L. Cutler (Ed.), Reform of eyewitness identification procedures (pp. 321). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.
    Smith, J. A., & Rhodes, J. E. (2015). Being depleted and being shaken: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experiential features of a first episode of depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 88, 197209.
    Smith, S. H., & Whitehead, G. I., III. (1984). Attributions for promotion and demotion in the United States and India. Journal of Social Psychology, 124, 2734.
    Smith, S. L., & Wilson, B. J. (2002). Children’s comprehension of and fear reactions to television news. Media Psychology, 4, 126.
    Smith, S. L., Wilson, B. J., Kunkel, D., Linz, D., Potter, W. J., Colvin, C. M., et al. (1998). Violence in television programming overall: University of California, Santa Barbara study. In National television violence study (Vol. 3, pp. 5194.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Smits, J. A. J., Rosenfield, D., McDonald, R., & Telch, M. J. (2006). Cognitive mechanisms of social anxiety reduction: An examination of specificity and temporality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(6), 12031212.
    Snyder, C. J., Lassiter, G. D., Lindberg, M. J., & Pinegar, S. K. (2009). Videotaped interrogations and confessions: Does a dual-camera approach yield unbiased and accurate evaluations? Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 27, 451466.
    Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows of the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249275.
    Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J., & Pedrotti, J. T. (2011). Positive psychology: The scientific and practical explorations of human strengths. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Snyder, M., & Ickes, W. (1985). Personality and social behavior. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (
    3rd
    ed., pp. 883947). New York, NY: Random House.
    Solomon, A. (1992). Clinical diagnosis among diverse populations: A multicultural perspective. Families in Society, 73, 371377.
    Sommer, R. (1972). Design awareness. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
    Sommer, R. (1983). Social design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Sommer, R. (1987). Crime and vandalism in university residence halls: A confirmation of defensible space theory. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 7, 112.
    Sommer, R., & Olsen, H. (1980). The soft classroom. Environment and Behavior, 12, 316.
    Sommers, S. R. (2006). On racial diversity and group decision-making: Identifying multiple effects of racial composition on jury deliberations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(4), 597612.
    Sommers, S. R. (2007). Race and the decision making of juries. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 12, 171187.
    Sorensen, N., Nagda, B. A., Gurin, P., & Maxwell, K. E. (2009). Taking a “hands on” approach to diversity in higher education: A critical-dialogic model for effective intergroup interaction. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 9, 335.
    Sørensen, K., Van den Broucke, S., Fullam, J., Doyle, G., Pelikan, J., Slonska, Z., & Brand, H. (2012). Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models. BMC Public Health, 12, 80.
    Souza, K. A., & Dhami, M. K. (2008). A study of volunteers in community-based restorative justice programs. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 50, 3157.
    Spink, K. S. (1990a). Collective efficacy in the sport setting. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 21, 380395.
    Spink, K. S. (1990b). Group cohesion and collective efficacy in volleyball teams. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12, 301311.
    Sporer, S. L., & Schwandt, B. (2007). Moderators of nonverbal indicators of deception: A meta-analytic synthesis. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 13(1), 134.
    Sports Illustrated. (2002, August 5). Business as Usual. Retrieved November 15, 2002, from http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/baseball/news/2002/08/05/dominating_braves_ap/
    Spoth, R. L., Redmond, C., Trudeau, L., & Shin, C. (2002). Longitudinal substance initiation outcomes for a universal preventive intervention combining family and school programs. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 129134.
    Sprecher, S. (1989). The importance to males and females of physical attractiveness, earning potential, and expressiveness in initial attraction. Sex Roles, 21, 501607.
    Sprecher, S., & Chandak, R. (1992). Attitudes about arranged marriages and dating among men and women from India. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 20, 5969.
    Stahlberg, D., Eller, F., Maass, A., & Frey, D. (1995). We knew it all along: Hindsight bias in groups. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 63, 4658.
