Ageing in Society: European Perspectives on Gerontology

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Edited by: John Bond, Sheila Peace, Freya Dittmann-Kohli & Gerben J. Westerhof

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Praise for the Book

    Ageing in Society brings forth exciting new questions, fresh perspectives, and a necessary critical approach to key issues – this is indeed an authoritative introduction. The book will inform students in ways that so many texts in the area, satisfied with comfortable bromides, do not.

    Jaber Gubrium, Editor of Journal of Aging Studies, University of Missouri-Columbia

    This completely revised third edition of Ageing in Society presents one of the most comprehensive pictures of ageing today. The book offers the reader cogent discussions of the most up to date perspectives and evidence available. The contributors are all leading experts in their fields – comprising a range of important disciplines as they apply to ageing. Ageing in Society is a cutting edge text on one of the most important subjects facing the modern world – a must for all students of ageing.

    Mike Bury, Emeritus Professor of Sociology, University of London

    The third edition of the comprehensive textbook Ageing in Society extends its scope to include continental Europe, allowing broader as well as deeper insights into recent trends in gerontology. Gerontologists and practitioners are urged not to stop reading before they have reached the insightful last chapter ‘Ageing into the future’!

    Professor Dorly Deeg, Editor-in-Chief of European Journal of Ageing, VU University Medical Centre

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Boxes

    • 1.1 The development of the European Union 8
    • 2.1 Understanding the complex causes of normal ageing and its intrinsic variability 21
    • 2.2 Environmental effects on lifespan: the example of Japan 28
    • 2.3 On compression of morbidity and mortality 31
    • 2.4 Life history trade-offs among British aristocratic women 34
    • 5.1 Designs used in studying ageing 90
    • 5.2 Experimental designs 93
    • 5.3 Levels of ‘consumer’ participation in research 94
    • 5.4 Types of interviews in gerontological research 98
    • 5.5 Strategies for mixed-methods research 101
    • 5.6 Sampling strategies 103
    • 6.1 Components of international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) 120
    • 7.1 Types of welfare regimes in Europe 144
    • 7.2 Types of pensions and financing sources 151
    • 7.3 Germany's old-age income security system 153
    • 7.4 The basic elements of the British pension system 157
    • 7.5 Common objectives for European pensions policies 163

    List of Figures

    • 1.1 Proportion of people aged above 65. 3
    • 1.2 Proportion of people aged above 80. 3
    • 1.3 Proportion of women among people aged 40–59, 60+, 80+ and 100+ years, world figures. 4
    • 1.4 Age distribution in the United Kingdom: by ethnic group, 2001/02. 11
    • 2.1 Ageing needs to be understood at a hierarchy of biological levels. 16
    • 2.2 Genetic architecture of the human life history. 17
    • 2.3 Molecular damage and ageing. 20
    • 2.4 Recorded female life expectancy from 1840 to the present. 28
    • 2.5 Survival curves in Sweden over the last 140 years. 32
    • 6.1 World Health Organization model of functioning and disability. 119
    • 6.2 Old-age dependency ratios in selected EU states. 123
    • 6.3 Self-perceived health by age in selected EU states. 127
    • 6.4 Self-perceived health of men and women in EU in 2001. 128
    • 6.5 Population with chronic conditions by age in selected EU states. 129
    • 6.6 Population limited in terms of walking, by age in selected EU states. 131
    • 6.7 Average numbers of consultations with a medical doctor by age in selected EU states. 132
    • 7.1 Poverty rates in the EU-15 in 2001. 147
    • 7.2 Poverty rates in the new EU member states, 1997–2003. 147
    • 8.1 Labour force participation rates: men aged 65 or over by country. 170
    • 8.2 Labour force participation rates: women aged 65 or over by country. 171
    • 8.3 Labour force participation rates: men aged 60–64 by country. 171
    • 8.4 Labour force participation rates: women aged 60–64 by country. 172
    • 8.5 Productive activities in the second half of life in Germany. 179
    • 8.6 Use of time (in hours) by people aged 65 and older, living as a couple, with no children <18. 181
    • 8.7 Attended an educational or training course in the last month. 183
    • 10.1 Historical influences on theory development in environmental gerontology. 211
    • 10.2 Press-competence model due to Lawton and Nahemow. 213
    • 10.3 Heuristic framework for domains of meaning of home in old age. 231

    List of Tables

    • 1.1 Percentage of women among those 65 years or more in 2004, European countries. 5
    • 2.1 Number of progeny and age at first childbirth dependent on the age at death of married aristocratic women. 34
    • 6.1 Representations of health. 116
    • 6.2 Categories of physical or psychological dependency. 125
    • 6.3 People with disabilities or chronic physical or mental health problems who are in need of support with everyday activities by age group and severity of impairment in Europe. 130
    • 6.4 Gender of informal caregivers and whether the older person is living within or separately from the caregiver's household in Europe. 133
    • 6.5 Total public expenditure on healthcare and long-term care. 134
    • 6.6 Institutional evolution and main health policies in the EU-15 in the last 40 years. 135
    • 6.7 European models of healthcare and social care systems. 136
    • 7.1 How should pensions be provided? 145
    • 7.2 Persistent risk of poverty by broad age group and gender in 2001. 149
    • 7.3 At-risk-of-poverty rate for individuals aged 16 years and over by age group and gender in 2001. 158
    • 7.4 In the future, will most pensions be funded by private arrangements with the state less involved? 164
    • 10.1 Overall space and allocation for daily living across a range of dwelling types, UK 2001. 221

    List of Contributors

    Janet Askham is Professor of Social Gerontology at the International Policy Institute, King's College, London, UK and Director of Research at the Picker Institute Europe.

