This is the era of Big Data and computational social science. It is an era that requires tools which can do more than visualise data but also model the complex relation between data and human action, and interaction. Agent-Based Models (ABM) - computational models which simulate human action and interaction – do just that. This textbook explains how to design and build ABM and how to link the models to Geographical Information Systems. It guides you from the basics through to constructing more complex models which work with data and human behaviour in a spatial context. All of the fundamental concepts are explained and related to practical examples to facilitate learning (with models developed in NetLogo with all code examples available on the accompanying website). You will be able to use these models to develop your own applications and link, where appropriate, to Geographical Information Systems. All of the key ideas and methods are explained in detail: • geographical modelling; • an introduction to ABM; • the fundamentals of Geographical Information Science; • why ABM and GIS; • using QGIS; • designing and building an ABM; • calibration and validation; • modelling human behaviour; • visualisation and 3D ABM; • using Big Geosocial Data, GIS and ABM. An applied primer, that provides fundamental knowledge and practical skills, it will provide you with the skills to build and run your own models, and to begin your own research projects.
Chapter 10: Evaluating Our Models: Verification, Calibration, Validation
Evaluating Our Models: Verification, Calibration, Validation
Model evaluation is one of the central challenges associated with agent-based models. A key question that all modellers face is how well their model simulates the phenomenon of interest. While there are no universally accepted methods for evaluating agent-based models, researchers often adopt the same three-stage process of verification, calibration and validation. This chapter presents an overview of the methods that are commonly used within each of these stages. The overarching aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with the knowledge to design their own approach to evaluating agent-based models.
10.1 Evaluating Models: An Overview
In the previous chapters, the design and building of spatially explicit agent-based models has been discussed. Chapter ...