    Stamler, L. L., Thomas, B., & Lafreniere, K. (2000). Working women identify influences and obstacles to breast health practices. Oncology Nursing Forum, 27, 835842.
    Stamps, A. (1989). Are environmental aesthetics worth studying? Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 6, 344356.
    Statistics Canada. (2010). Internet use by individuals, by location of access, by province. Retrieved from http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/comm36a-eng.htm
    Staw, B. M., Bell, N. E., & Clausen, J. A. (1986). The dispositional approach to job attitudes: A lifetime longitudinal test. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 437453.
    Steblay, N., Dysart, J. E., & Wells, G. L. (2011). Seventy-two tests of the sequential lineup superiority effect: A meta-analysis and policy discussion. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 17, 99139.
    Steblay, N., Hosch, H. M., Culhane, S. E., & McWethy, A. (2006). The impact on juror verdicts of judicial instruction to disregard inadmissible evidence: A meta-analysis. Law and Human Behavior, 30, 469492.
    Steblay, N. K., Wells, G. L., & Douglass, A. B. (2014). The eyewitness post identification feedback effect 15 years later: Theoretical and policy implications. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 20(1), 118.
    Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 6594.
    Steel, R. P., & Ovalle, N. K. (1984). A review and meta-analysis of research on the relationship between behavioral intentions and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 673686.
    Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613629.
    Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797811.
    Steele, F. I. (1973). Physical settings and organizational development. Don Mills, ON: Addison-Wesley.
    Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (Eds.). (1991). Motivation and work. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2009). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, 309317.
    Stein, L. M., & Memon, A. (2006). Testing the efficacy of the cognitive interview in a developing country. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 597605.
    Steuer, F. B., Applefield, J. M., & Smith, R. (1971). Televised aggression and the interpersonal aggression of preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 11, 442447.
    Stevens, C. A. (2010). Lessons from the field: Using Photovoice with an ethnically diverse population in a HOPE VI evaluation. Family and Community Health, 33(4), 275284.
    Stevens, D. E., & Bloom, G. A. (2003). The effect of team building on cohesion. Avante, 9, 4354.
    Stice, E., Chase, A., Stormer, S., & Appel, A. (2001). A randomized trial of an eating disorder prevention program. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 247262.
    Stice, E., Marti, N., Spoor, S., Presnell, K., & Shaw, H. (2008). Dissonance and healthy weight eating disorder prevention programs: Long-term effects from a randomized efficacy trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 329340.
    Stice, E., Mazotti, L., Weibel, D., & Agras, W. S. (2000). Dissonance prevention program decreases thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect, and bulimic symptoms: A preliminary experiment. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 27, 206217.
    Stice, E., Shaw, H., Burton, E., & Wade, E. (2006). Dissonance and healthy weight eating disorder prevention programs: A randomized efficacy trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 263275.
    Stice, E., Shaw, H., & Marti, C. N. (2007). A meta-analytic review of eating disorder prevention programs: encouraging findings. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 207231.
    Stice, E., Trost, A., & Chase, A. (2003). Healthy weight control and dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs: Results from a controlled trial. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 33, 1021.
    Stockemer, D., & Praino, R. (2015). Blinded by beauty? Physical attractiveness and candidate selection in the U.S. House of Representatives. Social Science Quarterly, 96, 430443.
    Stokes, J., Fuerher, A., & Childs, L. (1984). Group members’ self-disclosure: Relation to team cohesion. Small Group Behavior, 14, 6376.
    Stoliker, B. E., & Lafreniere, K. D. (2015). The influence of perceived stress, loneliness, and learning burnout on university students’ educational experience. College Student Journal, 49(1), 146159.
    Stone, J., Aronson, E., Crain, A. L., Winslow, M. P., & Fried, C. B. (1994). Inducing hypocrisy as a means of encouraging young adults to use condoms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 116128.
    Stoner, J. A. F. (1961). A comparison of individual and group decisions involving risk. Unpublished master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    Stouffer, S. A., Suchman, E. A., DeVinney, L. C., Star, S. A., & Williams, R. M., Jr. (1949). The American soldier: Adjustment during army life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Strauss, S. G., & McGrath, J. E. (1994). Does the medium matter? The interaction of task type and technology on group performance and member reactions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 8797.
