By now it’s a given: if we’re to help our ELLs and SELs access the rigorous demands of today’s content standards, we must cultivate the “code” that drives school success: academic language. Look no further for assistance than this much-anticipated series from Ivannia Soto, in which she invites field authorities Jeff Zwiers, David and Yvonne Freeman, Margarita Calderon, and Noma LeMoine to share every teacher’s need-to-know strategies on the four essential components of academic language. The subject of this volume is grammar and syntax. Here, David and Yvonne Freeman shatter the myth that academic language is all about vocabulary, revealing how grammar and syntax inform our students’ grasp of challenging text. With this book as your roadmap, you’ll learn how to: • Teach grammar in the context of students’ speech and writing • Use strategies such as sentence frames, passives, combining simple sentences into more complex sentences, and nominalization to create more complex noun phrases • Assess academic language development through a four-step process Look inside and discover the tools you need to help students master more sophisticated and complex grammatical and syntactical structures right away. Better yet, read all four volumes in the series and put in place a start-to-finish instructional plan for closing the achievement gap.
Chapter Two: Abbreviated Literature Review/Research Base for Grammar and Syntax
Abbreviated Literature Review/Research Base for Grammar and Syntax
To understand the role of grammar and syntax in ALD, it is important to have a clear understanding of the terms grammar and syntax as well as an understanding of the characteristics of academic language. Teachers who understand these concepts can better plan how to teach and assess English language learners.
Four Views of Grammar
In the minds of most people, grammar refers to a set of rules needed to speak and write the standard or conventional form of a language. A second view is that grammar is the built-in, subconscious knowledge of a language that enables people to communicate in that language. Most linguists, especially those whose work is based ...