A Short Introduction to Psychoanalysis


Jane Milton, Caroline Polmear & Julia Fabricius

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  • Short Introductions to the Therapy Professions

    Series Editor: Colin Feltham

    Books in this series examine the different professions which provide help for people experiencing emotional or psychological problems. Written by leading practitioners and trainers in each field, the books are a source of up-to-date information about

    • the nature of the work
    • training, continuing professional development and career pathways
    • the structure and development of the profession
    • client populations and consumer views
    • research and debates surrounding the profession.

    Short Introductions to the Therapy Professions are ideal for anyone thinking about a career in one of the therapy professions or in the early stages of training. The books will also be of interest to mental health professionals needing to understand allied professions and also to patients, clients and relatives of service users.

    Books in the series:

    A Short Introduction to Clinical Psychology

    Katherine Cheshire and David Pilgrim

    A Short Introduction to Psychoanalysis

    Jane Milton, Caroline Polmear and Julia Fabricius

    A Short Introduction to Psychiatry

    Linda Gask

    A Short Introduction to Psychotherapy

    edited by Christine Lister-Ford

    A Short Introduction to Counselling Psychology

    Vanja Orlans with Susan Van Scoyoc


    View Copyright Page

    Preface to the First Edition

    What is psychoanalysis? There is no short or simple answer to this question, which concerns a complex and multi-faceted field of learning. In addition to provoking lively curiosity, psychoanalysis has become surrounded by much anxiety, misconception, prejudice and even myth. This book aims to give a succinct and accessible account of psychoanalysis, its theory, practice, history and applications, and to describe the psychoanalytic profession today.

    Psychology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychoanalysis: how do they differ? The word root ‘psych’ comes from the Greek, meaning the soul or spirit as distinct from the body. In modern usage psyche usually refers to the mind. Psychology, then, is the study of all aspects of the mind and its functioning. It includes, for example, the study of perception, memory, thinking and of the working of complex psycho-physical skills such as driving or operating machinery. Nearly everyone is interested in minds, their own and others’, but more formally psychology is an academic discipline, a branch of science, that can be studied to degree level and beyond. Academic psychology in principle includes the study of psychoanalysis, although in practice it is only a small part of many academic courses. Clinical psychology is a branch of psychology concerned with helping people with psychological difficulties. Clinical psychologists have undertaken a degree in psychology followed by further training. They cannot prescribe drugs but assess patients and use various sorts of psychological treatment.

    Psychiatry is a branch of medicine. All psychiatrists are doctors who have undertaken further specialist training and who treat people with disorders of the mind. Psychiatrists may use either drugs, psychological treatments that involve talking, or both. Psychotherapy is a generic term for talking treatments, which may be practised by psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and other specifically trained psychotherapists who do not come from either of these backgrounds. For example nurses, social workers and others may have received specialist training in psychotherapy. There are a number of types of psychotherapy, as we will describe in Chapter 8, each needing a specific type of training. Psychoanalysis is one of the original and most intensive forms of psychotherapy and has given rise to the less intensive practice of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in its various forms. As we will describe in Chapter 2, psychoanalysis is not only a form of psychotherapy but also a body of theory about the mind and a method of observing and investigating mental processes.

    The nine chapters are set out as follows. In Chapter 1 we start in the place where psychoanalysis happens, in the room with a patient and his or her analyst, in the middle of a psychoanalytic session. From there we move outwards to other patients and to a more general overview of what goes on in clinical psychoanalysis and who it is for. In Chapter 2 we give an overview of psychoanalytic theory. In Chapter 3 we outline the history of psychoanalysis and in Chapter 4 the way it has seeded and spread in different cultures. Chapter 5 turns to the serious issue of critiques of psychoanalysis and a discussion of these, and Chapter 6 to the complex field of research in psychoanalysis. Chapter 7 describes some ways in which psychoanalytic thinking has been used outside the consulting room. Chapter 8, on psychoanalysis and other psychotherapeutic approaches, tries to show where psychoanalysis fits into the range of psychological therapies. Finally in Chapter 9 we describe the psychoanalytic profession in the UK, the training, the professional bodies and the national and international structures involved.