    Jan Baars studied sociology and philosophy in Amsterdam and is Professor of Interpretive Gerontology at the University for Humanist Studies in Utrecht and Professor of Philosophy of the Social Sciences and the Humanities at Tilburg University in the Netherlands.

    John Bond was trained as a sociologist. He is Professor of Social Gerontology and Health Services Research in the Institute of Health and Society and Institute for Ageing and Health, based at Newcastle University.

    Peter Coleman is Professor of Psychogerontology at the University of Southampton, and was editor of the BSG's journal Ageing and Society 1992–1996 and co-editor of the first two editions of its textbook Aging in Society: An Introduction to Social Gerontology, 1990 and 1993.

    Freya Dittmann-Kohli studied Psychology in Marburg and Berlin. She did empirical research on lifespan psychology at the Max-Planck-Institute for Human Development and Education and has the Chair for Psychogerontology at the Radboud University Nijmegen, Faculty of Social Sciences, where she directed large-scale survey studies in Germany and the Netherlands on the second half of life.

    Dieter Ferring is Professor at the University of Luxembourg and Director of the Integrative Research Unit on Social and Individual Development (INSIDE).

    Daniela Jopp was trained as a psychologist at Free University of Berlin, Germany, and is now DFG Post-doctoral Research Fellow at the Adult Cognition Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA.

    Tom Kirkwood is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Institute for Ageing and Health at Newcastle University, UK.

    Franz Kolland is Professor of Sociology at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities at University of Vienna and Head of the Research Group of Social Gerontology.

    Ralf Krampe is Professor and Psychologist at the Center for Developmental Psychology, University of Leuven, Belgium.

    Harald Künemund is Professor for ageing research and methodology and Director of the Institute of Gerontology at the University of Vechta, Germany.

    Giovanni Lamura is Senior Researcher at the Department of Gerontological Research, Italian National Research Centre on Ageing, Ancona, Italy.

    Alfons Marcoen was Professor of Developmental Psychology at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.

    Lynn McInnes is Senior Lecturer in Psychology and Panel Manager for North East Age Research at Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

    Heidrun Mollenkopf is a retired Senior Research Associate at the former German Centre for Research on Ageing, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

    Gerhard Naegele is Professor of Social Gerontology and Director of the Institute of Gerontology at the University of Dortmund, Germany.

    Ann O'Hanlon completed her masters and doctoral degrees in psychology at the University of Southampton. She is now based at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland where she coordinates the multisite cross-disciplinary Healthy Ageing Research Programme (HARP). She is also an executive member of the BSG.

    Frank Oswald is Senior Research Scientist and Deputy Chair of the Department of Psychological Ageing Research, Institute of Psychology, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

    Sheila Peace was trained as a human geographer and is Professor of Social Gerontology in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the Open University, UK. She is currently a member of the Executive Committee of the BSG and is co-editor of the second and third editions of the textbook Ageing in Society.

    Chris Phillipson was trained as a sociologist, is a Professor of Applied Social Studies and Social Gerontology at Keele University, UK, and is a former President of the British Society of Gerontology.

    Gregorio Rodriguez Cabrero is Professor of Sociology at the University of Alcalá (Madrid), Spain. He is Director of the Spanish Journal of the Third Sector.

    Emmanuelle Tulle is a Lecturer in Sociology in the School of Law and Social Sciences at Glasgow Caledonian University, UK.

    Christina Victor is Professor of Social Gerontology and Health Services Research and Head of the School of Health and Social Care at the University of Reading, UK.

    Hans-Werner Wahl is Professor of Psychological Ageing Research and Chair of the Department of Psychological Ageing Research, Institute of Psychology, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

    Alan Walker is Professor of Social Policy and Social Gerontology at the University of Sheffield, UK, and Director of the UK New Dynamics of Ageing Programme and of the European Research Area in Ageing.

    Rudi Westendorp is Professor and Head of the Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics at Leiden University Medical Center, University of Leiden, the Netherlands.

    Gerben Westerhof is Associate Professor in the Behavioural Science Institute at the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    Acknowledgements

    Every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, but if any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangement at the first opportunity.

    We are grateful to the following for permission to produce copyright material: The World Health Organisation for Figures 1.1 and 1.2.

    The United Nations for Figure 1.3. The United Nations is the author of the original material.

    Table 6.1 is reproduced from Blaxter (1990) Health and Lifestyles. London: Routledge.

    The Crown Copyright Office for Figure 6.3.

    The Centre for Policy on Ageing for Table 10.1, which is reproduced from L. A. Kellaher (2002) Is genuine choice a reality? The range and adequacy of living arrangements available to older people. In: K. Sumner (ed.) Our Homes, Our Lives: Choice in Later Life Living Arrangements. London: The Centre for Policy on Ageing and The Housing Corporation.

    Table 10.1 Overall space and allocation for daily living across a range of dwelling types, UK, 2001.

    Professor Carl Eisdorfer for Figure 10.2, which is reproduced from C. Eisdorfer and M. P. Lawton (eds) (1973) Psychology of Adult Development and Aging. Washington DC:. American Psychological Association. The authors F. Oswald and H.-W Wahl, and Springer Publishing for Figure 10.3.

    We would like to thank the contributors for their part in the development and completion of this volume. This enterprise would not have been possible without the support of the British Society of Gerontology, particularly John Vincent and Julia Twigg for their encouragement and support. We would especially like to express our gratitude to Cath Brennand for her hard work and support throughout the last five years. Cath not only managed the work of the four editors but efficiently assured the quality of the finished manuscript, managed the reference data base and assisted in the editing and proof reading.

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