    Streng, J. M., Rhodes, S. D., Ayala, G. X., Eng, E., Arceo, R., & Phipps, S. (2004). Realidad Latina: Latino adolescents, their school, and university use Photovoice to examine and address the influence of immigration. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 18(4), 403415.
    Streufert, S., & Streufert, S. C. (1969). Effects of conceptual structure, failure, and success on attribution of causality and interpersonal attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11, 138147.
    Streufert, S., & Suedfeld, P. (1982). A decade of applied social psychology. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 12, 335342.
    Strong, S. R., Welsh, J. A., Corcoran, J. L., & Hoyt, W. T. (1992). Social psychology and counseling psychology: The history, products, and promise of an interface. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39(2), 139157.
    Struthers, C. W., Weiner, B., & Allred, K. (1998). Effects of causal attributions on personnel decisions: A social motivation perspective. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 20, 155166.
    Sue, S., Zane, N., Nagayama-Hall, G. J., & Berger, L. K. (2009). The case for cultural competency in psychotherapeutic interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 525548.
    Sullivan, P. A. (1993). Communication skills for interactive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 7, 7991.
    Sullivan, P. J. (1995). The relationship between communication and cohesion in inter-collegiate rugby players. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada.
    Sullivan, P. J., & Feltz, D. L. (2003). The preliminary development of the Scale for Effective Communication in Sports Teams (SECTS). Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 16931715.
    Sum, S., Mathews, R. M., Pourghasem, M., & Hughes, I. (2009). Internet use as a predictor of sense of community in older people. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(2), 235239.
    Sumi, K. (2006). Correlations between optimism and social relationships. Psychological Reports, 99, 938940.
    Sungur, S., & Tekkaya, C. (2006). Effects of problem-based learning and traditional instruction on self-regulated learning. Journal of Educational Research, 99, 307317.
    Suspected SUV bomber held without bail. (2004, March 18). CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/stories/print/2004/03/18/world/suv_bombings040318
    Sussman, N. M., & Rosenfeld, H. M. (1982). Influence of culture, language, and sex on conversational distance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 6674.
    Swim, J. K., & Hyers, L. L. (1999). Excuse me—what did you just say? Women’s public and private responses to sexist remarks. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 6888.
    Sypher, B. D., & Zorn, T. E. (1986). Communication-related abilities and upward mobility: A longitudinal investigation. Human Communication Research, 12(3), 420431.
    Szabo, Z. (2006). The influence of attributional retraining on career choices. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 6, 89103.
    Tajfel, H., & Billig, M. (1974). Familiarity and categorization in intergroup behaviour. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 159170.
    Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (
    2nd
    ed., pp. 3347). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
    Talley, R. C., & Crews, J. E. (2007). Framing the public health of caregiving. American Journal of Public Health, 97(2), 224228.
    Tang, S., & Hall, V. C. (1995). The overjustification effect: A meta-analysis. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9, 365404.
    Tangney, J. P., Miller, R. S., Flicker, L., & Barlow, D. H. (1996). Are shame, guilt and embarrassment distinct emotions? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 12561269.
    Tashiro, T., & Mortensen, L. (2006). Translational research: How social psychology can improve psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 61(9), 959966.
    Taylor, S. E. (2006). Health psychology (
    6th
    ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Taylor, S. E., & Sirois, F. M. (2012). Health psychology (2nd Canadian ed.). Toronto, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
    Team JIAAP. (2014). Review of Applied Social Psychology. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 40, 157158
    Technical Working Group for Eyewitness Evidence. (1999). Eyewitness evidence: A guide for law enforcement [Booklet]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
    Temerlin, M. K. (1968). Suggestion effects in psychiatric diagnosis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147, 349353.