    We have found psychoanalysis a fascinating, intriguing, compelling, personally helpful, difficult and rewarding subject. Each of us is grateful to the teachers or mentors who introduced us to psychoanalysis and to the teachers and patients who have helped us along the lifelong path of learning. Here we hope to share our enthusiasm. We hope this book will be an engaging introduction which will answer some questions and raise curiosity for further reading. If we inform some of those without previous knowledge and capture the interest of a few then we will have succeeded in our aim.

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Perhaps the most noteworthy development in the field since the first publication of this book in 2004 concerns subtle yet significant shifts in the relationships both between psychoanalysis and academic study and psychoanalysis and psychological treatment by state service providers.

    While the mantra: ‘psychoanalysis is dead’ can still be heard in some quarters, an examination of university syllabuses shows just how far psychoanalytic ideas have penetrated and proliferated in the academy.

    The commitment to undergoing full psychoanalytic treatment is a big one, yet many people do seek psychoanalysis as the best way of getting to the heart of their difficulties. At the same time, in the evidence based and quick fix culture of our era, psychoanalysis is providing the theoretical basis of many successful short term treatments being developed and adopted by the National Health Service.

    From within the profession exciting developments in psychoanalytic research have emerged which put psychoanalytically based treatment at least on a par with other psychological treatments; in fact long term outcome studies demonstrate its ongoing effectiveness after treatment has ended.

    The organisation of the profession has changed in response to the expectation of greater transparency and explicit standards of practice.

    All these developments are documented in this edition.

    In response to very positive feedback the basic structure and core of the book remain largely unchanged. We aim as before to give a lively and accessible account of psychoanalysis; its theory, history, practice, and applications. We also look at the way the profession is organised in the UK and the way it has developed in different cultures worldwide.


    The authors gratefully acknowledge the generosity of patients who have given permission for vignettes from their analyses to be published here. We have taken care that they will be recognised by no one but themselves.

    We also thank the following colleagues who have contributed information and ideas at various stages, for either the first or second editions: Anthony Bateman, David Bell, David Black, Catalina Bronstein, Donald Campbell, Anthony Cantle, Joshua Cohen, Catherine Crowther, Rachael Davenhill, Jenny Davids, Mary Donovan, Hella Ehlers, Stephen Grosz, Wojtek Hanbowski, Rael Meyerowitz, Rosine Perelberg, Daniel Pick, Joscelyn Richards, Margaret Rustin, Michael Rustin, Anne-Marie Sandler, Vic Sedlak, Naomi Segal, Emilia Steuerman, Jan Wiener and Sally Weintrobe. Relatives, friends and colleagues who have kindly helped us by spending time reading through sections of the manuscript are: David Crease, Elizabeth Piercy, Richard Rusbridger, Lynne Ridler-Wall, Max Sasim, Katy Thomson and Sarah Thomson.

    Our series editor Colin Feltham has been most helpful and supportive. We have also appreciated the friendly professionalism of the SAGE team at all stages.

    Praise for This Edition

    ‘The best simply got better. The first edition of this book was already quite simply the best introduction to psychoanalysis ever written and has been appropriately extremely popular with teachers and students alike. The thoroughly updated second edition retains all the powerful features of the first including its remarkable clarity and accessibility. It is like the homepage of Google, free of verbal clutter or jargon yet the interested reader will find most of what they need to know about what psychoanalysis is and what it is not, with ample links connecting to where to find the rest. This second edition includes plenty of new links to significant changes in the field, new areas that have emerged since the first edition and the most recent technical and clinical developments. The section on research in psychoanalysis is particularly helpful and it is reviewed like everything else in an amazingly accessible, balanced and entertaining way. There is no need to search any longer as to what to recommend to anyone who wants to orient themselves around this complex field. The field will be greatly indebted to these authors for many years.’

    Professor PeterFonagy, University College London

    ‘This second edition draws you in and holds your attention from first page to last. The complexity of psychoanalysis is laid out before the reader with unsurpassed clarity. Comprehensive in its content yet concise in its delivery, a must read for those using psychoanalytic ideas in their professional practice or those with an academic or general interest.’

    MartinSheedy, Senior Lecturer and Social Work Programme leader, Centre for Social Work, Liverpool John Moores University
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