• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

This practical textbook is a valuable supplement for courses in Research Methods and/or Statistics in departments of criminal justice or criminology. The only book of its kind, this text guides students through the process of conducting criminological data analysis.

The Existence, Strength, and Direction of an Association
The existence, strength, and direction of an association

In Chapters 7 and 8, we looked at the relationships between pairs of variables. There are three big questions you should ask about a statistical relationship. First, is there evidence of its existence? If so, then there is a second question: What is its strength? Third, in a relationship involving variables measured at the ordinal, interval, or ratio level, what is its direction? In this chapter, we'll look at ways of understanding the existence, strength, and direction of relationships between variables.

In our previous discussions, you may have been frustrated over the ambiguity as to what constitutes a strong or a weak relationship. Ultimately, there is no absolute answer to this ...

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