    Terrier, L., & Marfaing, B. (2015). Using social norms and commitment to promote pro-environmental behavior among hotel guests. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 44, 1015.
    Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York, NY: Wiley.
    Thoits, P. A. (1982). Conceptual, methodological, and theoretical problems in studying social support as a buffer against life stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 23, 145159.
    Thompson, T. (1994). Self-worth protection: Review and implications for the classroom. Educational Review, 46, 259274.
    Thompson-Cannino, J., Cotton, R., & Torneo, E. (2009). Picking cotton: Our memoir of injustice and redemption. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Griffin.
    Thornton, J., & Wahl, O. (1996). Impact of a newspaper article on attitudes toward mental illness. Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 1728.
    Tindale, R. S. (1993). Decision errors made by individuals and groups. In N. J. Castellan, Jr. (Ed.), Individual and group decision making: Current issues (pp. 109124). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Toch, H., & Klofas, J. (1984). Pluralistic ignorance, revisited. In G. M. Stephenson & J. H. Davis (Eds.), Progress in applied social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 129159). New York, NY: Wiley.
    Tomes, H. (2004). The case—and the research—that forever connected psychology and policy. Monitor on Psychology, 35(6), 28.
    Topolski, D. (1989). True blue: The story of the Oxford boat race mutiny. London, UK: Bantam Books.
    Topping, K. J. (2005). Trends in peer learning. Educational Psychology, 25, 631645.
    Tran, H. (2014). Online agenda setting: A new frontier for theory development. In T. J. Johnson (Ed.), Agenda setting in a 2.0 world: New agendas in communication (pp. 205229). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Travis, J. (1995, May 2). Criminal justice research and public policy in the United States. Speech given at the Ninth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Cairo, Egypt. Retrieved from http://www.nij.gov/nij/about/speeches/past-directors/unspeech.htm
    Tredoux, C. G. (2002). A direct measure of facial similarity and its relation to human similarity perceptions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8, 180193.
    Trevino, L. K., Daft, R. L., & Lengel, R. H. (1990). Understanding managers’ media choices: A symbolic interactionist perspective. In J. Fulk & C. Steinfeld (Eds.), Organizations and communication technology (pp. 7194). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.
    Triandis, H. C. (1994). Culture and social behavior. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism & collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Triandis, J., C., Kurowski, L. L., & Gelfand, M. J. (1994). Workplace diversity. In H. C. Triandis, M. Dunnette, & L. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 769827). Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
    Tripodi, T., Fellin, P., & Epstein, I. (1971). Social program evaluation. Itasca, IL: Peacock.
    Turban, D. B., & Jones, A. P. (1988). Supervisor-subordinate similarity: Type, effects, and mechanisms. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(2), 228234.
    Turkle, S. (1984). The second self. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
    Turner, C. W., Layton, J. F., & Simons, L. S. (1975). Naturalistic studies of aggressive behavior: Aggressive stimuli, victim visibility, and horn honking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 10981107.
    Turner, D. C. (1996). The role of culture in chronic illness. American Behavioral Scientist, 39, 717728.
    Turner, J. C., Midgley, C., Meyer, D. K., Gheen, M., Anderman, E. M., Kang, Y., & Patrick, H. (2002). The classroom environment and students’ reports of avoidance strategies in mathematics: A multi-method study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 88106.
    Turner, M. E., Pratkanis, A. R., Probasco, P., & Leve, C. (1992). Threat, cohesion, and group effectiveness: Testing a social identity maintenance perspective in groupthink. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 781796.
    Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 207232.
    Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 11241131.
    TV Parental Guidelines. (2011, January 8). Understanding the TV ratings. Retrieved from http://www.tvguidelines.org/ratings.htm
    Union of Concerned Scientists. (1993). World scientists warning to humanity [statement]. Cambridge, MA: Author.
    United Nations Global Report. (2010). UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010. Retrieved from http://www.unaids.org/globalreport/Global_report.htm
    United Nations Human Development Reports. (2014). International human development indicators: Build your own index. Retrieved from http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/data/build
    University of Toronto (n.d.). Office of Health Professions Student Affairs (OHPSA): Summer Mentorship Program. Retrieved from http://www.ohpsa.utoronto.ca/smp
    Unrau, Y. A., Gabor, P. A., & Grinnell, R. M., Jr. (2001). Evaluation in the human services. Itasca, IL: Peacock.
    Urdan, T. (2004). Predictors of academic self-handicapping and achievement: Examining achievement goals, classroom goal structures, and culture. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 251264.
    Urdan, T., & Midgley, C. (2001). Academic self-handicapping: What we know, what more there is to learn. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 115138.
    Urdan, T., Midgley, C., & Anderman, E. M. (1998). The role of classroom goal structure in students’ use of self-handicapping strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 35, 101122.
    Urdan, T., & Schoenfelder, E. (2006). Classroom effects on student motivation: Goal structures, social relationships, and competence beliefs. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 331349.
    U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). Household Internet usage by type of Internet connection and state: 2009 (Table 1155; Statistical Abstract of the United States). Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2011/tables/11s1156.pdf
    U.S. Department of Education. (2013). Digest of education statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2015011
    U.S. Department of Energy. (2009). U.S. Energy Information Administration: Emissions of greenhouse gases report. Retrieved from http://205.254.135.24/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/carbon.html
    U.S. Department of Justice. (n.d.). Prisons and Detention Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/jmd/legacy/2013/09/07/prisons-detention.pdf
    U.S. Department of Justice. (1986, July). Attorney General’s commission on pornography: Final report. Washington, DC: Author.
    Valacich, J. S., Sarker, S., Pratt, J., & Groomer, M. (2009). Understanding risk-taking behavior in groups: “A decision analysis” perspective. Decision Support Systems, 46, 902912.
    Vallerand, R. J., Fortier, M. S., & Guay, F. (1997). Self-determination and persistence in a real-life setting: Toward a motivational model of high school dropout. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 11611176.
    van Boven, L., White, K., Kamada, A., & Gilovich, T. (2003). Intuitions about situational correction in self and others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 249258.
    Vancouver, J. B., Thomspon, C. M., Tischner, E. C., & Putka, D. J. (2002). Two studies examining the negative effect of self-efficacy on performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 506516.
    Vandello, J. A., & Cohen, D. (1999). Patterns of individualism and collectivism across the United States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 279292.
    Van der Kliej, R., Schraagen, J. M., Werkhoven, P., & De Dreu, C. K. W. (2009). How conversations change over time in face-to-face and video-mediated communication. Small Group Research, 40, 355381.
    van der Voordt, T. J. M., & van Wegen, H. B. R. (1990). Testing building plans for public safety: Usefulness of the Delft checklist. Housing and Environmental Research, 5, 129154.
    Vandevelde, S., Broekaert, E., Yates, R., & Kooyman, M. (2004). The development of the therapeutic community in correctional establishments: A comparative retrospective account of the “democratic” Maxwell Jones TC and the hierarchical concept-based TC in prison. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50, 6679.
    Van De Ven, M. O. M., Engels, R. C. M. E., Otten, R., & Van Den Eijnden, R. J. J. M. (2007). A longitudinal test of the theory of planned behavior predicting smoking onset among asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(5), 435445.
    van Knippenberg, D., & Schippers, M. C. (2007). Work group diversity. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 515541.
    Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic effects of intrinsic goal contents and autonomy-supportive contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 246260.
    Van Straaten, I., Engels, R. C. M. E., Finkenauer, C., & Holland, R. W. (2009). Meeting your match: How attractiveness similarity affects approach behavior in mixed-sex dyads. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 685697.
    Van Voorhis, P. (2012). On behalf of women offenders: Women’s place in the science of evidence-based practice. Criminology & Public Policy, 11, 111145.
    Vaughan, E. D. (1977). Misconceptions about psychology among introductory psychology students. Teaching of Psychology, 4, 138141.
    Vazin, T., & Reile<